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C. U. C. A. 

Biblical Reference Library. 



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G N I N 

























J. C. f. STEUDEL. 











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1. ' Eviidfivip, Forasmuch as) A brief dedication applying to both 
the works of Luke : ^ it may be also termed the Preface or Introduc- 
tion, and from it there shine forth pre-eminently gravity, simplicity, 
and candour. — ■roXXo/ l-jriy^iiprtdav, many have taken in hand) Luke 
aoes not hereby denote Matthew and John, who had been among the 

' The names Lucius and Lucas are the same ; except that the former, being 
a diminutive of the latter, has somewhat of a more familiar sound. Mention 
is made as early as in Acts xiii. 1 of a Lucius of Cyrene among the prophets and 
teachers of the Church, which at that time flourished at Antioch ; and there- 
fore it must have been but a short time after the death which befeli Herod (ch. 
xii. 23), A. Dion. Bra, 44. It is owing to this, I am inclined to think, that Euse- 
bius and others have considered Antioch as the native place of Luke. Further- 
more, Paul makes mention of a certain Lucius among his 'kinsmen,' Rom. xvi. 
21, and calls Lttie [Lucas] his fellow-workman and the beloved Physician, 
Philem. ver. 24; Col. iv. 14. Now, whether he be only Luke [Lucas], or also 
Lucius, he is the very person who wrote the Acts of the Apostles, having accom- 
panied Paul himself from the Troad, first to Philippi (Acts xvi. 10), next from 
Philippi to Troas, nay, even as far as to Rome (ch. xx. 6, xxviii. 16 ; 2 Tim. iv. 
11) : and it is owing to this that he most frequently uses the first person plural 
in his narrative. Moreover the lively [vigorous] style of Luke, which is particu- 
larly appropriate to the very joyful subject of the Acts, cbmprising, as they do, in 
.their history the completion [carrying into eflFect] of the New Testament, seems 
to have derived some of its characteristics from the association of many years, 
which Luke maintained [enjoyed] with Paul. — Harm, pp. 35, 36. Lucas seems to 
me to be the contraction of Lucanus, as Silas from Silvanus, and to be altogether 
a distinct name from Lucius,— Ed. and Tkaksl. 


3 ST LUKE I. 2. 

very eye-witnesses of the facts and ministers of the word ; not to say 
that Luke both wrote before John, and does not seem to have seen 
the Gospel of Matthew. There remains the one evangelist Mark 
alone ; but Luke speaks of mani/, and employs the word i-Trix^'ipniav, 
have taken in hand, in a middle sense \i.e. neither expressing dispa- 
ragement nor praise] ; and consonant with this is the particle xa^ws, 
even as, which implies a consonance with the relation [report] of the 
eye-witnesses and ministers either sought after or attained by the 
writers alluded to : also the expression naipo), to me also, agrees with 
the same view ; for by it Luke does not so much oppose himself to 
those many writers, but rather adds himself to their number, as one 
of the same class, in such a manner, however, as that he may contri- 
bute somewhat even still to the affpaXf/a and firm assurance of 
Theophilus. He therefore intimates, if only he has had reference 
[not merely to others, but] also to Mark [which indeed, if you com- 
pare together the forms of expression and the order of narratives in each, 
is not very unlikely. — Harm., p. 36], that several particulars, not 
mentioned in Mark, are ready to his hand for recording ; but that 
the other writers, as, for instance, he who wrote the Gospel according 
to the Egyptians, are less calculated to serve towards producing aapa- 
Xsia, and firm assurance. — amra^aaiai, to set forth in order') in writ- 
ing or instructive [catechetico, referring to xarrix^6ris, ver. 4] words. 
Hesychius says, avot,rd^a,g$ai, luTptviSasSai. — tuv '!n'!rXripo(pDpri/ji,iiitiiv) vXr,- 
pofopia, when it is attributed to a man, denotes the fulness of know- 
ledge in the understanding, or of eager desire in the will : 2 Tim. 
iv. 17 ; Heb. vi. 11, note. Such vigour characterized to, ■jrpdyiJ.aTa, 
the Christian facts, which Luke describes in both his works, whilst 
they were occurring [were being accomplished] : and these alone 
had this characteristic ; for which reason this periphrasis whereby 
he designates the same facts is quite sufiicient. It was in the sight 
of the world that the Gospel facts occurred : Acts xxvi. 26. — h ii/j,Tv, 
among us) in the Church, but especially among the teachers, and 
these veterans. 

2. napidosctv riiJM, they have delivered to us) to me, and to the other 
companions of the apostles. — a^' a,pyr]i, from the beginning) It was 
not from Paul alone, who was converted after the beginning, that 
Luke received his information — auroVra; xai mnpirai) They them- 
selves saw [auris owTieSai being the components of airoVrjis], and, 
what is more, ministered. So also Paul was ,a minister and witness : 
Acts xxvi. 16 ; so also the mother of our Lord herself, Mary : Acts 

14. There were many such witnesses, advanced in years, and ,«■« 

ST LDKE I. 3. S 

of the highest authority \_for instance, the twelve apostles, the seventy 
disciples, Mary Magdalene, and several more. — V. g.] : 1 Cor. xv. 6 ; 
Rom. xvi. 7. It was such as these themselves, and the companions 
of such, who wrote the books of the New Testament. No room was 
left for doubting. — roD Xoyou, of the word) Acts x. 36. This one 
'word' embraces many ' words,' ver. 4 \_Siv vLarnxnhi ^-oym : subjects 
of instruction]. 

3. "ESofs xa/x,o/, it seemed good to me also) A holy inclination, 
worthy of an evangelical man. — -jrapnxo'kovSrixoTi, having traced up 
[followed up : Engl. Yers. having had perfect understanding"^ A 
choice and happy word : it is said of him who has been all but pre- 
sent himself at all the events, and who has learned them from those 
who were actually present ; for instance, Paul uses it of Timothy, 
2 Tim. iii. 10 [Ta^jjxoXoi^jjxas /tou 5;5affxaX/(y, thou hast fully known 
my doctrine'], as being one whom Paul brought about with him pre- 
sently after the persecutions, which he endured at Antioch, etc. 
The antithetic term is airoXiXtifi/io,!, the thing has escaped me, I do 
not comprehend it. Thus the cause is implied, why Luke regarded 
it as a fixed thing that he both could and ought to write. He is the 
person who in Acts xiii. 1, or at least in Acts xvi. 10, was already 
discharging an evangelical function. — amhu, from above [tracing 
upwards]) i.e. " from the beginning," ver. 2, 5. [He intimates by this 
term, that he meant to supply those particulars which Marh has omitted. 
— Harm., p. 37.] Scripture hands down to us the first commence- 
ments [origines] of things, even those of the Gospel and of the 
Church. — iraen) roTs vpayiiaen. All these matters had been followed 
up by Luke accurately [axp;j8£;]. — -/.ak^nij deinceps, successively, 
subsequently; [in order]) l^^s, afterwards ; xadiE,tii, successively ('dein- 
ceps'), subsequently. As Luke had followed up [ascertained] all 
things, it was the next thing [xah^rig] to follow, that he should de- 
scribe them. And indeed this Preface savours oi fresh [recent] joy, 
such as would be felt at the coming to the knowledge of [joyful] 
facts. Moreover he describes in order (for xak^ni has this force also), 
first, the Acts of Christ, His Conception, Nativity, boyhood. Baptism, 
gracious deeds done by Him, preaching, Passion, Resurrection, As- 
cension : then next the Acts of the apostles. Yet this very fact 
[viz. his narrating these events in order] does not prevent his at 
times joining together some events which were separated from one 
another in point of their respective limes : ch. i. 80, iii. 20, etc. — 
xpaTisre QeoipiXe, most excellent Theophilus) This Theophilus belonged 
to Alexandria, as the ancients testify (see Ord. Temp., p. 225), Ed. 

4 ST LUKE I. 4, 5. 

ii., p. 196, and Harm. Ev. Ed. ii., p. 80 ; and that was a city m 
which especially flourished xarrixrisis, ver. 4. He was a most noble 
man, as the title given him by Luke shows : comp. Acts xxiii. 26, 
xxiv. 3, xxvi. 25. The same title is not given to the same Theophilus 
in Acts i. 1, either because he was then in private life, or because 
his excellence and Luke's intimacy with him had increased. More- 
over this title of respect serves as an argument, that the Gospel his- 
tory is a true one, and allowed itself from the very beginning to be 
offered for acceptance to the most distinguished personages. The 
holy examples of illustrious men^ described in these books, were cal- 
culated to stimulate Theophilus to imitate them. 

4. 'Iva, that) Expressing the scope of the whole work, [which in 
John is stated at the close of his Gospel, ch. xxi. 24. — Harm., p. 34.] 
— imyvipg, thou mightest clearly perceive) The compound verb is em- 
phatic.^ — xaTrjxijSris, thou hast been instructed^ by the mouth of others. 
This KaTnyyisic,^ also comprises sacred history. Luke hereby claims 
to himself greater authority than thai of those from whom Theo- 
philus had previously received instruction. — \rriv aeipaksiav, the 
certainty) This unerring certainty has place, where nothing of a 
spurious character is added, nothing that is necessary is omitted (left 
to be wished for, desideratur), and all the particulars are attested and 
proved by adequate documents and proofs, — V. g.J 

5. 'EysvEro, there was) Following close upon the Preface itself, 
Luke exhibits the History of Jesus Christ from His entrance into 
the world, up to the time c£ His ascension into heaven. In this 
History we may note — 

L The BEGiirariNG : wherein we have 

1. The conception of John, . . . Ch. i. 5—25 

2. The conception of Jesus Himself, . 26—56 

3. The nativity and circumcision of John : the 
hymn of Zacharias : the youth of John, . 57-80 

4. Jesus Christ's (a) Nativity, . . ii. 1-20 
(6) Circumcision and name given, 21 

(c) Presentation to the Lord in 
the temple, . . 22-38 

(d) His ovm country and growth, 39, 40 

^ The Iffi augments the force of the simple verb. Wahl explains it, plane el 
accurate cognoscere. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

' Whence fingl. word, catechism, catechetical. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

ST LUKE 1. 5. 

a II, The Middle : when He was twelve years of 

age, and subsequently, . . , Ch. ii, 41-52 

III. Hts course [ministry] itself. 

1. The entrance on it : wherein is described the 

Baptist ; His baptism, His temptation, iii. 1, 2, 

21, 22 ; iv. 1-13 

2. The acceptable year in Galilee, 

A. Set forth before His hearers at Nazareth, 14-30 

B. Made good in actual performance : 
At Capernaum, and in that region. Here 

are to be noted — 

1. His acts not censured by his adversaries ; 
whereby Jesus 

1. Powerfully teaches, ... 31, 32 

2. Delivers one demoniacally possessed, 33—37 

3. Cures the mother-in-law of Peter, and 
many sick persons, . . 38—41 

4. Teaches everywhere, . . 42—44 

5. Calls Peter, and also James and John, v. 1—11 

6. Cleanses the leper, . . . 12—16 

2. His acts censured by His adversaries, and 
that with gradually increasing severity. 

To this class belong — 

1. The man with palsy, . . 17—26 

2. The call of Levi, and the eating with 
publicans and sinners, . . 27-32 

3. The question as to fasting answered, 33—39 

4. The plucking of the ears of corn, . vi. 1—5' 

5. The withered hand restored, and the 
plotting against Jesus, . . 6—11 

3. His acts, of which' the issue [result] was 
different in the case of the different per- 
sons with whom He had to do : 

1. In the case of His chosen apostles, 12—16 

2. In the case of His other hearers, 17, 18; 20-49 

3. In the case of the centurion, . vii. 1—10 

4. In the case of the disciples of John, in 
connection with whom we have — 

a. The occasion of the raising of the young 
I, c man at Nain, . . , . 11-18 

ST LUKE I. 5. 



be h. Tlie embassy from John, . Ch. 

c. The reproof, 

5. In the case of Simon the Pharisee, and 
the sinner, the woman who showed 
Him much love, . . • 36—50 

6. In the case of His own immediate attendants, 

viii. 1—3 

7. In the case of the people, 

8. In the case of His mother and brethren, 
8. On the sea, .... 

And beyond the sea, 
y. On this side of the sea, again : 

1. Jairus, and the woman with the issue of 
blood, .... 

2. The apostles sent forth, 

3. The doubts of Herod, 

4. The report of the apostles, . 

5. The eagerness of the people : the kind- 
ness of the Lord : the five thousand fed, 

3. The preparation for His passion, etc. 

A. The recapitulation of His doctrine concern- 
ing the person of Jesus Christ. Silence 
enjoined ; His passion foretold ; following 
Him enjoined, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23-27 




ix. 1-6 





His transfiguration on the mountain ; the 

lunatic healed ; His passion again foretold ; 
humility and moderation commanded, 28, 29, 37, 38, 

43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50 
C His great journey to Jerusalem when about 
to suffer. Herein we may fix eighteen in- 
tervals [incidents marking divisions] : 

I. The Samaritans, unwilling to re- 
ceive Him, yet tolerated, . 51-57 

II. On the way : unsuitable followers 

repulsed : suitable ones constrained, 57-62 

HI. Afterwards, seventy messengers 
sent before Him : and received back 
with joy, . X. 1.-24 

ST LUKE I. 5. r 

AsD a lawyer taught love to Lis 
neighbour by the example of the 
Samaritan, . . Ch. x. 25-37 

IV. In a certain village, Mary preferred 

to Martha, . . . 38-42 

V. In a certain place, the disciples are 

taught to pray, . . xi. 1-13 

In a certain place, the demon is 
cast out : this act is defended, 14-26 

In a certain place, the exclamation of 
the woman of the company is cor- 
rected, ... 27, 28 

In a certain place, the people who 
were eagerly desirous of a sign, are 
reproved, . . . 29-36 

VI. In a certain house, the Pharisees and 

Scribes are refuted, 

37, 38, 45-54 

>r[I. A discourse is addressed to the dis- 
ciples, . . . xii. 1-12 

A discourse is addressed to one in- 
terrupting Him with a request, 13-21 

A discourse is addressed to the dis- 
ciples, . . . 22-40 

A discourse is addressed to Peter, 41-53 

A discourse is addressed to the people, 54—59 

VIII. The need of repentance is shown, xiii. 1-9 

In the synagogue the woman is healed 
on the Sabbath, the kingdom of 
God thus increasing as the mus- 
tard-seed, . . . 10-21 

IX. On the journey. He declares the few- 
ness of those about to be saved, 22-30 

X. On that day Herod is called a fox ; 

Jerusalem is reproved, . 31-35 

ST LUKE I. 5. 

XI. In the house of the Pharisee, a man 
with a dropsy is healed on the 

Sabbath, . . . Ch. sir. 1-6 

HumiKty is taught, . • '^—^ 1 

True hospitality, . • 12-14 

The principle [ratio] of the great feast, 15-24 

Self-denial required, . • 25-35 

XII. Joy over repenting sinners is de- 
fended, . . _xv. 1, 2, 11, 12 

Their duty as stewards is enjoined 
on the disciples. 

And the avarice and derision of the 
Pharisees are refuted, . 

They are cautioned against ' Of- 

The faith of the apostles is increased. 

xvi. 1-13 


xvii. 1—4 

XIII. On the borders of Samaria and 
Galilee, He cures ten lepers. 


XIV. He answers the question as to the 
time of the coming of the kingdom 
of God, , . . 20-37 

He recommends continual and humble 
prayer, . . xviii. 1, 2, 9—14 

XV. He blesses little children, . 15-17 

He answers the rich ruler, . 18—27 

And Peter, . . . 28-30 

XVI. He foretells the Passion a third time, 31-34 

XVII. Nigh Jericho, a blind man given sight, 35—43 

XVin. In Jericho, salvation is conferred on 

Zaccheus, . . . xix. 1—10 

An answer is given as to the sudden 
appearance of the kingdom of God, 11-28 

L 4. His acts at Jerusalem. 



ST LUKE I. 5. 9 

' A. The first days of the great week. 

1. His royal entry into Jerusalem, Ch. xix. 29— 44 

2. In the temple, 
a. The abuse of it corrected and chastised, . 45, 46 
^. Its right use restored, . . 47 48 

And vindicated, . . . xx. 1—8 

3. Discourses in the temple : 
a. The parable concerning the husbandmen, 9-19 
^. The answer concerning the tribute-money, 20-26 

And concerning the resurrection, 27-40 

7. The question concerning David's Lord, 41-44 

d. The disciples warned of the Scribes, 45-47 

E. The widow's offering praised,. . xxi. 1—4 

4. The end foretold, of the temple, of the 
city, of the universe, 5, 6, 8, 9, 25, 26, 28, 29 

5. The covenant of His adversaries and the 
traitor, ... . . xxii. 1-6 

B. Thursday. 

a. The preparations for the Passover made by 

Peter and John, . . . 7-13 

b. The Supper, and words spoken at it, . 14-23 

c. Who is the greatest ? . . . 24-30 
Peter and the rest of the disciples are ad- 
monished, ... 81, 32, 35-38 

d. On the Mount of Olives : 

1. Jesus prays to the Father, is strengthened 

by an angel, and rouses His disciples, 39-46 

2. Is betrayed : is unseasonably defended 

[by Peter's sword] against His assail- 
ants. Bears Himself holily, 47-53 

e. Being seized. He is led into the high priest's 

house, .... 54 

Peter denies Him and weeps, . . 55-62 

The Lord is mocked, . . . 63-65 

C. Friday. 
His Passion and Death. His acts, 

1. In the Council, etc., . . 66-71 

2. In the Governor's hall, . . xxiii. 1-5 

3. Before Herod, . . . 6-12 

4. Again in the Governor's hall, 13, 14, 17-25 
y c- 5. On the way to the cross, >■ ■< 26-32 



ST LUKE I. 5. 

6. At Golgotha; where we have the de- 
scription of — 
a. The cross itself; and Jesus' prayer 

for their forgiveness, 
i. The parting of His garments, 

c. The taunts uttered against Him, and 
among these the inscription on the 
Cross, .... 

d. One of the robbers, however, converted, 

e. The miraculous portents, and the death 
of Jesus, 

/. The spectators, 
'. His burial, .... 

D. The preparation and the Sabbath, 

E. The Resurrection : it becomes known — 

a. To the women, . . . x 

h. To two going into the country, and to 
Simon, .... 




V. 1-12 


c. To the rest also. 

36, 37, 44, 45 

F. The instruction of the apostles ; the Ascension 
of our Lord ; the joyous alacrity of the apostles, 


~'Hpu&o\), of Herod) All the particulars are set down clearly : the 
names, the times, and the places. [_Not a few of the false prophets — 
for instance, Mahomet — without premeditated foresight, have by slow 
and imperceptible degrees gained over parties of retainers, and after- 
wards deceived both themselves and others : accordingly, the circum- 
stances of their birth and their condition, in their early years, are in 
the case of such impostors unknoion, unworthy of trust, and fictitious. 
But the conception of Jesus Christ, His nativity, His infancy, His 
boyhood, etc., are supported as to their credibility by signally striking 
proofs. From eternity God hath definitely foreordained them, and 
hath by His ancient prophets declared them, and confirms their fulfil- 
ment subsequently by the instrumentality of irrefragable witnesses. — 
Harm., p. 59.] — rni'lo\)haiag, of Judea) The theatre or scene of all 
the events. — h^ixic, priesi) not the high priest, but one from among 
the regular courses of priests. — e§ i(pnfJ''-pia,i "A/3;a, of the course of 
Abia) The priests were divided into twenty-four courses or classes : 
and the course of Abia was the eighth, according to 1 Chron. xxiv. 
10 [Abijah = Abia]. 'EjSjj/iE^/a in the usage of the LXX. answers to 
the Hebrew nppriD, sometimes also niDK'Q. Each course in its order 

ST LUKE I. 6-10. n 

had the discharge of the priestly duties devolving on it for seven 
days, from Sabbath to Sabbath. [^Ilence it is allowable to infer that 
Zacharias discharged his turn of duty from the 2d of September to 
the 2th of September : see Ord. Temp., pp. 230, 231 (Ed. ii. pp. 200, 
201) : and the 2d of September that year among the people of 
Israel corresponded to the I. Tisri. Behold how, at the commsncemsnt 
of the year,^ simultaneously with the angeVs message which was 
brought to Zachariah, the New Testament took its commencement 


6. Alxaioi, righteous) The condescending goodaiess of Scripture, 
which speaks of the righteousness of the pious, ought not to be 
treated as if it is in opposition to the doctrine of justification [by 
faith]. — aiKpoTipoi, both) God brings forth His chosen instruments 
from pious parents. — hdmov roO &eo\J, before [in the presence of] God) 
Gen. xvii. 1. — hroXaTg, the commandments) viz. the moral ones. — 
dixttitificcgi) the ceremonial ones [ordinances'], Heb. ix. 1. 

7. Kai, and) They no longer now had any hope of offspring, 
owing to a twofold cause [their age and Elizabeth's barrenness] : 
ver. 18, 36 (comp. Eom. iv. 19); and perhaps they were now not 
even seeking for [desiring] offspring. — •j-^io/Ss/SjjxoVes, far advanced) 
A sweet description of the old age of the godly, which looks to the 
blissful goal \jrpopsl3. inipljing progress towards it]. 

8. 'El/ rf rd^ii rfig iptj/Mplag civrov, in the order of his course) As to 
the chronological clue afforded by this passage, we have treated in 
the Ordo Temporum, p. 230 [Ed. ii. p. 200]. [In twenty-four weeks 
the courses of the priests returned hack in rotation ; and this alterna- 
tion of courses prevailed even up to the destruction of the temple. 


9. "EXaxs, he was allotted the oifice) The functions of the priests 
were distributed by lot.^ — rou 6u/^idga,i, of burning incense) Ex. xxx. 
1, etc. 

10. n&v, all) It must therefore have been a solemn day, and per- 

' By the express direction of Moses the year began with Nisan (Exod. xii. 2, 
Num. ix. 1). But this was the ecclesiastical year regulating the festivals; 
whereas the civil year began, as it begins now, with the month Tisri. The 
reason which the Rabbins assign for the month Tisri beginning the year is, that 
it was the month in which creation took place. If this be true, it is appropriate 
that the New Creation has its first commencements on the same month as the 
Natural Creation. — Ed. and Transl. 

2 This was so, according to S. B. D. Crusius, Hypomn. P. I., p. 41, partly 
for the sake of order, partly to avoid contentions. Comp. 1 Ohron. xxiv. 4, 5. 
— E. B. 

12 ST LUKE I. 11-17. 

haps the Sabbath, on which Zacharias entered upon his duty, 
ver. 22, 23. 

11. " KyyiKoiy an angel) the name of whom was afterwards com- 
municated to Zacharias, ver. 19. 

13. M)5 pojSoS, fear not) This is the first address from heaven in 
the opening dawn [aurora] of the New Testament, which is most 
charmingly described by Luke. The fact is here sweetly set before 
us ; then we are led by rugged and severe paths to a most dehght- 
ful issue. Such is also the case in the Apocalypse subsequently. — 
iienxo-jfSri, has been hearkened to [granted]) This is to speak to the 
heart. [Zacharias in heart desired, though he no longer spoke.] Acts 
X. 4. — ri hi-ne'ig ffou, thy prayers) lie had sought offspring in former 
days. [For he did not himself any longer cherish the expectation of 
the fulfilment of his desire. — V. g.] — 'loidwnv, John) The name, John, 
was prescribed : the name of Mary was not prescribed. 

14. XaprisovTai, shall rejoice) ver. 58, 66. 

15. "Effrai, shall be) viz. that son shall be. — Kuplou, the Lord) God 
the Father is meant. Presently after he speaks also of the Holy 
Spirit and of the Son of God. Already, in connection with the 
forerunner of the Messiah, the economy of the Holy Trinity more 
fully expands itself to view. — xa/ ohov xal eixspa ou /j^n iriri, and wine 
and strong drink he shall not drink) So also Judg. xiii. 4, /in 
-jririg ohos elxipa. ^r/,ipa is from the Hebr. 13E', and denotes all 
drink distinct from wine, and yet intoxicating, as the juice of the 
date, malt liquor, etc. Such abstinence was enjoined on John, also 
on the mother of Samson. — -/.a!, and) Similarly, being filled with the 
Holy Spirit, is put in antithesis to being drunk with wine, Eph. v. 
18. — h, from) An abbreviated mode of expression : meaning, in the 
womb (ver. 41, 44) and subsequently [from that time forward]. 

16, 17. ''EviSTpi-^ii, xal ■rpoiXsuesrai, he shall turn, and shall go before) 
The words presently after in ver. 17, to turn, Ivierpi-^ai, refer to the 
verb ImSTpi'^u, in ver. 16 : and iroiii,a,ea,i, to make ready, refers to 
•jrpoiXeveerai. — Kvpiov, the Lord) Christ is therefore God. Comp. the 
following verse, humo]! a'urov, before Him — Kup/w, the Lord : and 
in verse 76 [" the Highest — before the face of the Lord"]. 

17. Avrhg, himself) In antithesis to the others (•roXXous, many), 
ver. 16. — cviimov, before His face) in His immediate presence. — 
smgTp's-'^ja.i, x.r.X., to turn [convert], etc.) The language in this pas- 
sage, as often in prophecies, is figurative, abbreviated, and as it were 
poetically with this sense : John shall effect that the parents as well 
as the children alike, the disobedient as well as the just alike, men 

ST LUKE I. 17. -.3 

of every age and character, may be prepared for the Lord. But it 
was not convenient to say : He will convert [turn] the disobedient 
and the unjust along with the obedient and just alike ; for the just 
need no conversion. Therefore, instead of the concrete, the abstract 
is used : He will convert the disobedient to the state of mind of the 
just ; i.e. those who disregard God's law he will convert, or bring to 
such a state, that they will join themselves to the number of the 
just, putting on the docility and wisdom of these latter ; and, just as 
the just are ready, so will the disobedient become ready for the Lord. 
— xapSlag, hearts) The Iwart is therefore the seat of conversion, of obe- 
dience, and of prudence. — iraTipav i^l Tsxm, of the fathers along with 
the children alike) Mai. iii. 24, Dnux-iij; D^n 3P1 U^^yhv nus :h, 
LXX. xapdlav TOiTpi; irphg M'lh, xal xafiiav avSpuvou irphg rhv •jrX^ewv abrou. 
The expression is e(juivalent to a proverb, so as to signify the multi- 
tude — the ' many' converted (ver. 16). So Gen. xxxii. 11, ij^nripa 
eirl Tsxvoig. So decidedly ixaTipiav lirl rixva, Exod. xx. 5, xxxiv. 7 : 
also xv^/i)]v i-xl /Ji^riphv, Judg. xv. 8. See also ?il, Amos iii. 15 ; Judg. 
xii. 1 ; and iphg, in the Son of Sir. (see the quotation below). At 
the same time there may be designed to be marked the care of the 
fathers for the salvation of their children, as opposed to what takes 
place in a flight such as Jer. xlvii. 3 describes, oix eiriaTpi-^/av ixarspsg, 
s(p' vioiig auTuv. — xa,l a-KuhTg h (ppmristi bixaiuv, and the disobedient in 
■ [to] the wisdom [prudence] of the just) This is set down instead 
of what is found in Malachi : and the heart of the children upon 
[super : but Engl. Vers, to] their fathers. Disobedience is espe- 
cially the fault of youths : prudence [wisdom] and justice are especially 
becoming in fathers. The angel says, in the prudence, not into [to] 
the prudence. The feeling [sentiments] of those who are just, is 
immediately put on in conversion. — iroii/jasaj Kupluj Xahv xanffxiuae- 
(ihov, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord) Asyndeton 
[absence of copulative between InrieTp's-^ai and koz/iaffa;] : to convert 
[turn], to make ready. The people is to be made ready, lest the 
Lord, finding the people not ready for Him, should crush them with 
His majesty [" Lest I come and smite the earth with a curse"], Mai. 
iv. 6. A people prepared, i.e. complying with the instructions of 
John, who makes them ready, and obedient to the Lord ; no longer 
having such hearts as are described in Prov. xv. 7, p X? Dv^DS DPI, 
LXX. xapdlcii a<pp6iiuv ovx ascpaXilg, The hearts of fools are not safe 
[Engl. Vers, from Hebr., But the heart of the foolish doeth not so, 
i.e. do not disperse knowledge]. Let the antithetic terms be noted, 
a(pp6vm and fpovrinn ; and the kindred terms p and iroi^dsai. Con- 

H ST LUKE I. 18-20. 

cerning Elias, see Sir. xlviii. 11, xal i'!ti(STpi-\iai xap&lav ■Trarphi 'irpog xtiov, 
xa.! xaragTrigai ^uXa.; 'Iaxw/3. That the work of the Son of Sirach is 
far from a low and common one, its accordance with the angel's 
words proves. See also Matt, xxiii. 34, note. 

18. Kara ri yvtiaoij.a,) So LXX., Gen. XV. 8. The question of 
Zacharias is one affecting the very fact itself, thus betraying that he 
laboured under a want of faith : the ^Ss, how, which Mary started 
as a question, was accompanied with faith : comp. ver. 34 \_How f] 
with 45 [" Blessed is she that believed."'] 

19. Ta^piriX, Gabriel) The reason why Zacharias ought not to 
have had any unbehef, is the authority of the heavenly messenger. 
The name is compounded of "UJ and i>K, and indicates the main 
object of his embassy, viz. concerning the incarnation of the Son 
of God, ba is laJ, God is man. Gabriel had appeared to Daniel also. 
It was the same angel, and he came on the same business. — o irapse- 
rrixijs, wlio am wont to stand in attendance^ Seven angels stand in the 
presence of God, Rev. viii. 2. One of these, Gabriel, stands in 
attendance [adstat, stands by], or stands with the six others. — 
avidTokriv, I have been sent) ver. 26; Heb. i.l4. — ihayyiXiaaaiai, to show 
thee these glad tidings) Thus marking the beginning of the Gospel 
[= Glad tidings] : ch. ii. 10, 17, iii. 18 ; Mark i. 1. 

20. 'Iboii, behold) as much as to say, by this thou shalt be made 
know. An appropriate sign is given to him who asked for a sign, 
though the sign given was not such as he would have desired. — 
aiiii'iruv, silent) in the matter of fact [actually]. — /^n &md/isvog XaXneai, 
not able to speak) in the want of the ability to speak [physically]. 
Comp. [accordingly in his recovery both are specified] ver. 64, the 
mouth and the tongue. For the most part, those to whom a great 
revelation is vouchsafed, are wont to lose something of their natural 
power, without however real hurt to them. So Jacob was made 
lame ; but his lameness proved, not a blemish, but a mark of honour 
to him : so Zacharias here was made dumb : Saul (Paul) was for a 
time deprived of sight. This dumbness of Zacharias at the same 
time acted as a spiritual medicine, lest he should too much pride him- 
self on account of the prophecy as to the greatness of his son. — 
ayipi ni) Comp. ver. 64 [His mouth opened] wirh ver. 13 [Thou 
shalt call his name John\, 63 [When the ' things' foretold were 
' performed,' and Zacharias, ceasing from unbelief, wrote, " His 
name is John"]. \The day alluded to was the day of Johr^s circum^ 
cision, on which he received his name. — V. g.] — avS' m, because) 
Therefore it was, strictly speaking, a punishment. — oux, imanieoLi, 

ST LUKE I. 22-28. 16 

thou hast not believed) He did not believe : on this account he was 
not able to speak.' — irXrjptaS^mrai, shall be fulfilled') It is the event 
which chiefly produces faith. — e/s tJh naiph alirm, at their own season) 
their proper season. Comp. at this time [will I come], Eom. ix. 9 • 
2 Kings iv. 16. 

22. AaXrjdai, to speak) for instance, to give the blessing. Zacha- 
rias, as being dumb, was in the meantime excluded from the exer- 
cise of aU the functions of a priest. This constitutes the prelude 
to the termination of the ceremonial law, now that Christ is 
coming. — I'Trsyvaisav, they perceived) A benefit thus accompanied 
the very punishment of Zacharias. Thereby all were stirred up to 

23. E/'s rbv oJxov ahrov, to his own house) An abbreviated form of 
expression : the city, in which Zacharias dwelt, requiring to be under- 
stood. Comp. ver. 39. So also ver. 56. The house of Zacharias is 
put in antithesis to the temple of the Lord : see ver. 9. 

24. Taurag, these) the days of which ver. 23 makes mention [the 
days of his ministration]. — mp/'sxpvjSiv, She hid herself) that her preg- 
nancy might be unobserved : owing to which, subsequently her preg- 
nancy was suddenly made the more apparent. — Xiyouaa, saying) to 
the partakers of [those who sympathized in] her joy. 

25. Olirw, thus) even as all, five months afterwards, saw her [viz. 
pregnant], — n/j/ipaii, in the days) definitely fixed beforehand. — 
sTsitsv) sve^Xi-^sv, vtjr. 48 ; iirigxe-^iaTo, ver. 68. — Th ovsidog, my re- 
proach) viz. the surname by which they called her, viz. barren, 
ver. 36. — iv AvSpuimg, among men) She had scarcely accounted her- 
self as one of the hunian race [to be counted among men] on account 
of her barrenness. 

27. IJphg irap6inv, to a virgin) Matt. i. 23. — fnfivrieTev/j^hriii, [espoused] 
betrothed) by the divine ruling of Providence. It would not have 
been befitting that Mary should have been only betrothed afler the 
annunciation of the angel, and not sooner. — avdpl, to a man) who 
was designed to act as guardian both of the virgin and of her off- 
spring. — 15 ohou AauiS, of the house of David) Construe with Joseph ; 
comp. ch. ii. 4. This is, however, not to the exclusion of Mary. 

28. ElaiXSiiii, entering in) At evening time, as is probable. Comp. 
Dan, ix. 21. — xix"'piTa//,h'/i) Eph. i. 6. The Vulg. renders gratia 
plena, in a passive sense [" filled with grace"], (as Ovid, Carm.ina 
plena favoris), one who has found favour, ver. 30. She is so called, 

' See 2 Cor. iv. 13.— Ed. and Transl. 

16 ST LUICE 1. 29-32. 

not as the mother of grace, but as the daughter of grace, especially 
at that early time.^^srA gov) May the Lord be with thee [not, " The 
Lord is with thee," as Engl. Vers.] Comp. Matt. i. 23, at the end 
of verse, and the note. It is parallel to, %a^/>e, Hail. The Indica- 
tive is taken for granted,^ and the Optative here subscribes to [seals 
and confirms] it. So Judg. vi. 12 [the angel to Gideon, " The 
Lord is (or rather, mai/ the Lord be) with thee"], Kiipiog /litci, aou. — 
ad, thou) The Vocative : as in Acts iv. 24 [Aeiyirora, eu 6 mi^aag, etc. J 
Chrys de Sacerd., p. 322. 

29. AiiTapdxSn, she was troubled) Her being troubled arose from 
the apparition itself (jj 8i idovga., when she saw him). Therefore she 
does not seem to have been previously accustomed to apparitions. 
[All things, in the case of the blessed Virgin, both what was foretold 
to herself, and what ensued subsequently, befel her without her ex- 
pecting them. But if her conception, as the tradition of several 
members of the Roman Church represents, had been immaculate, she 
could have hardly accounted herself, however superlatively modest, in 
such an ordinary position (so entirely undistinguished from ordinary 
men and women). — ^V. g.] — 'jrorairlg e/jj, of what hind may be) The 
formulae themselves, which had been addressed to her, hail, and, 
the Lord with thee, were ordinary salutations ; but from the peculiar 
and extraordinary titles which the angel added, Mary understood 
that the formulse, especially as being conjoined with these titles, 
were employed with an extraordinary [distinguishing] and new 
force. In fact, in all the recorded apparitions of angels, there is no 
other instance occurs of such a salutation. Mary not only wondered, 
but also cast in her mind, of what kind might be, what was the 
meaning, and what the drift of this salutation. 

30. Eu^£5 yap yjipiv, for thou hast found favour) Hebr. [n NVD. 
So Acts vii. 46 ; Heb. iv. 16. 

31. 'ihoii, behold) In the words following is contained a summary 
of the Gospel, which is repeated at ver. 50, 51, 68, 69; ch. ii. 10, 
11 ; xiv. 30, 31. Comp. the words, 2 Sam. vii. 8, etc. 

.32. olros. He) The Messiah is clearly described, even as at ver. 
68, etc., and ch. ii. 30, etc. — iiiyai, great) The greatness of John, 
described at ver. 15, is far exceeded by the greatness of Jesus, de- 
scribed bere. [(S«e ver. 33, and comp. Dan. ii. 35 ; Eph. iv. 10. — 
V. g.] — T/Jg 'T-i^laToii xXrtSTiserai, He shall be called the Son of the 
Highest) Jesus, even in a point of view distinct from His Divine 

^ The }capis of the Lord, implied in p^aifis, is with her. — En. and Tkanst.. 

ST LUKE I. 33-86. U 

nature, and from His personal union with God the Father, is, in a 
sense transcendentally above all angels and men, the Son of the 
Highest, on account of the extraordinary nature [rationem, principle'] 
of His conception and nativity. — rhv Spovov Aavld tou ^arphg avToii, 
the throne of David His father) Christ was promised to the fathers, 
especially to Abraham, as the Seed. He was promised by Moses, 
a prophet, as the Prophet. He was promised to David, a king, as 
the King. Even the temporal kingdom of Israel belonged to Jesus 
Christ by hereditary right. Massecheth Sanhedrin, ch iv., says, 
that Jesus is nearest to the kingdom, ni37D7 ynp. 

33. Ohov 'laxiJi/3, the house of Jacob) Under this house are con- 
tained the Gentiles, even as, for the sake of illustration, there are 
contained under the appellation of the Ehine, the rivers that flow 
into it. But yet it is the house itself [Israel] which is principally 
alluded to, especially at this early period, and in an address to an 
Israelitish woman. At this early stage in the Gospel history, its 
progress is designated generally : the spiritual sense lies hid beneath. 
So ver. 68, etc. — ^aaiXiiag, of His kingdom) Repeat, over the house 
of David, on the throne of David: Isa. ix. 7. That which has not 
yet been accomplished, shall be accomplished. 

34. Hag, how) This How is not inconsistent with faith, as ver. 45 
proves.^ — oi yiviiaxu, I know not) The present is here used for [in 
accordance with and in reference to] the very^ moment of the con- 
ception, which was still future. She gathers from the words of the 
angel himself, that she is not about to know man. 'Em}, seeing that, 
is categorical [absolute]. Mary understood that this promise is 
being now given to her as one immediately about to be fulfilled, 
without respect to the consummation of her espousals. A woman 
is also said to know a man. Num. xxxi. 17 ; Judg. xi. 39. 

35. A{jva/j,ig i4'/ffrou, the power of the Highest) Often these words 
are put in conjunction. Spirit and Power, as in ver. 17 ; but in this 
passage the Power of the Highest rather denotes, by Metonymy,'' the 
Highest, whose Power is infinite. So we have the expression, the 
power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. v. 4. The coming of the 
Holy Ghost upon Mary made her fit for receiving the overshadowing 
of the power of the Highest. — Imaxidaei soi, shall oversJiadow thee) 
This overshadowing denotes the mildest and most gentle [most 

^ The difference between her and Zacharias, ver. 18, lay not in the words but 
in the spirit.— Ed. and Transl. 

' See Append. Here the substitution of the Adjunct (the Power) for the 
Subject (the Highest) Ed. and Tbassl. 


18 ST LUKE I, 85. 

modified] operation of the Divine power, whereby it was efifected 
that the Divine Fire did not consume Mary, but made her fruitful. 
Comp. Mark ix. 7 [the cloud overshadowed them at the transfigura- 
tion] ; Exod. xxxiii. 22. Many suppose allusion is here made to 
nan, veiled, as a bride. It was not fitting that the will of man or of 
the flesh should help towards this [the Saviour's incarnation]. It 
was from the substance of Mary that the elements were taken, what- 
ever contributed not only to the BuXknA'ii, the conception, but also to 
the nourishment of the holy fetus [embryo]. And this is considered 
[is to be viewed so], either antecedently to the moment of actual 
union with the Aoyog, or else in the very act and state of union. 
Antecedently to the union, it [what was taken from the substance of 
the mother] no otherwise than the mother herself, required to be 
redeemed by virtue of the Xurpov, redemption, about to be effected 
through the SiavSpuTov, God-man, Christ, and was sanctified by the 
Holy Spirit ; and thus it was that the union of the Aoyog and the 
flesh, now [made] holy, had place. I may purchase a farm : and out 
of the produce of that farm, when subsequently well cultivated, I 
may pay the price for the farm itself, which has become much more 
valuable since its cultivation. David bought the area [site] of the 
temple for a few shekels of silver [2 Sam. xxiv. 24] ; but the same 
area became inestimably valuable, when the temple was built upon 
it.' — Sih xai, wherefore also) Thus the Angel gives a satisfactory 
answer to the question. How, ver. 34. — ro yewii/Mvov,^ which is being 
conceived [c/iven birth to ; not as Engl. Vers. Which shall be borri?^ 
in this new and extraordinary manner. Abstract terms, and such 
as are expressed in the neuter gender, are very much in consonance 
with those first beginnings of the Gospel revelation ; ver. 68, 71, 
78, ii. 25, 30, 38. — ayiov, Holy) This word is regarded by TertuUian, 

1 So Jesus purchased our flesh (humanity) by the redemption about to be 
made by Him, and then afterwards, by the union of the Ao'yo? to it, and by the 
actual paying of the price of His blood, as God-man, made it infinitely more 
precious. — Ed. and Teansl. 

. 2 The words Ix. aoi, of thee, subjoined to this participle, had been declared in 
'the margin of the larger Ed. to be an improbable reading ; but in Ed. 2 the 
reading is raised to the sign S, and is given in the Vers. Germ., though 
enclosed in brackets. Therefore Bengel ought not to have been reckoned, in 
the Mbl. Thcol. Tom. viii. p. 106, among those who have omitted these words. 
— E. B. 

Lachm. reads la aoi (though in brackets), with C corrected later, ac, some 
MSS. of Vulg. Iren. Cypr.: and, before yniviiuiiiov, Hil. ABD6 omit the words ; 
and so Tischend.— Ed. and Teansl. 

ST LUKE I. 36-89. 


the Syr. Version, the author of the discourse against all heresies in 
Athanaslus, and others of the ancients, as part of the predicate, It 
shall he called Holy, (and) the Son of God. At all events, the sense 
of the sentence is most full and compressed : There is a something 
which is to be given birth to : that which is being given birth to, shall 
be Iwly ; this holy thing shall be called the Son of God. The whole 
is inferred from the immediately preceding words of the angel, and 
that in some such way as the following : The Holy Spirit shall come 
upon thee; wherefore that, which is being given birth to, shall be Holy. 
The Power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; wherefore that 
Holy thing shall be called the Son of God. Ver. 32 is parallel to 
this : Thy Son shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the 
Highest. In Divine things, greatness and holiness very much har- 
monize. It was concerning this Holy One that the same angel 
spake in Dan. ix. 24. 

36. Ka! Idov, and, behold) To Mary, inasmuch as she believed, a 
more favourable [pleasant] sign is without sohcitation given, than 
had been given to Zacharias, who did not believe. — guyyivfic, thy 
[coMsm] kinswoman) Therefore John and Jesus also were kinsmen 
[cousins]. — v'lhv, a son) Elisabeth's pregnancy was unknown among 
men, excepting the members of her own family ; but here we find 
even the time and the sex of the offspring indicated to Mary by 
Divine information, with a view to strengthen the faith of Mary. 
But of the ofiice of the Forerunner nothing is said ; for Mary was 
about to hear that from his mother. 

37. nSv ^^fji'd,, every word [thingj) As to things contradictory in 
the very terms, whether such are possible to happen, is not a sub- 
ject which need be disputed ; for they do not constitute a word 
[in the sense pij/ia, verbum, is here used, a true word or thing] : nor 
does a thing done and undone, i.e. true and false [a word verified 
and then falsified], constitute a word ; for repentance of His deed 
or promise does not apply to God : Gen. xviii. 14, /ijj aSumTsT wapa 
ru 0£jS pij/ia ; Is any word impossible with God f (Surely not.) 

38. T'lvoiTo fioi, be it done unto me) Compare the assent which 
David expresses to God's covenant promise, 2 Sam. vii. 25 [The 
word that Thou hast spoken — establish it for ever, and do as Thou 
hast said], 28. — d'!rriXkv, departed) even as he previously came in, 
ver. 28. 

39. 'AvaifTOffa, having arisen) The angel had given her the sug- 
gestion [occasion] which led her to go, ver. 36. — \}v raTs ri!J.ipaig raii- 
ra/s, in those days) of the sixth month, ver. 26, 36. — V. g.] — jj^ira 

20 ST LUKE I. 40-42. 

(f«u3^5) 2«i;3j), and its derivatives and compounds, ^ often in the 
Lxx. denote haste, rhnz.—sis moKm 'lovda, to a city of Judo) Luke 
does not specify the name of this city of the priests in the hill 
country, but from Josh. xxi. 11, we know it was Hebron; but he 
specifically sets down the name of the tribe, Juda. Here then it 
was, we may, not without good reason, conjecture, that the concep- 
tion of Jesus Christ took place. [The haste of the holy virgin, just 
now noticed,, is in consonance with this view. — Harm. p. 42.] Comp. 
Kohlreiff. in Jes. 30 ; and concerning the nativity of Jesus Christ in 
the land of Canaan, p. 96. Moreover, there were most remarkable 
motions and emotions in Ehsabeth, and her infant in the womb, 
and in Mary, ver. 41, 42 : also the particle y&p, for, in ver. 44, has 
an altogether peculiar weight, expressing the reasto why, at this 
particular point of time, Elisabeth first proclaims Mary to be the 
mother of her Lord [ver. 43]. Of so great moment, in truth, is the 
conception, that, if it had happened at Nazareth, He would have 
been called a Nazarene for that reason, rather than on accoimt of 
His parents dweUing there. But this fact of their dwelling there is 
given as the one and only cause of that surname which He bore 
[ch. iv. 16, 24]. As it is, the Lord, both with reference to His 
mother and progenitors, and with reference to the places alike 
where He was conceived as well as bom, was. sprung from Juda. 

40. 'Hd', saluted) The salutations of the saints and those of 
the ungodly are altogether different. No mere effort of reason can 
comprehend how powerfully moving and how effectual is the will of 
the saints, which draws its resources from God by faith and love, 
and then turns t^ie tide of them on friends capable of receiving 
them [susceptible to them]. 

41. Kal i'TrXrjsSri, and was filled) The spiritual motions [and emo- 
tions] of the embryo and of the mother were conjoined : ver. 15. 

42. ' Ave<p<ivri<Si tpaivrj iiiyak'fl) So ipwvjjffs <pmr\ //jiyakri. Acts xvi. 28. 
Others read an&oridi^ (pmri fj^iydXri. And so Matt, xxvii. 46 ; lxx., 
Gen. xxvii. 38 ; 1 Sam. xxviii. 12 ; Is. xxxvi. 13 ; Ezek. xi. 13, 
etc. Also 3 Mace. v. 48 (51) ; Hist, of Sus. four times ; Hist, of 
the Drag. ver. 40 (41). But ava.(p(anTv is employed in a very different 
sense ; for instance, of the sounds heard in public worship, as it was 

1 C is the only good authority for vtm^imi. ABD Origen expressly, 4,149a6, 
read avEfpaiojasi/. The very strangeness of the use of the latter word is an ar- 
gument for it not having come from transcribers : aiii^omi was evidently a 
marginal explanation. Bengal's own principle, « Prseferatur ardua lectioni pro- 
diviori," supports oLmtpuiimi' — Ed. and Transi-. 

ST LUKE I. 43-47. 21 

duly ordered by David. — xal ihiv, and said) It was not until after 
these words which, coming from the Holy Spirit, followed immedi- 
ately after the salutation of Mary, that Mary reported to Elisabeth 
what the angel had announced to her. — ivXoyrn^hri, Blessed) These 
words, which in the angel's salutation were last in order, stand first 
in the salutation of Elisabeth. — xa! ivXoyn/^hog, and blessed) This 
was not added in ver. 28. — o xap'xig, the fruit) Mary therefore was 
truly the mother of Jesus. 

43. 'h /irirnp, the Mother) This new appellation addressed to her, 
could not but move in her inmost soul the Virgin mother. The 
Mother, saith she, of my Lord ; she does not, however, call her, My 
Lady [i.e. as if she had lordship, like Christ, over all]. — roD Ku^/ou 
laou, of my Lord) Comp. ch. xx. 42 ; John xx. 28. 

44. Tap, for) By this she seems to intimate, that at the same 
precise point of time both her infant-foetus leaped, and Mary began 
in actual fact to be mother of our Lord. Comp. the a<!!h rou 
\i\jy, from the^now-time [from this time forth]. — kxiprviaiv, leaped) 
Nor was that leap of salutation the one and only act of faith [in the 
infant John] ; for he was " filled with the Holy Ghost" [even from 
his mother's womb], ver. 15. 

45. Maxapla, blessed) This is evident from the instance of Zacha- 
rias on the opposite side. — meTrjeaga,, who hath believed) ver. 38. — 
on Etfra;) that [but Engl Vers, for] there shall be. — aurjj, to her [in 
particular]) This has an emphatic reference to jj itieriueaaa, who hath 
believed, and is put instead of, to thee : just as in ch. xiii. 34. 

46. E'Ve, said) in words, or even in writing. Mary had received 
the Divine message after Zacharias, and yet she is the first to raise 
the hymn of joy : the songs of both ought as well to be compared 
together, as also with the words of the angel, ver. 28, etc., 13, etc- : 
and in another point of view with the language of Hannah, 1. Sam. ii. 
1, etc., and with the thanksgiving of David, 2 Sam. vii. 18, etc., on 
the same subject : also Ps. xxxiv. The hymns of Mary and Zacha- 
rias breathe altogether the spirit of the New Testament. And 
Mary was divinely so guided, that, even though she did not under- 
stand all the particulars (as ch. ii. 33, 50, implies), yet she spake 
out the mystery in words adapted to express even its most profound 
meaning. She praises God in the name of herself, and of her 
Blessed Offspring in the womb, and of Israel. The beginning 
of the hymn is in conformity with Ps. xxxi. 8, Lxx: 'AyaXX/ao-o/ioi 
xal iijppa.v6riSou,ci,i Ivi rip sXtii sow on lirtTbic iiri rrtv rccvehaisit /iou. 

47. Siarripi, Saviour) Preserver. See on Chrys. de Sacerd. pp 

28 ST LUKE I. 48-55. 

452, 453. This expresses the force of the name, Jesus, as given, 
ver 31. \Mary, by this mode of expression, reckons herself among 
those things which had been lost. Even she had her salvation, not 
from herself, but from Jesus. — V. g.] 

48. la-jTiimeiv) the low estate. James i. 10. ''3V LXX, often ran- 
der Ta-!nhmii. Her lowliness made Mary capable of receiving the 
great things, of which ver. 32, 33 speak. — fiaxapioWi imi, shall call 
[proclaim] me blessed) Comp. ver. 45, ch. xi. 27, 28. — iraecu a'l ytna.}, 
all generations) all posterity. 

49. 50, Ka;, and) He [that is mighty, etc.J, Wliose name is holy, 
and Whose mercy, etc. [but Engl. Vers. " And holy is His name, 
and His mercy," etc.J For these three clauses are joined together 
by the and, repeated. So the Hebrew relative, "iCK, is often not 
expressed but understood. It is not until ver. 51 that the new 
paragraph begins. 

50. E/? yinag, to the generations) Although the promise may 
seem to be long retarded, yet it is falfilled, and that too, to 
everlasting. It is the same generations which call Mary blessed, 
ver. 48. 

51. 'ETo/jjffs xpdrog — s^airieTii'ke xftioijg, He hath showed strength — 
He hath sent empty away) God designed to do all these things 
through the Messiah, and the mother of the Latter was receiving an 
experimental proof of the fact in her own self.— vTiprjipdvovi, the 
proud) both those visible and those invisible [Satan, etc.J of this 

52. Auvdsrag, the mighty [potentates]) as Saul, and Herod. 

53. Uuvmrag In'jXrigiv ayaSoJi, He hath filled the hungry with good 
things) Ps. cvii. 9, lxx. -^ux^" •^s"'"*"" hi-irXriBDi ayaOuv. To the 
10th verse of the same psalm corresponds also the Song of Zacha- 
rias, ver. 79. — t^a-jrisTn'ki, He hath sent dway) Though they might 
have seemed to be the nearest to God. 

54. ^AvriXd^iTo, He hath helped) in the fact of His sending the 
Messiah. The same verb is given as the rendering of SB'S, 1 
Kings ix. 11. — icaibhg, servant) So ver. 69. — /i.vrjeS7jmi) for this rea- 
son, because He remembered ; or else, in order that He might evince 
Himself mindful, ver. 72 ; Hab. iii. 2, ' 

55. 'EXdXrigi, He spake) with an oath, especially to David. — 
raripag — lug aioivog, our father — even to all ages) Mary comprises the 
past and future. — rip) Construe thus, — /ivjitf^^ra/ sXioug rfi 'A^pad/j. 
[not sXdXrjsiv — tSj 'AjSpad/ij. Micah vii. 20, LXX. dwsijg (Big) tiXjj- 
6iiav rj3 'laxii^, iXsov rj: 'A^padfi, jcaWr/ wpoffa? ro/j irarpdem vt/,-oii 

ST LUPE I, 56-63. »3 

xarii T&; tjfi'ipag Tct,; 'iiMvposhv} Ps. xcviii. 3, l/iv^rfjj rou IXeouf aurou 
»-p 'laxii^. Also Ps. cxix. 49. — EWf, even to) Construe with rjS eir'ep- 
fiari, to his seed,^ 

56. TpiTi;, three) She departed before the birth-giving [confine- 
mentj of Ehsabeth. — il; rhv oTxov auTijs, to her own house) from which 
she had been some time before commanded to go, in order to stop at 
Bethlehem. [^Therefore it is to this (point of time) belong the state- 
ments which Matthew has inserted, at his ch. i. 18—24, in the narra- 
tive itself concerning the nativity of Christ. — Harm., p. 42.] 

58. Mer ahrrig, had showed great mercy upon her [dealt in great 
mercy with her]) So 'iXiog /isrii r£i/ iraripm, to perform mercy 
upon our father [to deal in mercy with our fathers] : ch. x. 37, 

59. 'E*/ rffl odfj^aTi rou marplg avrov, after the name of his father) 
This was not the custom among the Jews : but in this case an ex- 
traordinary cause moved the members of the family, inasmuch as 
John was to sustain the whole posterity of [was the sole representa- 
tive to posterity of] Zacharias. 

60. eJVsi/, said) by special revelation. For if she had learned it 
from Zacharias by letter, there would have been no need that the 
question should be again asked him, as it was in ver. 62. 

61. Suyysvs/qi sou, thy kindred) They supposed that Elisabeth, if 
she chose to give a name different from that of Zacharias, woidd 
follow [adopt one of] the names of her own family. [Even in this re- 
spect it was befitting that something new and unprecedented should be 
done. — ^V. g.] 

62. 'Etisvivov, they made signs) To one dumb it is more convenient, 
that he should see persons making signs, than that he should hear 
them speaking, inasmuch as he is not able to reply to them by word 
of mouth. It is not probable that Zacharias was also deaf. — rh) The 
article is here demonstrative. 

63. XlivaxlS/ov, a tablet) If the relics of the Gospel histories, which 
are usually shown, were as genuine as they are numerous, there is no 
doubt but that Providence would have preserved thisJ;ablet. — typa-^e, 

, ' The "Vatican lsx. reads liiorn ui d'h.iihta.p, etc. — irxTpaaiu iifiZv. Engl. 
Vers, from Hebrew, " Thou wilt perform the truth to Jacob, and the mercy to 
Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old." — Ed. 
and Transl. 

2 ABD omit 'iu; aiauog. supports it, as also A in the Psalms, be Vulg. 
"inssecula." — Ed. and Tkansl. 

s Hellenistic construction, as in lxx 2 Sam. ix. 1, etc. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

84 ST LUKE I 64-69, 

Xi^m, he wrote, saving) He wrote in these words : ver. 64.' Comp, 
2 Kings X. 1, 6 ; 2 Chron. xxi. 12.— Iudvm, John) The last writing 
in the Old Testament ends in Din, i.e. [" lest I come and smite the 
earth with"] a curse, Mai. iv. 6. This, the first instance of writing 
in the New Testament, begins with grace {John in Hebr. = the 
grace ov favour of God\. — hn, is) Zacharias does not so much com- 
mand, as indicate the Divine commands. — Ha\ii/,a(Sav, they marvelled) 
at the newness of the name, without precedent in the family, and at 
the unanimity of Zacharias and Elisabeth on the question of the 
name, though there had been no consultation between them, which 
must therefore have been the result, not of preconcerted design, but 
of a revelation, which had been vouchsafed to each of the two. 

64. AiroD, of him) i.e. Zacharias. 
. 65. [a>o/3o5, fear) This whole affak breathed of Divine guidance.] 
— vavra, z.r.X., all, etc.) All whatsoever is recorded from ver. 11. 

66. "'Ehwo, laid up) A most wholesome study [deliberation] : that 
the connection of the several events should be carefully observed 
after long intervals elapsing in the Divine operations. Comp. ch. 
ii. 18, 19. 

67. TLpoKpriTsuei, prophesied) concerning the events which were 
immediately about to be. These prophesyings were spoken by 
Zacharias, either on the very day of John's circumcision, or after 
that the fact had become widely circulated. 

68. "On, because [for]) Zacharias is especially speaking of Christ, 
ver. 69 : and of John only as it were incidentally : see ver. 76. — 
i'7ne%'e-\iaTo, x.t.X., He hath visited and made redemption) i.e. He hath 
visited so as to make redemption, etc. The same verb occurs in ver. 
78. — [Xurpueiv, redemption^ However earnestly desired by Zacharias 
John was, yet tne former speaks first concerning Christ, and that, 
in an especial manner and most fully : he speaks of John only as it 
were in passing, ver. 76.^ — V. g.] 

69. Kipag, a horn) Ps. cxxxii. 17. This term signifies abundance 
and kingly strength. The article was not suitable to be added at 
that early period. So also ver. 68, 71, 78. Afterwards the fact of 
itself claimed these names more openly as belonging to Jesus Christ 
alone. — aarriplag, of salvation) In allusion to the name, Jesus : comp. 
ver. 71, 77. John only gave the knowledge of salvation : the Lord 
gave salvation itself — Aavti, David) Ps. cxxxii. 17 and 6. — rraibog) 
lyu, servant, Ps. cxxxii. 10. 

1 This verse shows his ' mouth ' was not yet ' opened :' therefore ' saying ' does 
not mean oral words. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

ST LUKE I, 70-74. 25 

70. KaSiieJXa,\riei, as He spake) The point at which Mary left off, 
ver. 55, is the same as that at which Zacharias now begins. — bia, eri- 
/larog, by the mouth) To prophesy cost the prophets no labour in so 
far as they received the power from God ; whatever it cost them,' 
was merely in so far as they had to put forth their prophecies to men 
hostile to them. They needed merely to lend their mouth [for God 
to supply the words] : nay, even " a mouth" was given thom, Luke 
xxi. 15. — ayiiav, holy) There was no prophet that was not holy:' 2 
Pet. i. 21 ; Heb. xi. 32, 33. — a-r almog, since the world began) Even 
from the very beginning there were prophets. 

71. 'SoiTfipiav, salvation) Understand, I say. The idea contained 
in an horn of salvation [ven 69], is repeated in a briefer form. \_A 
horn of salvation — salvation, I say, from our enemies, etc.] — /jbisowrav, 
who regard us with hatred) He describes the spiritual benefits in lan- 
guage still in conformity with the phraseology of the Old Testament, 
viz. language applicable to temporal aid. 

72. lloinsa,i) [to perform] by performing. — 'iXeog, the mercy) Mercy 
and remembrance of the covenant is the same as riDXI non, grace and 
truth. — f/,sra, with^) The antithetic word is ig, from [our enemies], 
ver. 71. — Tuv -ffarepuv, our fathers) long since deceased :' ch. xx. 37, 
38. — fivrig6riva,i, [to remember^ by remembering) An allusion to the 
name Zacharias.* 

73. "OpMv, ov) That is ofnov, h, [o'^xou in apposition to iiaSiixrig, ver. 
72.] It depends on [i^vneSrivai, [to remember] in remembrance of. — 
roD bavvoii) On this depends puffS'ivrag Xarpelisiv, i.e. douvai, ha punSevrig 
Xarpsxigu/ji^sv. The article indicates that the preceding infinitive, m^eai, 
is explained by this subsequent infinitive.' So also ver. 77 compared 
with the preceding words [iroi/jLacrai odoug aurov, rou doutai] : and also 
ver. 79, and ch. ii. 22, 24. 

74. 'AipoBug, without fear) The Fear of our Enemies, not fear of 

1 Balaam seems an exception. But perhaps Beng. means by ' sanctus ' con- 
secrated to God, and set apart from other men by God to His service. — Ed. and 

2 But Engl. "Vers. " promised to." Rather, as ver. 58, fiir airvis i " to per- 
form mercy in His dealings with our fathers." — Ed. and Tbansl. 

3 And yet still He is tlieir God: therefore the covenant still holds good — Ed. 
and Transl. 

* Which in Hebrew means one whom ike Lord remembers, from '^st, to remem- 
ber.. — Ed. and Transl. 

* The Genitive (toS So5j«0 is often used to express the reference va which a. 
thing is taken : as here, « to perform His mercy, viz. in respect to His granting 
to us." — Ed. and Tbansl. 

2f ST LUKE I. 75-79. 

the Lord Himself, and that a filial fear, is set aside : Heb. ii. 15, 
[To deliver them who, through /ear of death, were all their lifetime 
subject to bondage?[—Ka.Tfi{iiiv, that we might serve) This constitutes 
the Priesthood of the New Testament. 

75. 'El- bsiornri xa.1 8ixaiogw>i, in holiness and righteousness) The 
same combination of words occurs, Eph. iv. 24 ; 1 Thess. n. 10. 
Righteousness expresses conformity to the law : holiness, conformity 
to nature. — ^airas) on every day [all the several days'] : Heb. ii. 15. 

76. Ka/, and) Answering to what Zacharias has heretofore sung 
[prophetically "uttered], there now correspond those words which 
follow : concerning grace towards His people, ver. 77 answers to the 
previous /er. 68 ; concerning salvation, ver. 77 answers to ver. 69 ; 
concerning mercy, ver. 78 answers to ver. 72. — 'iraiiiov, thou child) 
How little soever thou art now. He does not call the infant by 
name. He speaks as a prophet, not as a parent. 

77. Vvuisiv — a<pi(Sii, knowledge — in [%] the remissioii) Heb. viii. 11, 
12 ; Jer. ix. 23. — h, in [Engl. Vers, by]) Construe in with salvation 
\_(surripia,g — Iv apgii], — aipeeii, remission) which is the Foundation of 

78. Ai&, through) Construe with apian, remission — through, etc. — 
iXeoug, of mercy) An allusion to the name John : [In Hebr. = the 
mercy ov grace of the Lord.] — '[jiriaxi'^iaro, hath visited Ms)He was 
the Saviour even before that He assumed human nature. For His 
incarnation was a visiting of us of Kis own free choice. — ^V. g.J — 
uvuToXri) So the LXX. render HDS, Zech. iii. 8, vi. 12 ; Jer. xxiii. 5 : 
for riDS is also said of the dawn of daylight. See John Gregor. 
Observ. c. 18, Tom. vii. Crit. col. 585, where there is a copious 
and admirable dissertation. There is a Metonymy of the Abstract 
for the Concrete, Day-spring [day-i'ising], i.e. the Sun-rising. See 
following verse [" to give light," etc., which applies to the sun itself, 
not to its rising]; Josh. ix. 1 ; Kev. xxii. 16. — iS, u-^ous, from on 
high) This is said concerning the Son of God in this passage, and 
concerning the Holy Ghost in ch. xxiv. 49 [Endued with power 
from on high] : comp. Gal. iv. 4, 6. So [The second man is the 
Lord] from heaven, 1 Cor. xv. 47. 

79. 'Em<pavai, SO as to give light to [to shine in full manifestation 
on]) Again comp. Ps. cxxxii. 17 [I have ordained a lamp for mine 
anointed]. — roTg — xaSrifiimg, them that sit) Comp. Matt. iv. 15, note on 
the passage of Isaiah quoted there. — enoni em^ Savdrov, in ddrh- 
ness and the shadow of death) These are conjoined as their opposites, 
light and life. 

ST LUKE I. 80.-II. 1-4. 27 

80. Hugavs, grew) in body. — iv raTi Ip^/ioig, in the deserts) Here the 
more inward and remote parts of the desert are denoted ; but in 
Matt. iii. 1 [" the wilderness of Judea," where John began his 
preaching] : it is the exterior desert that is meant. He remained 
exempt from contact with [lit. rubbing witK] hfe in its ordinary and 
polluted forms. The Forerunner of Christ, and Christ Himself, 
had experience themselves, and gave a specimen to others, of both 
kinds of life; and indeed, first, of a solitary mode of life, afterwards 
also of a public one. — stag, even up to) Ch. iii. 2, 3. 


1. Kalffapog, from Caesar) Therefore the time was come, in which 
the Messiah should be born.'^ Let the nrpurn, first, be also taken 
into account, ver. 2. — oixov/Mevr}!/, the world) Therefore the whole hu- 
man race has the privilege of a tie of relationship to Jesus, who was 
pleased to permit Himself to be inserted in the same census-roll with 
these, the many [the multitudes of manldnd]. By Synecdoche [a 
part put for the whole, or vice versa] the portion of the world sub- 
jected to Rome is so called : and Judea was included in that portion. 

2. Upwrti, first) first in respect to the Jews, who had previously 
paid tribute without being entered [registered] in a census-roU. — 
riyi/jt-ovivovne) when P. Sulpicius Quirinus was governor of Syria. 
See Ord. Temp., p. 233 [Ed. ii., p. 203]. The terms fiyifj:,uv and 
Tiysfiovivsiv have a wide meaning, ch. iii. 1, xxi. 12 ; Matt. ii. 6. — 
■rfig 'Suplot.g, of Syria) Judea was an appendage [a dependency at- 
tached] to Syria ; so greatly reduced at that time was the power of 
Judea [which was now subject to the authority of the Romans, as for- 
merly to that of the Chaldeans, the Persians, and the Greeks succes- 
sively ; yet, notwithstanding, Juda was still a peculiar tribe, tJaB", dis- 
tinct from the rest, and even still enjoyed the privilege of retaining its 
own magistrates, DVpno- So the prophecy which Jacob had spoken, 
Gen. xlix. 10, was fulfilled. — V. g.] 

3. E/'s Hv iSlav To'X/v, into his own city) Joseph seems to have left 
Bethlehem only a short while before. 

4. O'Jmu, of the house) TIte house, which is the whole, and the far 

' 111 accordance with the prophecy, Gen. xlix. 10. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

28 ST LUKE II. 5-7. ,, 

mily [farpia], which is the part, are here conjoined ; inasmuch as 
the Jiouse of David at that time was not much wider in extent than 
his family. l_For there is no indication to be found that, at the time 
whdn the parents of Jesus betook themselves from Nazareth to Beth- 
lehem, and Jesus Himself was bom at Bethlehem, there were others of 
the family of David who dwelt in the same place : and, moreover, 
whoever of the posterity of David were living in the land of Israel, 
must have betaken themselves to Bethlehem at that time, on account of 
the census. Even for this reason alone Jesus ought to have been 
acknowledged as the true Messiah, nor was any one else capable of 
comparison with Him in this respect (as regards the claim to the 
Messiahship). — Harm., p. 49.] 

5. ' Amyfd'i^aB^cx.i, to be enrolled [Engl. Yers. to be taxed]) to give 
in his name. The middle voice. — yvmixl, o'ueri iyxii^, his wife, being 
pregnant) This, which was mentioned in the first chapter, is repeated, 
because it was so set down also in the census-roll, among the records 
of the Romans. 

6. "ExiT, there) Mary does not seem to have known that, according 
to the meaning of the prophecy, she must bring forth at Bethlehem : 
but a heavenly Providence guided all things, that it should be so 
brought to pass. 

7. "Ersxi, she brought forth) O much wished-for birth, without 
which we ourselves might well wish that we had never been born ! 
But do thou thyself, reader, see that thou makest sure of the benefit 
of that nativity. — ^V. g.J — 'rpuroroxov, her first-born) A son is so called, 
before whom none else has been born, not a son who is born before 
others. The Hebrew 1133 has a more absolute meaning. — lavapya- 
vaiaiv, wrapt in swaddling clothes) So the Wisd. of Sol. vii. 4, ei^ 
e-TTctpydvo/g dvsrpdfinv : therefore cmpyava, swaddling clothes, are not 
in themselves as it were a thing worthless and torn.^ The rest of 
the attentions which used to be bestowed on infants just born, as de- 
scribed in Ezek. xvi. 4, are not expressed here. — h rn (pdrvn, in the 
manger) ver. 12. A place put in antithesis to the 'inn,' the place 
for the reception of men. It is probable that some imitations of 
this manger were a:fterwards made at Bethlehem for the sake of pil- 
grims (just as they were made in every part of the Mount of Olives), 
some one of which was afterwards accounted as the very place 
wherein the infant Jesus lay. The Saviour had a manger for His 
bed. He was, when a child, destitute of the convenience of a rock- 

' The word is used oirags in Aristoph. Ach. 430.— Ed. and Transl. 

ST LUKE n. 8-11, 29 

mg cradle, but yet was without taint of impatience. — iv rSi xaraXo- 
/iar;, in the inn) Even in the present day, there is seldom found a 
place [room] for' Christ in inns. 

8. Xwpif, region) in which David also had fed his sheep. — ipuKaxas, 
watch [plur.]) by turns. 

9. "AyytXog, the angel) In every instance of Christ's humiliation, 
measures were taken by a kind of befitting protest [precaution against 
His humility causing His dignity to be lost sight of], to secm:e the 
recognition of His divine glory. In this passage this was effected 
by the announcement of the angel : in His circumcision, by means 
of the giving to Him the name ' Jesus' [= God Saviour] : in His 
purification, by the testimony of Simeon : in His baptism, by the 
objection John the Baptist raised [John forbade Him, saying, " I 
have need to be baptized of Thee," etc., Matt. iii. 14] : in His passion, 
by ways and means far exceeding in number all the previous in- 

10. Xapav, joy) Express mention of joy is here made, inasmuch as 
the causes for that joy were not as yet so clearly manifested : on the 
other hand, the angel who announced the resurrection does not ex- 
pressly exhort to joy, inasmuch as the cause for joy was manifest, 
ch. xxiv. 5. — esrai, shall be) even by means of the report of mere 
shepherds. — vavTi ra Xaa, to all the people) The angel speaks to the 
shepherds, who were Israelites, in a way such as was appropriate to 
that early time. Comp. ch. i. 33, note.^ [Afterwards it was about 
to be realized that the same blessing should be vouchsafed to the Gen- 
tiles also, ver. 32. But this fact was at that time hidden from the 
angels themselves, as Eph. iii. 10 implies. — ^V. g.] 

11. 'T/^tA', unto you) the shepherds, unto Israel, and unto all man- 
kind. — XpigTog, Christ) ver. 26. All ought to have retained in their 
memory so clear a communication [revelation], whilst the Lord was 
growing up to maturity. The name Jesus is not added, inasmuch 
as it afterwards was given Him at His circumcision, ver. 21 : but the 
force of that name is represented [is vividly expressed] in the term, 
Saviour. And so also in the Old Testament it is often virtually 
expressed under the term, Salvation. — Kipiog, the Lord) An argu- 
ment for joy. An exalted appellation. [Matt. ii. 6.] — sv fro^", in 
the city) Construe with is born. By this word the place is pomted 

1 T? ?i«^ is not, as Engl. Vers, implies, all people of the world ; but o x«oV is 
peculiarly applied to the people of Israel ; conformably to the fact that the angel 
was addressing Israelites, who would understand o ?i«oV in this sense alone.— Ed. 
and Transl. 

so ST LUKE II. 12 -U. 

out, as by the expression, this day, the time is indicated. — Aau/3, 
David) This periphrasis refers the shepherds to the prophecy, which 
was then being fulfilled. 

12. -^niiirov, a sign) Even the lowly garb itself was a sign to be- 
lievers. — j8^f«)05, a babe) The article is not added. [But Engl. Vers. 
the babe.^ 

13. nxTihg, a multitude) The article is not added. — arpanac, 
[army], host) A glorious appellation. Here, however, the host [army] 
are announcing peace [unlike other armies, which bring war]. 

14. [13] Kiymrm, saying) This whole hymn consists of two mem- 
bers, and has a doxology, or thanksgiving, which in its turn consists 
of two members, and an Etiology [or an assigning of the reason 
(See Append.)] for the doxology, as the particle xa/, and [between 
So^a — 02c5 and iir'i y. ilpfivt}], implies, it not being likely that it is so 
placed without design. The whole may be thus paraphrased: 
Glory (be) to God in the highest, and on earth (may there be) peace ! 
"Why 1 Since there is good will [' beneplacitum,' God's good plea- 
sure and grace] among men. Iren. i. 3, c. 11, fol. 216, ed. Grab, is 
in conformity with this view. However, the second clause may be 
taken in closer connection with the first than with the third, so that 
there may be an Asyndeton [copula omitted] before the third clause ; 
as in Jer. xxv. 18 ; 1 Sam. iii. 2. See Nold. Concord, part. p. 
269. — 6o|a, glory) Implying the mystery of redemption, and its fruit 
and final consummation. Moreover we ought to observe the double 
antithesis : 1. between, in the highest, and, on earth; 2. between, to 
God, and, among men. — h i-^lsroig, in the highest) By the incarna- 
tion there are called forth praises given to God by the noblest of 
His creatures. They do not, however, say, in heaven, where even 
the angels dwell ; but, employing a rare expression, in the highest, a 
place to which the angels do not aspire : Heb. i. 3, 4. They wish their 
giving of praise to ascend to the highest region. — s'?r!) We are to 
observe the difference between this particle [on earth] and the pre- 
ceding h [in the highest]. — yijg, earth) not merely in Judea ; nor now 
any longer merely in heaven. The earth is wider in its comprehen- 
sion [meaning] than men : for the earth is the theatre of action even 
of the angels. The dwellers in heaven say, in [on'] earth ; the dwell- 
ers on earth say, in heaven [" Peace in heaven, and glory in the 
highest," at Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem], ch. xix. 38. — 
t'l em, peace) ver. 29. — a,v6pumg, men) not merely among the Jews. 
Heretofore men had been regarded and spoken of unfavourably 
among angels : now these latter, as if in wondei^ give utterance to 

ST LUKE II. 15-22. 31 

what seemed a paradox, good will among men ! — siSoxia, good will) 
The newly-manifested pleasure [favourable inclination] of God 
towards the whole human race [name], in his Well-Beloved. 

15. O/ avSpciimi, the men [the shepherds]) representing, as they did 
in some measure, the whole human race. Comp. ver. 14, among 
men ; in antithesis to, the angels. Men came to Jesus ; whereas 
angels did their office from a distance. — bciXiafiBv — sws, let us go on- — 
even to) Hence it may be inferred that the shepherds had their house, 
not at Bethlehem, but in some locality between which and Bethle- 
hem midway was situated broadwise the region where they kept 
watch over their flocks ; ver. 20 is in agreement with this view. 
Comp. Acts ix. 38, dnXSih 'ioii (auruv) fjfiZv, " to come on even to 
(them) us." On this account [owing to their having to go forward 
and back over so much space] the matter became the more known 
through their means. — rJ yiyovhg, which has come to pass) They be- 
lieve that the event has already come to pass, from the announce- 
ment of the angel. 

16. 'Avsupov, they found) as it had been announced. 

17. Aiiyvupidav, they made known abroad) even before their 
departure : see ver. 20. [They were the earliest Evangelists.— 


19. y.unTripti, was keeping up) So ver. 51. She may have borne 
her testimony to the facts a long while after: Acts i. 14. — [ravra, these) 
Without doubt the shepherds reported the angels' words to Mary 
also. — V. g.] — tfu/ijSaXXouffa, comparing [pondering] them) cdnsidering 
the several parts in their mutual relation. 

20. "Uxougav, they heard) from Mary. — xa,6iic, even as) What had 
been said and what they saw and heard tallied together. — ■sXa'kr}6yi, 
it was told) by the angels. 

21. Utpiri/iiTr sxXrjBri, that they should circumcise: He was called) 
The circumcision is not recorded in so direct terms as the naming of 
Him, inasmuch as the latter was divinely ordered by express com- 
mand. — [w^ ro\J ayy'sXou, by the angel) ch. i. 26, 31. — V. g.] — ■irph nu, 
before that) There is hereby exquisitely expressed the good pleasure 
of the Father in Christ. [And it is implied at the same time, that 
this infant of (in) Himself did not need circumcision. — V. g.J Comp. 
Gal. i. 15. — h 77) xoi>!cf, in the womb) viz. of His mother. So £> 
xoiXicf is used absolutely, Jer. i. 5, p22. 

22. ToC za%;(r^oD) SeeApp. Crit., Ed.ii. p. 174. Never is aiJrSy* 

' AB read airui/. lien. 187, and 2 MSS. of Memph. Vers, omit a\jT^>-~ 

82 ST LUKE II. 23-26. 

SO placed, as that it should be understood of rh «alSiov, and His 
mother, to be supplied as the antecedents. Neither Jesus Himself 
nor His mother needed purification. There are some who interpret 
a'jrZv as the Jews ; but Luke mentions purification, not as a custom 
of the Jews, but as a divine institution. — rh nfj^ov Maigiae, the law of 
Moses) In a higher point of view, it is presently after called the law 
of the Lord [ver. 23, 24]. — avnyayov, they led [brought] Him up to) 
This is properly said of one more matured, as slaayayeTv, [when the 
parents brought in] to lead in, introduce, ver. 27. This was a pre- 
lude to His future visits to the temple. — 'jrapaerriaai, to present) This 
is presently explained in ver. 23. This was additional to the puri- 
fication, which was done in the case of every child-birth, not merely 
in the case of the first-born. 

23. Tlav apBiv iiavoTyov fjifirpav, ayiov rSi Ku^/w -/XriSridiTai) LXX. JliX. 
xiii. 2, ayiadov fhai, a.r.X. ; Ex. xiii. 12, a(popisTg •jrati diavoTyov fifirpav to. 
apSivixii, tSi Kvplui. 

24. &ve!av, a sacrifice) viz. that of the poor. Lev. xii. 8. — ^sDyos 
rpuyovciiv 5] ^ilio vioesoug 'jripisripai) LXX. Lev. xii. 8, duo Tpuyovag ri dvi 
vioffgaijg TipidTspZu. The same Translators however have Zi^yog rpuyivm, 
x.r.X., Lev. V. 11. 

25. 'UpovgaXri//,, Jerusalem) The Saviour was shown to this city at 
the very earliest time. — Su/aewv, Siineon) the first prophet who said 
that Christ had come ; and the one by whose instrumentality God 
proved that He, who was being presented to Him, was His First- 
begotten. — duaiog, just) in the discharge of duties. — suXajSi^s) Vulg. 
timoratus^ in the disposition of his soul towards God. — rposSfxofitvog 
Tapax.'kritsiv rou 'lapa^X, waiting for the consolation of Israel) not merely 
as Jacob, Gen. xlix. 18 [I have waited for thy salvation, O Lord], 
looking to distant times ; but as by this time approaching, ver. 38. 
Gradually the expectation of believers became concentrated into a 
shorter compass [more brought to a point], as is the case now with 
respect to His glorious second coming. — eir ahrh, upon him) as a 
prophet. See following verse. 

26. ''Hv, it was) perhaps for a long time back : although the old 
age in the case of Anna is specially noticed, it is not so in the case 
of Simeon. — /^jj ihTv — 5i 'tbri, that he should not see — before that he 
saw) A sweet antithesis. — -xph % before that) Moreover, when he had 

Mmaias. D reads airoS: ahc Vulg. ejus: Rec. Text, avrvis. — Ed. and 


^ " One whose character was marked by reverential fear :" this answers to 
the idea oi caution or circumspection which is in lii'hci.^s, — Ed. and Tkansl. 

ST LUKE XI. 2r-30. 33 

seen Him, lie was Immediately about to depart ; as appears from ver. 
29, according to Thy word. — rh Xpisrhv Kuplov, the LorcTs Christ 
I Anointed]) So, the Christ \_Anointed] of God, eh. ix. 20. It is He 
whom the Lord hath anointed, and in comparison with Whom God 
acknowledges no other as His Anointed. 

27. 'Ev ra ileayaytTv, when they were bringing in) For it was after- 
wards that they went through the ceremony of offering the sacrifice, 
ver. 39. This was by way of a declaration, that it was for no ordi- 
nary cause that Jesus was submitting to the law of purification. 

28. Aiiros, [of] himself) of his own accord. — ids^aro, he took Him 
up) by a Divine motion : he thus meeting the Divine goodness with a 
corresponding expression of his sense of it. 

29. Nuv, now) Simeon receives and accepts a double benefit con- 
jointly [at once] in accordance with the Divine promise, viz. the 
sight of the Saviour and a happy departure. The ancient fathers 
have formed many conjectures as to what John may have announced 
to the dead after his departure : it is strange, if they framed no 
similar suppositions as to Simeon. — A'ttoXUis, Thou lettest depart^) 
The same verb occurs. Gen. xv. 2; Num. xx. 29; Job iii. 6, 16 
(13). — Asemra, Lord) AcavoTrig properly signifies a master [' herus, 
viz. of slaves, servants]. Acts iv. 24 ; 2 Tim. ii. 21 ; Rev. vi. 10. — 
xarA rh prifid eoxi, according to Thy word) The Song of Simeon exactly 
corresponds to the word of the promise. For the words are respec- 
tively parallel in each : the Lord's Christ [ver. 26], and T'hy [the 
Lord's] Salvation [ver. 30] : " before he had seen" [ver. 26], and 
mine eyes have seen" [ver. 30] : Death [ver. 26], and Thou lettest de- 
part [29].— iv lipiivri, in peace) in perfect peace. 

30. eJSov, have seen) Even his hands held Him : but Simeon 
adapts his words to those of the promise, ver. 26. — rh gcorripwv eov, 
means of salvation) So ch. iii. 6. The language is appropriately put 
in the abstract, inasmuch as referring to an infant, -Tripi roD vaiSwv, 
before that He completed the work of salvation : subsequently He is 
called the Saviour in the concrete, the appellation which already the 
Heavenly host had applied to Him in the way of ' Ampliatio ' [A 
figure whereby a thing or person is described, not according to what 
he now is, but what he is about to be. So the angels, in ver. 11 
above, called Jesus SuTrip. — Append.]. Is. xlix. 6, 9, — r^v SiaeTop&v 
•■oC I2PAHA s'!ri(!Tp's-^ar idoii d'edinxd, as iii diaS/jursv ylxouf, s/'s *n2 

' Not a prayer, but an expression of thankful acquiescence in God's will. — 
E3. and Tbansl. 


84 ST LUKE II. 31-34. 

E0NnN, roC ilml ffs s/'s SnTHPIAN mi isx^-t"^ ''^5 yr^i.—^kyowa rot; 
h SE<r/io?5, l^i-KhTi, Kocl ToTs h rffl gycorii, ANAKAATO0HNAI. Thy 
means of Salvation, i.e. the Christ. For it was this very Christ that 
even then Simeon was seeing : and it is He whom Simeon calls a 
Light and the Glory. 

31. Kardt ■!rp6ec,'!rov, before the face) The most conspicuous place for 
showing the light to all was the temple itself.— wai-™!', of all) not 
merely of the Jews.— XaSv, of all peoples) It is hereby intimated, 
that hereafter there would not be merely one peculiar people. Comp. 
ver. 32. 

32. (bae, a light) This stands in apposition with to gar^piov gov, 
thy means of salvation, ver. 30. — e!g amxdXv^n) that God and His 
Christ may he revealed to the Gentiles, and that they may be re- 
vealed to their own selves in His light. — Ihuv, of the Gentiles) Con- 
strue with pSs, a light [but Engl. Vers, with amxaXv-^iv, to lighten 
the Gentiles'] : a light of the Gentiles, and one about to be revealed 
to them [the same] : see Rev. xxi. 23, 24. — xa/ So^av, and the glory) 
Construe with <pug, a light [i.e. in apposition to ri gurnpiov gov, ver. 
30], there being no s/'s, in, understood. Light, and glory or splen- 
dour, are synonymous ; but in such a way as that the glory ex- 
presses something greater than a light, and implies therefore the 
peculiar privilege of Israel, on account of its especial tie of connec- 
tion with this [Him the] King of Glory.- — 'igparjX, Israel) Even 
after the call of the Gentiles, Israel shall enjoy this glory. 

33. Qav/jidl^ovTis, marvelling) For they began to understand more 
and more, how glorious things werfe those which had been spoken 
concerning Jesus, before He was born : and they were now hearing 
similar things from Simeon and others, whom they did not suppose 
as yet to be aware of the fact. 

34. EvXoyriciv, blessed) Ti3, bidding them farewell with a blessing, 
after he had seen their pious wonder. — avroig, them) Joseph and 
Mary: not Jesus Himself: see Heb. vii. 7. — e/Ve, he said) His 
faithful prediction of coming adversities succeeds to their joyful ad- 
miration [wonder], and acts as an antidote to the abuse of it. — vpo; 
Mapia/i, to Mary) rather than to Joseph, of whom the last mention 
occurs in ver. 51 ; see note there. [Re is therefore supposed, with 
probal^ility, to have died before Jesus reached His thirtieth year. 
— V. g.] — ouros, He \_This child]) concerning Whom thou dost 
wonder that such things are spoken. — xeTrai) He, who is lying 
[alluding to which xiTrai is used ; Engl. Vers, loses this point, " is 
set"1 in my arms ; He is set (laid as in a building), as a precious 

ST LUKE II, 85. 3ft 

stone, for the fall and rising again. It is to be observed, that these 
things were not foretold in the prediction of the angel, ver. 10, 11, 
ch. i. 30, 31, but were added by a holy man. It was the province 
of the angel only elayytXi^jg^ai, to bring good tidings. — xal avderam, 
and the rising again) And here ought not to be taken as a mere dis- 
junctive : comp. 2 Cor. ii. 15 ; for many of those same persons who 
fall rise up again also. Eom. xi. 11, 12. He Himself is the resur- 
rection, as He Himself is the sign. — mXXm, of many) So ver. 35. — 
eri/iiibv avTiXiyofitm, a sign, which is [about to be] spoken against) A 
striking Oxymoron. Signs in other cases do away with all contra- 
diction : but this sign shall be an object of contradiction, although, 
considered in itself, it is an evident sign to faith ; Is. Iv. 13, LXX. 
For in the very fact that He is a light. He is conspicuous and sig- 
nalized [insignis, in reference to signum, which is its derivation]. 
It will be a great spectacle. The mutual contradictions of believers 
and unbeHevers, with respect to Jesus, as also the thoughts, ver. 35, 
of unbelievers against Jesus, are chiefly recorded by John, ch. v. 
and following chapters. They contradicted Him in words and acts ; 
Heb. xii. 3. It was not yet the seasonable time, that His passion, 
cross, and death should be more expressly predicted. When Jesus 
is being for the first time presented in the temple, adversities are 
declared as awaiting Him. When Pie was for the last time in the 
temple. He Himself spake words not unlike those of Simeon ; Matt 
xxiii. 37. 

35. Kai eou de aur^g, and indeed thine own) In antithesis to ouroj, 
This child. — rfiv -^v^^v, soul) Answering to ix t. xapdiuv, of many 
hearts. — po//,ipaia, a sword) po//.ipaia, is a greater ^l<pog than f^ay^aipa [a 
dirk], and yet it often does less injury than the other. There is im- 
plied her grief on account of the contradiction of the world against 
Jesus, or even some kind of internal temptation, most acute, but of 
short duration, affecting Mary, and in fine made beneficial to her 
salvation. For the holy Virgin did not understand [comprehend] 
all things ; ver. 33, 50. The sword may have pierced through her 
soul, for instance, on the occasion mentioned in the end of ver. 48, 
Mark iii. 31, John xix. 25. Who would suppose that Mary was 
perfected without internal temptations? Her faith attained its 
height by proving victorious through the height of temptation. 
[Therefore, whereas heretofore only most delightful things were men- 
tioned in connection with her, something of a bitter is now announced 
even to her, who was Blessed among women. All, it seems, have to 
bear the part assigned to them in chastisement, — ^V. g.] Yet never- 

SS ST LUKE II. 36-40. 

theless it is the soul, not the heart, which is put in antithesis to the 
spirit ; Heb. iv. 12. The hearts of many are agitated with thoughts : 
the soul of Mary only experienced the sword. Comp. the phrases, 
Ps. xhi. 11, Ixxiii. 21.— 6Vws, that) This expresses the consequence 
of the greatest adversity.— «w) ao is not redundant {■jrapeXxsi), i.e. 
it imphes here, [in order that] by that very fact.— Ix voXXZv, on the 
part of many) So rnXXiiv, of many, ver. 3i.—diciXoyifff/,ot) the thoughts, 
good as well as bad, coming from hearts good as well as bad : whence 
it is that the contradiction results. Both faith and unbelief are 
in the heart, and are put forth by the mouth. Kom. x. 8, 9, 21, xv. 
5, 6 ; Acts xiii. 46, xiv. 2 ; 2 Cor. iv. 13, vi. 11 ; 2 Tim. ii. 12, 13. 

36. *avou)iX, Phanuel) The father of Anna is named, rather than 
her husband. He was as yet known as one who looked for redemp- 
tion: ver. 38. — 'Aarip, Aser) See 2 Chron. xxx. 11. 

37. 'Er5», of years) These were the years of her whole life, 
not of her widowhood only. It was persons advanced in age who 
were the first after the angels in doing honour to the birth of the 
Christ : so that it might hereby be made evident that the salvation 
brought in by Him relates to the better life.' — oydor}xoira Tiaadpuy, 
eighty-four) Therefore Anna had been about twenty-four years old 
when Jerusalem had come under the power of the Romans, led by 
Pompey as their general. — vrieriiaig, fastings) even in her old age. 

38. ' AvSm/MXoyiTro) in return iov the Divine favour, she made public 
acknowledgments. The word answers to the Hebrew min.- — [r^pl 
auTou, concerning Him) viz. Jesus as being the Redeemer. — V. g.] 

waai, to all) There were therefore no few who looked for redemp- 
tion. Others, although they believed that Messiah would come, 
were not looking for Him. — Iv, in) to those who were in Jerusalem 
looking for redemption.^ 

40. Uu^avi, grew) in body ; i.e. with the growth of an infant : 
but in ver. 52 His progress [increase] as a boy is referred to, -jrpo- 
exovTiv, He made progress. The former includes the period from 
His first to His twelfth year : the latter, from His twelfth to His 
thirtieth year. Even subsequently [a spiritual increase (or rather, 

1 Which succeeds this life. For old people could have derived no good from 
the salvation, if it affected merely the life which they were so soon about to leave. 

2 Thus Beng. joins h 'lepova. with 'TrUaii/ rols ■irpoahx- : not with \inpuniv, re- 
demption in Jerusalem, as Engl. Vers. But BJc Vulg. Memph. Theb. Syr. 
Iren. 187, omit h, which requires the connection of \vrpaaiii with 'Itpova., the 
redemption of Jerusalem. k\)d, however, support the h of the Rec. Text. 
— Ed. 

ST LUKE II. 41-43. 87 

full perfection, and fulness) is implied], in ch. iv. 1, 14. The men- 
tion of phases of progress is joined with His Presentation in the 
temple, with His remaining in the temple on the occasion of the 
Passover, and with His baptism. — -ixparaiouro •xvihij^an, waxed strong 
in spirit) as compared with John, [of whom the same thing is said, 
but] of whom it is not added, as here, that He was filled with wisdom ; 
ch. i. 80. Wisdom is the highest of the endowments of the soul. 
As to the piety of Jesus whilst still a little child, see Ps. xxii. 
10, 11 ; the same inference may be drawn by reasoning from the 
less to the greater -^ Luke i. 15, 44. — x^^"'^ the favour [grace] of 
God was towards Him. Afterwards He became known to men. 

41 . Kar eVos, year by year) Without fear of Archelaus. [Inasmuch 
as that prince had been removed after a nine years' government, and 
had been driven into exile, the Saviour was able in safety to go to 
Jerusalem. — Harm., p. 58.] 

42."Ei-uv bdihina, tivelve years old) This step in the age must doubt- 
less have had something remarkable connected with it in the case 
of pious boys, judging from the blessed example of the Saviour, who 
was wont to adapt Himself to the times of human age (to the epochs 
observed in the life of man) : ch. iii. 23. No doubt from that time 
He evely year came to the Passover. [Moreover the specimen of His 
glory given in this passage, dividing as it does the period of thirty 
years that elapsed from the nativity to the baptism of Christ into 
two almost equal parts, revived the remembrance of those miraculous 
facts (connected with His birth), the forgetting of which might 
otherwise have seemed to admit of excuse. — Harm., p. 59.] 

43. [TiXiiueavraiv, when they had completed (ftilfilled). It is not 
always profitable to be satisfied with what is trite and customary. — 
V. g. — {iir'iiiiinv, tarried behind) We may presume, on chronological 
grounds, that this happened on a Sunday. Thus then we have the 
prelude to the subsequent celebration of the Lord's day. — Harm., p. 
58.] — 'irjsoug 6 TaTc, the boy Jesus) Luke describes in successive order, 
xcih^rji [as he promises in his preface, ch. i. 3], Jesus as the fruit of 
the womb, ch. i. 42 ; as the babe, ch. ii. 12 ; the child, ver. 40 ; the 
boy, in this ver. ; the man (an7/> Tfop^r^js, a man that was a prophet), 
ch. xxiv. 19, with which comp. John i. 30. His full stature was 
not manifested at once, as in the case of the First-formed Man ; but 
He hallowed by participation all the successive steps of human life. 

1 If John the Forerunner was " filled with the Holy Ghost even trom his 
mother's womb," a fortiori the Lord Jesus. — Ed. 

38 ST LUKE II. 44-40. 

Old age (alone) was unsuitable to Him.— na/ oun syv(a, and did not 
know) Judg. xiv. 6, 9 (the Antitype to Samson, who told not Ms 
father and mother the first of the mighty acts he did in the Spint). 
[Jesus might have informed them of the fact by a single word ;^ but 
it was becoming that His wisdom should be proved demonstratively 
in their absence. For thus He showed, that He was not indebted 
to them for the wisdom which He had : comp. ver. 50. He gave 
satisfactory proof thereby, that it was not they, but Himself, who 
was fully adequate to direct Himself, and that His subjection to 
them, ver. 51, is of the freest kind. — ^V. g.] 

44. Nofileavreg, supposing) Hence it may be gathered, that Jesus 
was watched by His parents, in a manner not very unlike that in 
which many parents are wont to watch (look after) their children^ 
very often letting them go out of their sight. — fi/j,epag odhv) So the 
LXX. 6&b ruiipag, 1 Kings xix. 1, 4. 

46. TpiTi, three) A mystical number. It was the same number of 
days that, whilst lying dead. He was regarded by His disciples as 
lost; ch. xxiv. 21. See Ord. Temp., p. 234. — b r» hpSi, in the 
temple) in the outer courts of the temple. — ■/.akZ^ofuvov h /jAsm, sitting 
' in the midst) for the sake of dignity, and not in the fashion of one 
who was learning, or of one who was teaching, but of one holding 
a conference with others : comp. ver. 47. — sm-epairuvra, asking ques- 
tions) He was proposing the questions, and solving them in His 
answers : ver. 47. 

48. Uphg abrh, to Him) This expression, inasmuch is in the 
beginning of the clause, is emphatic. To Him she ought not to have 
spoken so. — 17 //,riTrip, His mother) Joseph did not speak : the tie which 
bound the mother to Him was stronger. — e/Ve, said) publicly before 
all. — ri) What ? not Why ? What hast thou done for us^ by this 
way of acting [His conduct] ? — 6duvu>/j,i]ici, sorrowing) No doubt the 
heart of Mary turned over and revolved many things in thought 
during these three days. Comp. ver. 35. 

49. E/Ve, He said) In a kind tone, without any agitation. — r/, 
what,^ why) This is the first recorded word of Jesus, [and contains 
a summary of all His actions. — V. g.] With it may be compared 
His last words, as well before His death, as also before His ascension, 
Acts i. 7, 8. He did not blame them, because they lost Him ; but 

' •' Quid nobis confecisti ?' implying that He had effected nothing by the de- 
lay, but the giving of trouble to His parents Ed. 

2 WTiat reason was there that ye sought me : as she had asked t/ • so His re- 
ply begins with the same word. — Ep. 

ST LUKE II. 50, 51. 89 

because tliey thought it necessary to seek for Him ; and He inti- 
mates both that He was not lost, and that He could have been 
found anywhere else but in the temple. — oiix fidine, did ye not know) 
They ought to have known by the so many proofs which had been 
given. To know what is needful, tends to produce tranquiUity of 
mind. — roT;) Comp. John xvi. 32 ["Ye shall be scattered every 
man to his own ;" where the Margin of Engl. Bible has " to his own 
liome"], ra "Sia. — roij UaTpo; /ji,ov, of my Father) Whose claim on 
Jesus is of [infinitely] older standing than that of Joseph and 
Mary, [and Whom He had known from His tender years, without 
requiring any instruction in that respect on the part of His parents, 
who, we may take it for granted, were not aware of the fact. — V. g.] 
By that very fact. He declares Himself Lord of the temple : He 
afterwards avowed this more openly, John ii. 16 ; Matt. xxi. 12, 
13. [Moreover the same Being, whom He looked to (had regard to) 
in His first words as recorded by the Evangelist, He looked to also 
in His last, namely. His Father, saying, " Father, into Thy hands 
I commend My spirit" (Luke xxiii. 46). — Harm., p. 59.] — diT, it is 
necessary) He thus informs them that He has not violated the 
obedience due to them ; and yet He thereby, in some measure, de- 
clares Himself emancipated from their control, and whets the atten- 
tion of His parents; ver. 51. — ilm! //.i, that I be) Comp. Heb. iii. 6. 

50. Ou amrix.av, they did not understand) Therefore He had not 
learned this from them, or from the other teachers, ver. 47, 48. 
Not long before He had spoken concerning the Father, and that 
not ineffectively. 

51. [e/c: Na^apjr, to Nazareth) Li that place, wherein men were 
supposing that nothing good resided, He who was the only good 
man was now staying. — V. g.] — u-!roTae<!6/ii]iog, subject) of His own 
free will. Marvellous was the subjection of Him, to whom all 
things are subject. Even previously He had been subject to them ; 
but this is expressly mentioned now, when it might seem that He 
could have by this time exempted Himself from their control. 
There was not even vouchsafed to the angels such an honour as 
was vouchsafed to the parents of Jesus. — avroTg, unto them) After 
this passage there is no mention of Joseph ; so that it is probable 
that Joseph died a short while after, and that Jesus experienced 
the trials to which orphans are subjected. See Mark vi. 2 ; John 
ii. 12. The Theol. du Cceur, Part i. pp. 9, 10. has marvellous things 
respecting S. Joseph. — dinripu) So the lxx. Gen. xxxvii. 11, 

40 ST LUKE II. 52.- III. 1- 

52. Upoe,coTTi, He progressed) In accordance with [or in respect 
to\ human nature, and the wisdom of human nature ; and that m 
actual fact, but far above the measure of an ordinary man.— ffop/qt, 
in wisdom) in the soul.— )jX/;£/>) in stature of body in proportion to 
His years. Therefore He must have reached the due and proper 
height of a man. — %«?/", in grace) in favour, owing to the endow- 
ments of soul and body, which come from grace, the more tender 
years are especially commended. — vapa. Qiip, with God) John viu. 
29 [The Father hath not left Me alone ; for I do always those things 
that please Him].— av^fw-n-o/s, with men) The world is more ready to 
feel anger towards adult men, than towards youths who are not yet 
engaged in any public office or duty. 


1. 'Ek irti, in the year) The most important of all epochs of the 
Church : Marl^ i. 1 (Comp. 1 Kings vi. 1 as to the epoch of the 
temple) ; with which also the thirtieth year of Christ is associated, 
ver. 23. Here as it were the whole scene of the New Testament is 
tlirown open. [The year 27 of the common era, verging,towards 
autumn, was then in course of progress. Three years before the 
beginning of that era, Christ was born, and Herod died. — ^V. g.j 
Not even the nativity of Christ, or His death, resurrection, and as- 
cension, have their dates so precisely and definitively marked as this : 
ch. ii. 1. Moreover the mode of marking the date is not taken from 
the Roman consuls, but from the emperors. Scripture is wont accu- 
rately to define the epochs of great events : this, in the case of the 
New Testament, is done in the present passage alone ; and even for 
this reason alone, this book of Luke is a necessary part of the 
Scriptures of the New Testament. See Ord. Temp., p. 219, etc. 
[Ed. ii. p. 191, etc.] — Kaieapog, Ccesar) The Church has its exist- 
ence [manifests itself externally] in the state [the commonwealth] : 
on this account, the epoch receives its denomination from the 
empire. [The first year of Tiberius, as Luke counts it, begins with 
the month Tisri of that Jewish year, in which Augustus died. It 
was in the same year as John that Jesus began, i.e. made a be- 
ginning of His public proceedings. — JVot. Crit.'] — xal, and) Iturwa 
and the region of Trachonitis, beyond Jordan, form two tetrarchies. 

ST LUKE III. 2-5. 41 

— AS/X))v^f, Abilene) beyond the region of Trachonitis towards the 

2. 'E^r/ apx'ipii^f, under the High priesthood of, etc.) The singular 
number ; which does not however prevent Caiaphas being included: 
see Acts iv. 6. Just as in genealogies the usual Hebrew mode of 
expression is Sons in the plural number, even though only one son 
follows, viz. because often there are wont to be more than one : ex. 
gr. 1 Chron. xxiii. 17, " The sons of Eliezer were Kehabiah — And 
Eliezer had 7ione other Sons" etc. : So here High Priest is said in 
the singular number, although two men, Annas and Caiaphas, are 
named: (It is owing to this that the Gothic Version reads a.p-)(iip%m, 
which is also printed in some editions), for there was bound to be 
but one High priest, and the very ears were averse from the plural 
number.'— [/5>j/ia 0ioD, the word of God) It was to this that the great 
effectiveness of John's ministry was due. — V. g.] — i-Jtl, upon John 
[Engl. Vers, not so well, unto JbAn]) immediately and directly [not 
through the mediation and instrumentality of others]. The same 
phrase occurs LXX. Jer. i. 1 [rJ pniLa row ©soC o syhiTo ivi 'Ispi//,!av, 
" The word of God which came upon Jeremiah."] 

3. 'lopddvov, Jordan) a river sujted for baptizing in. The king- 
dom of God in its onward course adapts itself to the place and the 

4. 'n.s, even as) Repentance is described in ver. 4 and 5, remission 
of sins is implied in ver. 6. — h ^i^xitfi Xoyoiv, in the book of the words) 
The book of Isaiah consists of certain portions and sentences [ora- 
tionibus], and as these were joined together, none could slip out and 
be lost. So the book of the Psalms, ch. xx. 42. — pwvi) — rpi^ovg avrou 
— T& exoXia — a/ rpa,-j(iia,i — xa; o-^srai, x.t.X.) Is. xl. 3, 4, 5 ; The pas- 
sage stands thus in the LXX. (paivi} — rpljSoug rou &soiJ iiiJ,Si\ — rnvTO, TO, 
sxoXiK — )j rpayiia, I'lc, 'jridia, — xal o^SriSirai ri do^a Kvplou, xal 'i-^irai <7tasa 
eap^ TO emriipm roD ©sou, 6V; Kvpiog iXdXriet, the voice — the paths of our 
God — all the crooked things — the rough way made into plains — and 
the glory of the Lord shall be seen, and all flesh shall see the salvation 
of God, because [or that\ the Lord hath spoken it. 

5. <^d.payl, valley) Where there is a hollow and void, which is far 
removed from true righteousness, as in the case of the publicans and 
soldiers : ver. 12, 14. — Ipog, mountain) where there is a swelling [a 
tumid elevation] of human righteousness, or power, as in the case of 

' Rec. Text has iw dpxiepi"" with ac Vulg. But ABCD6 have M dpxm"? ; 
and the canon, " Prsstat ardua lectio procliviori," favours the latter.— Ed. and 

43 ST LUKE III. 6-15. 

Herod.— /SouKoj, exoXioi, rpaxtmi, a Idll, the crooked places, the rough 
ways) Those things which are distorted [which have lost their due 
proportions and so are perverted] : I. as to depth and height, II. 
lengthwise, III. broadwise, shall be restored to their right places and 
proportions, and shall be made level.— s/'s AkTav, into a straight way) 
'Obh, way, has been left to be understood in the LXX. and so pre- 
sently after, and the rough, viz. ways. 

6. Ka!) and so. The Hebrew has, and the glory of the Lord shall 
be revealed, and all flesh shall see together, that the tnouth of the Lord 
hath spoJeen it. — o-^irai, shall see) now that there is no longer any 
inequality to keep a shadow still on the way, all parts alike being 
exposed to the light. — rh earripm roD @iov, the way of salvation pro- 
vided by God [salutare DeiJ) i.e. the Messiah : ch. ii. 30. 

8. M)} (ip^neh Xiyeiv, do not begin to say) He cuts oif by anticipa- 
tion every even attempt at self-excuse. 

10. T; o5i/ iroinao/Mv ; what then shall we do ?) This is a characteristic 
mark of a soul, which is being converted. Acts ii. 37, xvi. 30. 

11. 'o ext^v, he who hath).The people were inclined to avarice above 
all other faults. Therefore John gives them injunctions directly 
opposed to this sin, viz. injunctions respecting meat and raiment. 
The fruit of a thoroughly inward repentance [which, as well as the 
general testimony of John concerning the Christ, is taken for granted 
here. — V. g.J passes forth to the outermost parts of the life : ver. 13, 
14 ; and does not consist in mere specious works, but in such as be- 
come us as citizens, and yet are real good works : ch. x. 34 ; Matt. 
XXV. 35 ; Is. Iviii. 6, 7. — duo x.i'^umg, two coats [rather tunics or inner 
vestsj) and so as regards other articles of which we possess dupli- 
cates. — /jyiradoru, let him impart) Liberality is wider in its range of 
comprehension, than generosity merely in money matters. 

12. AtSdoxaXe, master) The publicans treat Him with greater re- 
verence than any of the others. 

14. "^TfaTivojMiyoi) Those serving as soldiers ; we come to these after 
the publicans in successive gradation. — /iridtm hamiartTi) shake no one 
violently [Do violence to no man]. — /LnSi svxopavrrienri) with calum- 
nies, as though proceeding by right of law : Gen. xliii. 18 [lxx. 
iisayi/MSa tou ffuxofiavTrigai rifi&g, " we are brought in that he may 
falsely accuse us." Hebr. " that he may roll himself upon us." 
Engl. " that he may seek occasion against us."] 

15. XIposdoxuivTog, being in expectation) They were waiting in ex- 
pectation that proofs [of Messiahship] should come from John or 
from some other quarter. But John, being son of the priest Zacha- 

ST LUKK in. 16-20. 43 

nas, was not of the tribe of Judah, of which it was carta ji that the 
Messiah was to spring. — Xpiarhg, the Christ) As yet they had not 
so gross a conception concerning the Christ [as subsequently] ; for 
John had no external splendour to recommend him, and yet they 
were musing such thoughts concerning him. 

16. ''ATixpharo, answered) To those who were desiring to question 
him. Comp. Acts xiii. 25, r/va /is ummTrs iTmi, "As John fulfilled 
his course, he said, Whom think ye that I am ? [implying that they 
were desiring to ask Mm the question']. — ip^iTai) Castellio renders it 
' adventat,' appi-oacheth. — 6 idy^poTzpog /4ou, who is mightier than I) 
John was powerful : ver. 4, 5, 10, 11, ch. i. 17 [He shall go before 
Him in the spirit and power of Elias] : but Christ was much more 
so. — -/.ai vDpl, and with fire) That fire in respect to believers denotes 
the fiery power of the Holy Spirit : with which comp. Is. iv. 4. And 
indeed they were actually bathed and baptized in fire : Acts ii. 3, 
i. 5. Yet nevertheless it is not here as in John iii. 5, where material 
water is meant ; for in this passage material fire is not signified ; 
since in John the water is named before 1;he mention of the Spirit, 
whereas here the Spirit and fire are named together. In respect to 
the impenitent the fire denotes the fire of wrath spoken of in ver. 17. 
In a similar manner fire .has a double signification in Mark ix. 49, 
compared with the preceding verses.^ 

18. 19. UapaKaXuv, exhorting) The function of John was to exhort, 
and to announce the coming Gospel; to rebuke and to preach. Comp. 
ver. 3, 19. — Eujj/yEX/^sro, he preached the coming Gospel) as he did 
in ver. 16. 

19. [' EXiy^ofiivos w' auTou, being reproved by him) Although it was 
a considerable time after when Herod consigned John to prison : 
yet for convenience the fact is recorded here. In fact it is implied 
that John spake the truth to Herod no less, than to the people and 
to the pubHcans and soldiers. — Harm., p. 145]. — %a; -Tripl ^avrav, and 
concerning all) It is not a full discharge of a minister's duty for him 
to reprove sinners, even though they be kings, for merely one fault. 

20. llpoeUrixi, added) Persecution is an additional aggravation of 
sins. [By it in fact the full measure of one's sins is filled up, when 
salutary warnings are despised or are repaid by absolutely evil deeds 
against the monitor. — V. g.j — ■/.arix.'Kiiei, he shut up) This is men- 
tioned here before the baptism of Christ ; and therefore seems to 

1 "Every one shall be salted with /re.-" believers with the purifactory fire of 
trials, unbelievers with the fire that '■ is not quenched."— Ed. aud Tkaksl. 

4i ST LDKE III. 21-23. 

have reproved Herod at the first possible opportunity. After- 
wards follows immediately the uninterrupted history of Jesus 

21. Upoisitjxo/ji-'mv, lohilst praying) after His baptism. Luke often 
mentions the prayers of Jesus, as among the most important events : 
ch. vi. 12, ix. 18, 29, xxii. 32, 41, xxiii. A&.—&nvx^~riva,) In bring- 
ing it from nviiLx^riv, the indicative, as compared with the infinitive, 
has an augment : the infinitive has, not so much an augment, as an 
'ixTaeig [an intensification of the meaning]. 

22. 2M/iar;xS I'l'dn, in a bodily appearance) On the other hand 
there also are seen at times from the kingdom of darkness bodily 
appearances. — ai, thou) This is a reply to His prayers, mentioned in 
ver. 21. 

23. Ka! aurh; riv o 'ijjtfoSs iissl Iruv rpicixovra apx^/^^'"^} ^^^ Jesus vms 
Himself about thirty years, when beginning) The beginning meant in 
this passage is not that of Bis thirtieth year, which neither the car- 
dinal number XXX. years, nor the particle about admit of, but the 
beginning of His doing and teaching in public, or His going in, Acts 
i. 1, 21, \_£V TavW Xpovu) Si tldriXSsv xal i^rjXhv, "all the time that the 
Lord Jesus went hi and out."] 22 (^ap^dfutog a.'jro roZ Pa'jzriafi.aroi 
'loidnov, " Beginning from the baptism of John ;" where also the 
word beginning, as here, is put absolutely), ch. xiii. 24 [When John 
had first preached before His coming the baptism of repentance]. 
This beginning Luke implies took place in the very act of baptism : 
with this comp. Matt. iii. 15. [Nevertheless that entrance on His 
office had various successive steps, of which the First was, the mani 
festation of the Christ to Israel which took place in His baptism, 
Luke iii. 22, 38 ; John i. 31, 34; Matt. iii. 15. There followed 
Secondly, the beginning of His miracles, John ii. 11. And Thirdly, 
the beginning of His doings in the house of His Father at Jeru- 
salem, John ii. 14 (with which comp. Mai. iii. 1). And also Fourthly, 
the beginning of His continued course of preaching in Galilee after 
the imprisonment of John, Matt. iv. 17 ; Luke iv. 15 ; Acts x. 37 : 
and indeed these steps followed one another in so brief a space of 
time, that one may count all of them as one, and combine (connect) 
that one step- or beginning with the thirtieth year of the Saviour. 
They therefore are mistaken who suppose that John commenced the 
discharge of his office at an interval of six months, nay, even of a 
year or even more, before his baptism of Christ. — Harm., p. 71, 72.] 
Wherefore it is only incidentally in passing that he notices in this 
verse that beginning, but what he particularly marks is the age o^ 

ST LUKE III. 23. 45 

Jesus :' and this too, In such a way as to mark the entrance of John 
on his ministry, and shortly after, the entrance of Jesus on His, 
which took place in one and the same year [Certainly it was not the 
object of Luke to mark exactly the entrance of the Forerunner, and 
to touch only incidentally upon the beginning that was made by our 
Lord Himself, but what he chiefly cared for recording was the 
latter. However the joining of John with Him is appropriate and 
seasonable ; that he may not be supposed to have preceded Jesus by 
a longer interval. — Harm., p. 69]. Luke speaks becomingly ; and 
whereas he had said, that the word of God came unto the Forerunner, 
ver. 2 ; with which comp. John x. 35 : he says that the Lord began, 
namely, not as a servant, but as the Son. The name, Jesus, is 
added, because a new scene and a new series of events are thrown 
open. The emphatic pronoun aurig. Himself, put in the commence- 
ment, forms an antithesis to John : also John has his time of office 
noted by external marks, taken from Tiberius, etc., but the time of 
the beginning made by the Lord is defined by the years of the Lord 
Himself. The Lord had now attained, after the reinarkable ad- 
vances and progress which marked His previous life, the regular and 
lawful age suited for His public ministry [Num. iv. 3]. — ug hofif/^iro, 
as He was duly accounted) The interpretation. As He was supposed' 
[Engl. Vers.], is rather a weakening of the force : vo/jt,lt,is6ai has cer- 
tainly a stronger import than this : it denotes the feeling and wonted 
custom generally and also justly entertained and received : Acts 
xvi. 13 [o5 Ivo/i/^^ro 'jrpoasv^ri ehai, where prayer was wont to be madel. 
Furthermore Luke does not say, &v, ui\i 'lua^fi, iig Jno/i/^tro, but uv, 
iii hofLlZsTo, v'ibs 'Iwir^p. Therefore this clause, uc bofj,itiro, no less 
than that one to which it is immediately attached, (£n uiog, extends 
its force to the whole genealogical scale ; and that too, in such a 
way as that the several steps are to be understood according to what 
the case and relation of each require and demand. Jesus was, as 
He was accounted, son of Joseph : for not merely the opinion of men 
regarded Him as the son of Joseph, but even Joseph rendered to 
Him aU the offices of a father, although he had not begotten Jesus. 
He was, as He was accounted, Son of Heh ; and He was so truly. 
For His mother Mary had Heli for her father : and so also as to 
Heli being son of Matthat and of the rest of the fathers. So in ver. 

1 We may observe in this place, that the tUrtj/ years were not full years, and 
past, but wanting a little of completion : a fact which is proved in the Harm, of 
Beng. pp. 70, 71, and Ord. Temp. p. 222 (Ed. ii., p. 194). Comp. meine 
Deleuchtung, etc., p. 126, 127, etc.— E. B. 

46 ST LUKE III. 31-36, 

36 It was said, Sala was, as he was accounted, son of Cainan ; whereas 
the Hellenistic Jews, following the LXX. interpretation reckoned him 
among the series of fathers after the flood. Therefore as far as con- 
cerns Joseph and Cainan, Luke, by the figure '^pokpa^^rha, [bee 
Append.] or anticipatory precaution, thus counteracts the popular 
opinion, as Franc. Junius long ago saw, with which comp. Usher's 
Chronol. Sacr., part i., ch. vi. f 34 : but in all the other parts of the 
genealogy he leaves all things inviolate and unaltered, inasmuch as 
agreeing with the Old Testament and the rest of the public docu- 
ments and the truth itself, and as being acknowledged authentic by 
all, nay, he even stamps them with approval. — roD 'HAs/, Eli) He 
was father of Mary, and father-in-law of Joseph. See note. Matt. 
i. 16. As to the article roD here so often repeated, it makes no 
matter whether you construe it with each antecedent proper name 
or with that which follows it. For in either construction Jesus is 
the son of each more remote father, the nearer father intervening. 
The LXX. interpretation render the Hebrew corresponding words, 
which are for the most part equivocal (capable of either construc- 
tion), in either of the two ways : Ezra vii. 1 ; Neh. xi. 4, etc. But 
it is more simple to take roD as cohering with each noun [proper 
name] following : in the way in which, Matt. i. 1, Jesus Christ is 
said to be the Son (wou) of David, Son (woD) of Abraham. And 
although in the first step of the series, wis 'Iwirz/p is the expression 
used without the article, yet subsequently the words tSv iihc: are con- 
veniently construed with each of the fathers immediately and directly 
[without the intervention of the names coming between]. Comp. 
LXX. Gen. xxxvi. 2. 

31. lov NaSav, Nathan) [Luke substitutes him for Solomon, who 
is put down by Matthew here in this series, because that Mary drew 
her descent from Nathan, or else because Joseph derived his gene- 
alogy alike from Solomon and fi:om Nathan ; for it was a common 
practice of the Jews to adopt some one of their nearest relatives in 
the place of a son. —Harm., p. 148] This Nathan, the son of David, 
is a man very memorable. Zech. xii. 12 [where in the future re- 
pentance of the Jews, " the families of the house of David," and 
those of the " house of Nathan mourn apart"]. Sohar Num. on 
Is. xl. 8, Cheph Zihdh wife of Nathan son of David is mother of the 
Messiah. Schcettgen on this passage. 

36. ToD Ka/Vav, Kainan) Let some, as best they can, furnish out a 
plausible array of some MSS. which are without the name Cainan : 
one is without it, viz. Cantabrigiensis, called also Stephani j8, and 

ST LUKE 111. 30. 47 

also codex Bezce [D] ; which, as being a MS. containing the Latin 
as well as the Greek, deserves the title, not so much of a codex, as 
of a rhapsody comprising various readings of fathers.^ " Even sup- 
posing that in countless copies of the New and Old Testaments,'' as 
Voss rightly remarks, " the name of this Cainan were wanting, 
which however is not the case, yet no argument could be derived 
from that circumstance. For the reason of the omission would be 
evident from the fact that the Church approved of and followed the 
calculation of Africanus and Eusebius ; and therefore I wonder that 
more copies are not found, in which the name of Cainan is expunged." 
— c. Horn., p. 13. Nevertheless so many in our time disapprove of 
the Cainan here, that there is a risk of its being ere long thrust out 
from Luke ; a judgment which betrays great rashness, as Kich. 
Simon on this passage properly remarks, and so also Gomarus. 
Besides Cainan is retained in Luke by J. E. Grabius, John 
Hardouin, Jac. Hasseus, G. C. Hosmann, to whom are to be added 
thes. phil. p. 174 of Hottinger, Glassius, etc. Among the ancients 
is Ambrose, who, on Luke vii., says, " The Lord was born of Mary 
in the seventy-seventh generation." That this Cainan was men 
tioned in the LXX. Version made before the nativity of Christ (See 
Gen. X. 24, xi. 12 ; 1 Chron. i. 18, [in which passages Cainan's name 
is passed over]) the Chronicon of Demetrius in Eusebius, B. ix. 
prsep. Ev. page 425, proves. Moreover many documents attest that 
Theophilus, to whom Luke wrote, was at Alexandria. There is no 
doubt but that ' Cainan' was read at least in the Lxx. version at 
Alexandria, that I may not say that it was in that city the insertion 
of his name took place. Wherefore it was not suitable that ' Cainan ' 
should already at that early time [the first sending of the Gospel to 
Alexandria] be either omitted by Luke or marked openly with the 
brand of spuriousness. Elsewhere also Luke made that concession 
to the Hellenistic Jews, that he followed the lxx. translators in pre- 
ference to the Hebrew text. Acts vii. 14. And so here he did not 
expunge ' Cainan,' whose name was inserted in their version. And 
yet he did not thereby do any violence to truth ; for the fact of the 
descent of Jesus Christ from David, though some fathers have been 
passed over in Matthew, and similarly on the other hand Cainan has 
been retained in Luke, still remains uninjured. Nay, even he took 

1 A very unjust judgment. D was presented to Cambridge ITniv'ersity by 
Bezain 1581. Its readings are very peculiar, and belong to a different class 
from the Alexandrine MSS. Tischend. thinks it can be irrefragably proved to 
*be as old as the sixth century. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

48 ST LUKE 111. 38. 

precaution for tlie exactness of the main truth by that prefatory ob- 
servation, as was accounted, ver. 23, where see the note. In fine, it 
is not the province of those who discuss the New Testament to war- 
rant the infallible accuracy of readings of the LXX. translators. In 
the chronology the question concerning Cainan is of especial moment. 
Therefore we have said something concerning that person in the 
Ordo Temporum, p. 52 (Ed. ii., p. 44, 45), Lightfoot read Cainan in 
the Accusative form (' Cainanem')."^ 

38. [ToD 'Ad&fi, of Adam) All the posterity of Adam have a na- 
tural tie of connection with Jesus Christ. — V. g.J Luke wisely 
adds this clause. Adam was the first man. He was not sprung of 
himself, nor of a father and mother ; but from God, not only as the 
sons of Adam are, but in a way altogether peculiar to his case : for 
whatever the sons of Adam owe to their parents by the bounty of 
their Creator, this Adam himself received from God. On this 
account Luke does not stop short with Adam, but adds that crown- 
ing point of the series, the Son of God. And here, at last, there is 
a terminus, beyond which there is none. Luke carries up his 
genealogy, from the second Adam to the first, in the same way as 
Moses himself describes "the generations of man," Gen. v. 1, etc. Man 
was altogether a creation made by God, not merely as all creatures are, 
but in a peculiar manner so ; Gen. i. 26 [Let us make man in our 
image]. If the genealogy had stopped at Adam it would have been 
abrupt, and not completed. As it is, it is carried up from Jesus 
Christ to God. The birth (descent) of Jesus from Mary is beauti- 
fully compared with the descent (origination) of Adam from God. 
The origination of Jesus from God has some likeness to both, but yet 
far exceeds both ; it is in some measure mediate, or coming through 
the intervention of the intermediate fathers, but is much rather imme- 
diate and direct, as He is the Son of God. All things are of God 
through Christ : all things are brought back to God through Christ. 
Scripture, even in what belongs to the origin of the human race, fixes 
our knowledge on a firm footing, and makes it sufficiently complete : 
they who despise or ignore it are in utter doubt and error as to 
the boundaries between the ante-mundane and the post-mundane 

1 Tischend. reads Kcchxft with BL. Lachm. with Aafcc Vulg. Rcc. Text, 
Kaiiav. — Ed. and Transl. 

ST LUKE IV. 1-5. 49 


1. nveu/^aTos aywu ffX^pjij, full of the Holy Ghost) See ch. iii. 22 

h rSi «nbij,ari, in the Spirit) viz. that Spirit, the Holy Spirit [given 
Him specially at His baptism]. 

2. 'H/iipccg Tsggapdxovra, forty days) This is commonly construed 
with ifiipaZ^ojMsvoc, being tempted. But it was not until the time when 
Jesus hungered, after the forty days were completed, that the Tempter 
came to Him ; Matt. iv. 3. It ought therefore to be construed with 
r^yiro, was led into the wilderness, and was in the wilderness forty 
days. A similarly abbreviated mode of expression [See Append, on 
Concisa Locutio] in ch. xx. 9, He went away, to be absent for a long 
time [a'!rsS^/jt,r]Ss\i yjfmmg ixavoug] ; so Rev. xx. 2. He bound him a 
thousand years, i.e. that he should be [remain] bound a thousand 
years. [Comp. Josh. viii. 29, Joshua laid great stones in the cave's 
mouth— until this day, i.e. which remain until this day ; x, 27 in the 
Hebr. — V. g.] — euvTeXiahigSiv aurSit, when they were consummated 
[ended]. There was a definite limit to them fixed. 

5. E/s opog u-^n'>^ov, into a high mountain) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on 
this passage."^ The sentence would sound defective (' hiulca' having 
a hiatus) if read thus [as the Vulg. reads it], " Et duxit ilium 
diabolus, et ostendit illi," etc. [Some interpreters suppose a double 
conflict (between Jesus and Satan) on the mountain, inasmuch as it is 
put by Luke before that upon the pinnacle of the temple, whereas it is 
put after the latter by Matthew. Hut ' all' of the temptation had (con- 
sisted of) three assaults in all, ver. 13 ; and therefore Luke must 
clearly be employing a transposition in this passage. Nor is it the best 
way of consulting for the honour of the Lord, to double the temptation 
on the mountain ; for, in fact. He seems to have once repelled it, and, at 
the same time, by that once to have repelled it universally and for ever. 
Moreover, Luke, by putting the ascent to (the pinnacle at) Jerusalem 
in the last place, was enabled to use more appropriately the verb 
\mi<STpi'\iiv, in ch. iv. 14, just as that verb is used, ch. ii. 39, of the 
return from the same city to Galilee. Harm, p. 151]. — b eny/iri 

' BL Vulg. omit ei's opaq iipnXop, which probably came through the Harmonies 
from Matt. iv. 8. But ADc IJil. and Rec. Text support the words : so Lachm. ; 
but Tischend. is for the omission. — Ed. and Teansl. 

VOL. ILv ^ 

50 ST LUKE IV. 6-13. 

XPwsu, in a moment of time) A sudden showing of them : a sharp 
temptation [a violent and acute one, as opposed to a more gradual 
and stealthy one]. 

6. Tri" i^ouelav raurjji-, this power) viz. of tl^ese kingdoms. It is to 
the latter that the avrSiv [the glory] of them, is to be referred.— 
mpa&s&orai, is delivered) This assertion is not altogether false. Satan 
had great power before his fall : and the portion of power which he 
retains since his fall, he turns to evil account. See John xii. 31 ; Eph. 
ii. 2 ; Eev. xii. 10, xiii. 2. The Tempter confesses that he is not the 
founder or creator of these kingdoms. Therefore he did not demand 
the highest degree of adoration or worship ; and yet Jesus shows 
that even an inferior degree of worship cannot be given to any crea- 
ture, much less to Satan. — Sidu/x,!, I give) In this instance he was 
willing to give the whole : in other cases, he is wont to give to his 
retainers only in smaller portions. See, for example. Rev. xiii. 2. 

8. "tmayi ot;Vw ,11011 Sarava) The more modern Greek copies have 
transferred these words from Matthew, and introduced them into 
this place. This was a mistake ; for Luke records this particular 
temptation as the second in order ; for which reason it would not 
have been appropriate for Luke to have introduced these words 
which drove the Tempter to flight.^ We have observed, in its pro- 
per place, that even the words hirisia fjjou do not belong to Matthew.'' 
At the beginning of the 9th verse, the Gothic Version renders the 
■/.at thathrOi i.e. thence.^ 

12. ^E'lprirai, It is said) Adz. in Scripture. 

13. 'SuvTiXigag, when He had consuminated) There is no tempta- 
tion against which believers cannot both derive arms of defence, 
and learn the way to contend, from this temptation of our Lord. — 
•TTavra, all) He had expended all his weapons of offence. Thus then 
the enemy being so vanquished was wholly vanquished. — a^pi xaipoii, 
until a season) viz. a convenient season.^ [It was when the passion 
of our Lord was approaching especially, that the prince of the world 
returned. — V. g.] 

1 No room wouli have been left for a third temptation had these words been 
expressed m Luke. — Ed. and Tkaksl. 

2 Tisch. with BDL omits iV«ye oVira fiov 2«t«j/«. So also Vulg. and ae 
omit the words. Lachm. retains them but in brackets. Ab and Rec. Text sup- 
port them.— Ed. and Tbansl. 

3 BL Memph. Theb. read ^yayiu il Lachm. however, with old authorities, 
supports the x.xl jjy. of Rec. Text. — Ed. and Tba^l. 

* Not as Engl. Vers. /or a season.— En. and Tbaksl. 

ST LUKE IV. 14-17. 61 

14. 'Ev tT) Svvd/jjii rou irviu/j.aTog, in the power of the Spirit) Being 
strengthened [the more] after His victory. — ip^/n^n, a fame) Men 
felt [in His speaking] the power of the Spirit : see ver. 15 [and 
this, even before that He exhibited in that region so many miracles 
as He subsequently performed. — V. g.J 

1.5. Aiiroc) Himself. . He became known not merely by ' fame,' 
but by " His own self."— &^a^o>sw)s, being glorified) He who was 
well tempted finds glory, especially at the beginning, yet he is ndt 
affected injuriously by that glory. 

16. ^HX^ev, He came) for the purpose of repaying the debt of 
gratitude to the city where He had been reared to maturity. — xara, 
■rh I'lMi aiirffl) The same phrase occurs Numb. xxiv. 1. We see 
hereby what was the practice of Jesus whilst still a youth at Naza- 
reth before His baptism. — rwv ea^^droiv, the Sabbath) It was also 
the day of expiation : but the mention of the Sabbath corresponds 
to the expression, as His custom was. — avserri, He stood up) By this 
attitude He showed that it was His wish to read in public : and 
when He had done so, a book was given to Him. We read of His 
having once read (although it seems to have been His custom to 
act the part of the anagnostes or reader : for, on the Sabbath, all 
(ver. 20) were accustomed to come into the synagogue) ; we read 
also of His having once written, John viii. 6, It is especially con- 
sonant with that earliest period of His ministry, that Jesus proved 
the Divine authority of His preaching from the Old Testament, 
even in condescension to the Nazarenes, who were more likely to 
despise Him in His dwn country. 

17. BijBXiov 'Heatou, the book of Isaiah) The Haphtara or publicly- 
read portion for that Sabbath was from Isaiah : inoreover the table 
which was usually attached to the Hebrew Bibles (Scripture-rolls) 
of the Jews, connects most of the portions read from Isaiah with 
those read from Deuteronomy : from which it may be inferred what 
was the time of year when this Sabbath occurred. — Amirrv^ag, having 
unrolled [the scroll on which Isaiah's prophecies were written]) So 
the form of the books of that age required. — sups, He found) im- 
mediately, and as it were accidentally. The mode of dispensing 
the Divine word is marvellous : but we ought not to tempt God by 
casting lots ; ' comp. Acts viii. 32. The pious use of Biblical ' sortes' 
or lots, is better than that of Homeric or Virgilian ' sortes.' Sl-q 

' i.e. Opening the Bible hap-hazard, in hopes that God would work a 
miracle by making some passage present itself to solve our difficulties, just as 
the heathen consulted the oracular ' sortes.'— Kb. and Tbansl. 

58 ST LUKE IV. 18, 19. 

E. Neuhus. i. 3, fatid. Sacror., ch. ix., pp. 329, 330. J. C. Pfaff. 
Diss, de Evang. § 25. 

18, 19. ni-EC/ta Kvplou it' efii- o5 ehexiv eXP'« /^i' e!>a7yi>-'(faeSa; 
i:to>xo'!'?, airiffraXxf /i£, IddaeSai Toig aumrpi/J,//,imv; r^v xapdlaV—avdr- 
SXi^iv, amSTiiXai redpaugfiUous h afiau- mph^ai iviavrhv Kvplov dixrbv 
Kul iifjuipav d.vTaieohoeioic) Is. Ixi. 1, 2, LXX : vviZna—ava^Xi-^ir xakiaai, 
x.T.X. Several particulars here are worthy of being noticed. 
I. The Hebrew accents give us a most effective stopping. II. o5 
ihixiv signifies the same as ]T, for this reason because, on account of 
this inasmuch as. So Numb. xiv. 43, ou emHu amarpd^nn, because 
ye are turned away from. Ammonius says ouuko. signifies the same 
as or/. The sense in this passage is. The Spirit of the Lord is upon 
Me, because He hath anointed Me. Even then already Jesus im- 
plied distinctly that He was the Christ. It is fi-om His anointing, 
that the abiding of the Spirit of the Lord on the Christ is deduced. 
As the [continuous] state of personal union [the union of His 
humanity and Divinity], so that of His anointing flows from the 
act. III. From the anointing flows the especial, nay, the preach- 
ing peculiarly characteristic of this Prophet, viz., that of the 
Gospel ; from the oil flows the joy [i.e. from the anointing oil comes 
the joy, answering to the " good tidings," Is. Ixi. 1, and " the oil 
of joy," ver. 3] : from the ' sending' [1. c, ver. 3] comes the " heal- 
ing [Luke iv. 18 : in Isaiah " to bind up"] of the broken-hearted." 
IV. This very clause, curare contribulatos corde, " to heal the broken- 
hearted," as the translator of Irenseus has it, I am induced to retain 
chiefly on the authority of Irenceus, although others have omitted 
it.^ V. Ka/ TvfXoT; anx^ki-^iv, is not taken from Is. xlii. 7, but 
from Is. Ixi. 1. So the words are found in the LXX. translation for 
the Hebrew nipnps DniD^i'l. Moreover npa in the books of the Old 
Testament, denotes not every kind of opening whatever, but that 
of the ears once ; besides, very frequently, the opening of the eyes. 
For this reason the seventy translators have referred it in this 
passage to the blind. However, Isaiah spake of such an opening of 
the eyes, as is vouchsafed, not to the blind, but to those set free 
fi^om the darkness of a prison (see Ixi. 1), as the writer of the 
Chaldee paraphrase rightly saw. VI. ' AmBTiTXai Te6pau(f//.svous i» 
iipesii, is taken from the preceding part, Is. Iviii. 6, AmenXki redpauc- 
u,emu; h apeei ; whence the Israelitic afiesig is made by accommo- 

1 A, Iren. 260, Hil. 577, retain the clause. BDLo6c, Orig. 2,636 ; 4,13, 
Hilar. 92, omit it. Some MSS. of Vulg. omit, others retain it.— Ed. and 

ST LUKE IV. 20, 21. 63 

dati'on to answer to the ap£tf;s, effected through the Messiah. The 
minister, of his own accord, handed to our Lord, in the synagogue, 
the book of Isaiah : it was therefore a portion from Isaiah which 
was the one usually read on that Sabbath. Is. Ixi. 1, 2, was not 
the Haphtara (or publicly read portion) at all : but there was a 
Haphtara, consisting of Is. Ivii. 13 — Iviii. 14, and that too on the 
day of expiation, which in the Ord. Temp., page 254 ; Ed. ii., page 
220, 221, and Harm. Ev., page 186, etc., we have shown, corres- 
ponded on that year (which was the twenty-eighth of the Dion, 
era. — Not. Crit.) with the Sabbath mentioned in Luke. From 
which it is evident, that an ordinary and an extraordinary lesson 
were joined together by the Lord in His reading, and by the 
Evangelist in writing the account of it. VII. As to the words xal 
riiJ,if>av avramdogeuis. See App. Crit., Ed. ii. on this passage.' In 
this clause. The Spirit of the Loed upon Me, contains a re- 
markable testimony to the Holy Trinity [the Spirit, the Eather, 
and Jesus]. Jesus was full of the Spirit, ver. 1, 14. — o5 smxiv) 
The E in mxa passes into el, not only poetically, but also lonically 
and Attically. — •Kriayfii, to the poor) In Israel, and subsequently 
among the Gentiles. Regard is had to them also in ch. vi. 20. — 
apsir/v, remission [but Engl. Vers., deliverance^ The word is here 
employed with great propriety.^ 

20. 'AffoSous, having given it again) with due decorum. — IxdSiei, 
He sat down) Whilst teaching and applying the text which He had 
read. He had stood up, ver. 16. 

21. "Hp^aro, He began) A solemn beginning. \_Galilee was that 
region upon which Christ, the Great Light, arose in an extraordinary 
manner; Is. ix. 2, 3 ; Matt. iv. 15 ; Luke iv. 31. As Isaiah has 
in an altogether graphic manner described that place, so also the 
time in which the Light shone on this region with such brightness, 
has been indicated by the same Isaiah. Jesus sojourned in Galilee 
throughout the whole year (referring to " the acceptable 7/ear of 
the Lord") without interruption ; and it was during that time that 
the Jews applied the new name of Galileans to His disciples ; John 

' Vulg. etc., add " et diem retributionis." b has " et diem redditionis ;'' a, 
•' et diem redemptionis." But ABD Hil. 92, and Rec. Text reject the addition, 
which manifestly is interpolated from Isaiah, and is appropriate, not Ho the 
Gospel message of peace delivered at Christ's first Advent, but to His second 
Advent to judgment. — Ed. and Transl. 

' Literally, referring to the setting free a captive ; spiritually, to the remisswit 
of sins and the deliverance of the captive sinner. — Ed. and Transl. 

B* ST LUKE IV. 22, 23. 

vii. 52 ; Mark xiv. 70. This was a year most full of grace to that 
most wretched nation : accordingly, Matthew, Mark, and Luke 
have given a description of this year more at large, whilst John 
supplies the journey to Jerusalem, which gave a fresh opportunity 
to the Galileans, who likewise frequented the feasts, of deriving 
no small profit from the teaching of Jesus. In fine, John by using 
the formula, "Jesus went up to Jerusalem" (John ii. 13), takes for 
granted the more frequent sojourning of the Saviour in Galilee. 
In this way the Gospel history being in exact accordance both with 
itself and with the Old Testament, shrinks from no testing that 
may be applied, however rigorous. — Harm., p. 188. — a^/^ipov, this 
day) The Saviour passed a full year in Galilee, reckoning from that 
day ; comp. ver. 43 with ver. 44.^-V. g.] 

22. "E6av/idlov) Qaufid^u sometimes signifies, T praise, T express 
admiration in loords. — roTg Xoyoic, of the loords) Luke wrote out, not 
an account of all the details, but a summary of the chief particulars. 
■ — TYii j/ap/ros, of grace) The discourses of Christ have indeed i 
sweetness and a weighty impressiveness peculiar to them, and in 
respect to both of these qualities a certain kind of grace or be- 
comingness, which is not to be found perceptible even in the 
apostles. For instance, it was not unbecoming in Paul to write in 
the way that he has written in 1 Cor. yii. 25, where see the notes ; 
also in 2 Cor. xii. 13 ; Philem. ver. 9. Moreover Christ, as is 
natural to expect, speaks both more weightily and more sweetly. — sXtyov, and they were saying) Wondering admiration is good : 
but such an emotion, where it is not accompanied by firm faith, is 
readily succeeded by perversity, so that the mental gaze degenerates 
from 'being of a spiritual to a carnal character ; and often one sen- 
tence or remark flowing from this state of mind may be deserving 
of great censure. 

23. XlavToii, hy all means) Jesus is not caught or attracted by 
every kind of assent to His word : but presently subjoins remarks 
of such a kind, as that the hearers may be tested and proved by 
them. So John viii. 32, where see the note. — ipuTi, ye will say) that 
is to say, this feeling, whereby ye say. Is not this Joseph's son f will 
wax strong with you, when ye shall hear concerning my miracles. 
Comp. Matt. xiii. 54, 55.'' This is a metonymy of the consequent 
[for the antecedent], i.e. your unbelief [the antecedent] which ye 

' Where they say not mferely, /* not this Joseph's son ? but also, Whence hath 
this man this wisdom and these miffhty works ? Is not this the carpenter's son i 
Js not his mother, etc. ? — Ed. and Transi.. 

ST LUKE IV. 24, 25. 65 

now betray will prevent me, so that I shall not exhibit many 
miracles among you, as among others : then it shall be that you 
will be able to say [the consequent], Physician, heal thyself. — rapa- 
BoXrjv) PB'D, a proverb. — esaurhv, thyself) that is to say, what you 
have made good (performed) abroad, make good (perform) also at 
home, and in your own country. — Kampmov/x, Capernaum) the city 
to which Jesus was shortly about to set out, and where He was 
about to perform miracles, ver. 31, 33, etc. Even previously He 
had been there : John ii. 12. But we do not read of His having 
at that time either stayed long or vyrought miracles. [Nevertheless 
He is recorded (John iv. 47) as having healed the son of the noble- 
man (courtier) -who was afflicted with sickness in Capernaum : and 
this occurrence seems to be referred to in this passage no less than 
in those deeds which He afterwards wrought : namely, in the same 
way as already in the age of David, Ps. Ixxxv. 2 (Thou hast for- 
given the iniquity of the people, Thou hast covered all their sins), 
the conclusion is drawn from the deliverance out of the Babylonish 
captivity to ulterior instances of grace reserved for more remote 
times. Moreover, when Jesus, already in this passage, predicts these 
things of the city of Capernaum, it is hereby iptimated that the 
violent usage offered to our Lord by the people of Nazareth, was 
not the cause, and the only cause in particular, for Jesus having 
departed to Capernaum to take up His abode there. — Harm., 
p. 189.] 

24. E/Ve d'e, and He said moreover) This formula of the sacred 
writers, occurring in the writings of Moses, when he says, 1311, and 
in the New Testament, frequently in Luke, indicates that an inter- 
val was allowed by the speaker to elapse : ch. vi. 39, xii. 16, xiii. 
20, XV. 11. — a,/j,r}v, verily) Presently after occurs the parallel, It' 
dXnSiia;, of a truth, ver. 25. — dixrhg, accepted) earnestly looked for, 
(Jear. — 'saTpiii, country) In antithesis to Sidon, ver. 26, and the 
Syrian, ver. 27. It is on this account that the &i, but, is employed 
in verse 25. It is your own fault, saith the Lord to them, that the 
Physician pays less attention to you, than to those more remote. 

25. Aiya vju,n/, I tell you) The Lord declares this testimony by the 
light of His omniscience : for Elijah and Elisha might have ren- 
dered aid to more widows and lepers, even though Holy Scripture 
did not record it [were it not that Jesus, by His omniscience, informs 
us here, that they did not do so]. — h%XiigSn, was shut up) As in Bible 
history, so in all other histories the notice taken of public punish- 
ments inflicted by God, famine, etc., forms a considerable part.— 

6C ST LUKE IV. 26-38. 

et/ BTjj rpla xal ^iji/af £§, for three years and six months) 1 Kings 
xvii. 1, etc., xviii. 1. 

26. "HX/a;, EUas) For -which reason people like those of Nazareth 
might have brought the same objection against Elijah and Elisha, 
which they brought against Christ. But Elijah was not sent to 
those with whom he was not likely to be accepted. Therefore not 
even at Nazareth [though " His country"] shall the glory of the 
Messiah be needlessly thrown away. — rng ^iduvog, Sidon) Oftentimes 
in the temples and" schools much labour is bestowed without any 
fruit resulting among one's hearers that are connected with us: 
whereas, to some one stranger some one sermon, letter, or little 
treatise, proves the instrument of salvation. — •Trphg ywaTxa, unto a 
woman) It was therefore the widow that received the benefit, when 
she was seeming to have been the giver to the prophet, rather than 
vice versa. 

27. noXXo/ Xs'jrpol, many lepers) For instance those, concerning 
whom 2 Kings vii. 3, treats. — s-tt!) 'Eff;' denotes an epoch : so high is 
the account in which a prophet is held in the eyes of God [that his 
name marks an epoch]. 

28. Qufiov, with wrath) They had thought that the giving of a 
very different character to themselves, and a different return, 
namely thanks, were due to them for their applause. But by their 
own very act they prove the truth of Jesus' words. 

30. 'Empiuero, He went His way) unimpeded as before. 

31. ['Ek ToTg ed^Baei, on the Sabbath days) By this proceeding a 
beginning was made. Subsequently a multitude on other days also 
were collected together to Him in the open air. — V. g.j 

33. U.vsij//,a doii/iovioij axaSaprou, a spirit of an unclean demon) A 
pecidiar phrase. The word Spirit denotes its operation or mode of 
working; demon, its nature. The Vulg. simply renders it, dcemo- 
nium immundum.^ — av'sxpa^e, commenced to cry out) It does not seem 
to have become known to the people until now, that this man was 
one possessed. 

34. Nal^apnvi, of Nazareth) ver. 16. — i dyios tou @iou, the Holy 
one of God) John x. 36. 

35. [<!>ifiuS-/i7i, Hold thy peace) Comp. ver. 41. — V. g.J — /^ndh 
fixd-^av, having done him no hurt) The demon had wished to hurt 
the man. 

' So alcd. These and Vulg. evidently omit nevfta and read, with D. 
^«.iu,oii:oii a.x.a.6a,oraii. Comp. Mark i. 26. — Ed. and Transl. 

ST LDKE IV. 36-44-V. 1. 57 

36. Aoyo;, a word) 131. — h lgoiiff;(z, with authority) which cannot 
be contradicted. — xa/' Suvd/m, and power) which cannot be resisted. 

37. 'H;^o5, the sound of His fame) the rumour passing from mouth 
to mouth. 

38. 'Aratfras 8i ex, and having arisen from) An abbreviated ex- 
pression [for Having arisen from His seat and gone out of the syna- 

39. 'Effai/M aurrig, over her) His very closely approaching her 
showed that the disease gives place before the power of Jesus, and 
that no danger of infection from disease can threaten His body. 

40. 'Evl in.dgT(fi, on every one) Implying the great facility with 
which He performed His cures. Thus they were the more deeply 
moved to faith as individuals. [Jesus has the same care for indivi- 
dual souls. Hast thou experienced that care ? — ^V. g.] 

41. 'Avh woXXSiv, out of many) The power of the kingdom of dark- 
ness had come to its height, when Christ came to destroy it.^[oix 
I'ia, He did not permit) What an honour it is, if one be permitted to 
bear witness of the glory of Jesus Christ! — V. g.] — on) because. 

42. "Ewj, even to, [as far as to]) They did not give over seeking 
before that they found Him. 

43. 'E.\iayyiKiea,aSai jii iiT, I must preach the Gospel) By these very 
words He whets the desires of men, and, under the appearance of a 
repulse, confirms them in faith. — s/'s roZro, for this purpose) Here is 
Jesus' ' Creed.' The reason for His many journeyings. 

44. Ta/s (SumyuyaTg, the synagogues) all of them. 


1. 'Ey'eviTo de, moreover it came to pass) This is in close connection 
with ch. iv, 44.' — imxeTdSai) The people pressed upon Him. Hence 
is evidenced, the patient endurance of the Saviour. 

' Beng. seems to have subsequently adopted a different opinion, when both in 
the later Edition of the New Testament he began the fifth chapter with a larger 
capital letter, to indicate a greater division between it and the last verses of 
ch. iv. ; and in the Harm. Ev. he has set down the incidents which are given in 
ch. iv. 42-44, after those which we have in ch. v. 1, etc., as we may see 1. c. § 
48, compared with § 35, 36. But as to Transpositions— y\z. those which are to 
be especially attributed to Luke— I should like any one, who desires a brief and 

68 ST LUKE V. 2-7. 

2. •A.-kiiTs, the fishermen) So they are called, as if being still re- 
garded as strangers to Jesus. — airi'jr'Kwav, washed) inasmuch as their 
work was done. 

3. "O ?i/, which was) Even then already his privilege of priority 
was given to Simon. [The other ship was that of Zebedee. — V. g.J — 
ripurriaiv) begged, as being not yet intimate with Him. [It seems 
that in different cases He used a different way of asking : for in- 
stance, Mark iii. 9 ; Luke xix. 5 ; Matt. xxi. 2, 3, xxvi. 18. There^ 
fore it is not altogether likely that the call which we read of in Matt, 
iv. 18, 19, and in Mark i. 16, 17, combined with the cure of Peter's 
mother-in-law (Mark i. 30; Matt. viii. 14 : comp. Luke iv. 38), 
was prior to this call of Simon, related here by Luke.^ — Harm., p. 
211.] The Lord does not immediately promise to them the draught 
of fishes : He first puts to the proof the obedience of Simon. — 
iiramyayiTv) to thrust hack again. So ver. 4, and Matt. xxi. 18. 
The prepositions have the same force in iiraynfj,!, inra.Kfy^ofj.a.i, inravn-Km, 
I'TTamxa/j^'Trra, x.r.X. (viz. again, or back again). 

4. E/'c rt Bdhg, into the deep) This is more than the oXiyov, a little, 
ver. 3. — s/'s aypav, for a draught) The promise. We may compare 
this fishing with that recorded in John xxi. 3, 6, etc. 

5. ''Srifhari (Sou, at Thy word) Peter had become sensible of the power 
of Jesus' words. The same faith is displayed on his part in Matt, 
xiv. 28, " Lord — hid me come to Thee on the water." 

7. KarsvstxraD, beckoned) as being at a distance, and for the sake of 
modesty [so as not to shout in the presence of the Lord]. They 
wished help, since a fish, when taken, has such eagerness to escape ; 
however, that eagerness is not increased by a cry [therefore it was 
not to avoid frightening the fishes that the fishermen did not cry]. 
The net, no doubt, was broken in the upper end of it, where it was 
made fast. The fishes saw the net, the ship, the men, and felt 
themselves pressed on every side : therefore a cry on the part of the 

powerful suggestion of advice, to weigh well what Beng. has said in his Ordo 
Temp., pp. 242, 243 (Ed. ii. pp. 211, 212).— E. B. 

1 Consult, however, Birks' Horae Evangelicae, in which the probability is 
shown, that the call of Simon, recorded Matt. iv. 18, Mark i. 16, preceded this 
call, Luke v. 1, when the Lord, after the first preparatory call, now, at the close 
of the intervening circuit of Galilee, ch. iv. 44, Matt. iv. 23, by the striking 
miracle, ver. 8, 9, draws Simon into closer and more permanent union with Him. 
The call here comes after, that in Mark and Matt, before, Simon's mother-in-law 
is cured. As to the word iioarriaii' here, there is nothing in it inconsistent with 
His having given Simon the preparatory call previously : He asks a favour from 
Simon, as one already a disciple. — Ed. and Teansl. 

ST LUKE V. 8-12, SD 

fishermen would have had no new (particular) advantage above a 
gesture, beckoning, to their partners. — fjt,ir6x,oic, partners) For they 
were xoivujvol, associates in fishing, ver. 10. Often, among the mem- 
bers of one society or family, there may be many pious men. — 
^■jO'iZfeSai, to sink) They were being sunk low in the waters by the 
weight of the fishes. 

8. "E^iXOi, depart) Comp. Matt. viii. 8. — on, because) Comp. 1 
Ivmgs xvii. 18 ; Isa. vi. 5. — avrip aixapraXhg, a sinful man) a greater 
sinner than an infant sinner [who has only original and not actual 
sin, as I have]. [That recognition of sins is deepest, which arises 
from the recognition and acknowledgment of the Divine glory. — 
y. g.J Jerome says, " Ignatius, the Apostolic father and martyr, 
writes boldly, ' The Lord chose out as apostles men who were sin- 
ners above all men.'" Comp. 1 Tim. i. 14, 15. 

9. @a,fi,^og, amazement) We ought to learn the fear of the Lord 
even from His benefits to us : ch. v. 26, vii. 16 ; Jer. v. 24. [Such 
is the experience of all whom God determines to use as His instru- 
ments. In the present passage this is especially recorded of the triad, 
composed of those three who afterwards became the foremost among 
the apostles. — V. g.J — [Jirl tJi aypcf, at the draught) Jesus, in this 
instance, taught Simon by the very fact. Every work of God teaches 
us. To observe these lessons is the part of true prudence. — ^V. g.] 

10. Uphg rov 2;>wi/a, unto Simon) He spake to Simon especially, 
though not to him alone, inasmuch as Simon was the one who had 
spoken in ver. 8. Comp. Matt. iv. 18, 19. Luke also, as well as 
Matthew, has this saying of Jesus, in order that he may definitely 
describe those to whom the Saviour spake [just as he more de- 
finitely specifies the persons addressed in the following instances, 
with which comp. the parallel Gospels] : ch. vi. 20, 27, ix. 23, xi. 45, 
xvi. 1, sii. 22, 41, 54. — ^jj po/3oC, Fearnot) Peter ceased to fear when 
he became accustomed to the miracles. — d'Trh rou vuv, from henceforth) 
This was accomplished, ch. ix. 2. 

11. "Airatra, all things) even the fishes which he had caught. 
They had even previously followed Jesus, — a fact which Luke re- 
cognises in Acts i. 21, 22 : comp. John i. 43, etc., — but not yet in 
such a way as to leave all that they «had. 

12. ['Ev /m^ tSiv mXimv, in one of the cities) See Gnom. on ch. i. 1, 
Obs. 2, Not. marg. E. B. To wit, the particle h, in, is not in this pas- 
sage to be too closely pressed, as if it would not admit of the meeting 
with the leper having occurred in the neighbourhood of the city ; 
comp. Matt. viii. 1, 2.. This seems to be the ver^ reason of the 

eO , ST LTJKE V. 13-19. 

Transposition, that Mark, whom Luke follows, chose to tell first the 
miracles wrought within the city, ch. i. 21, etc. — Harm., p. 253. 
TX^prig -kiirpag, full of leprosy) Among those who hold that the leper 
mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew is a different one, there are not 
wanting some who unduly wrest this phrase, which is used by Luke 
alone, and not by Mark also, as if it implied that the leper mentioned 
by Mark and Luke was clean according to the law (where the 
leprosy covered all the flesh), Lev. xiii. 13, 17, and therefore had 
the power of entering the city. But still he is sent away to the 
priest : therefore he had not before this shown himself to the priest ; 
wherefore he must have been separate, as one accounted impure, 
even though the leprosy was very full upon him.— Harm., p. 253. — 
iiri wfogam-ov, on his face) No common humiliation. — V. g. 

13. 'Kal, and) [jca/ forming the Apodosis, and as the consequence, 
etc.] [A most real and immediate fruit of his prayers. — V. g.] 

15. 0ipa,'!reues6ai, to be healed) The verb is middle [and therefore 
means more strictly, to have themselves healed]. 

16. Aiiroc, Himself) He for His part [as contrasted with the mul- 
titudes, ver. 15]. — rjv woyoipSiv) was in the habit of withdrawing. 
Thereby He both had a space of time for rest and prayer, and shar- 
pened the desires of men for Him. 

17. KaSr}/^im, sitting) as hearers that were treated with more 
especial honour than the rest. — vo/x.oSiddexa'Kcii, doctors of the law) 
Scribes, ver. 21. — nuifj-rig, village) The extremes, Jerusalem on the 
one hand, and the villages on the opposite, are specified : the towns 
which constitute the immediate mean between the capital city and 
the petty villages, are meant to be included. — riv) was present so as 
to heal. A similar expression occurs in the LXX., lao/nSa rou eSisai 
et, we shall be present, or ready, for the purpose of saving thee, 2 
Sam. X. 11 ; 'ieovTai Man ipyd^isSai, they shall be present to perform, 
Num. viii. 11 ; yeviedu ri y^elp aou rou eudal /is, let Thy hand be present 
for the purpose of saving me, Ps. cxix. 173. — aurovg, them) namely, 
those of whom ver. 15 speaks. 

19. no/a55 by what kind of way [sc. dia ir. 65oD]), An Ellipsis the 
same as in ch. xix. 4, hthni ; and in Acts ix. 2, rng o&S ovra?. 
Comp. Lamb. Bos on the Ellipsis of the Preposition, ha. Others 
[as the Rec. Text] read ha. 'jrolag ;' others, dia, -Trolag odov ; others 

' There are none of tlie oldest atitliorities for tlie reading lia. ■iroia.s ABCD 
read toUs : tc Vulg. " qua parte." — Ed. and Tbansl. 

ST LUKE V. 25-39. 61 

25. "&.pai l<p M narixeiTOf having taken up that whereon he lay) A 
happy expression. The couch had borne the man : now the man 
was bearing the couch. 

26. Uapddo^a, things unexpected [strange, unlooked-for]) viz. mi- 
racles performed, sins remitted. — e^/ji,ipov) on this remarkable day. 

27. 'EhasciTo, He beheld) with compassion. 

28. "A'ravra, his all) Though by this very act his house did not 
cease to be his ; ver. 29. 

29. MiydXriv, a great) on account of the multitude of guests. 

30. 'EsSisti, do ye eat) The Plural is used by them ; but they 
were aiming at Jesus especially, as ver. 31 shows. 

32. Msravolav) MsTavola is the transition of the mind from sin to 
righteousness, from sickness to health. This change is something of 
a delightful, not of a formidable nature : comp. the instance of Levi 
in proof of this, ver. 27-29. 

33. Airieiig) Solemn supplications. 

34. Mn, Surely ye cannot, can ye ? make, etc.) As the Lat. num, 
this interrogation expects a negative answer. 

36. Uapa^oXriv, aparahle) From a garment, and from wine : a 
kind of parable especially appropriate at a banquet [ver. 29] : comp, 
ch. xiv. 7. — rh xccivov) new} 

39. EWIws, straightway) It is by degrees that the dispositions of 
minds are changed. — 6 vaXaihg, the old) Their own old doctrine was 
more palatable to the Pharisees than the generous (excellent) doc- 
trine of Christ, which they fancied to be new, whereas it was far more 
ancient than their own : Gal. iii. 17 [the covenant — the law, which 
was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul] ; 1 John 
ii. 7, 8 [«o new commandment— ^but an old commandment — from 
the beginning^ : as to the excellence of the new wine, see Zech. ix. 17 
[New wine — shall make cheerful — the maids] : though new, it is at 
the same time mild and pleasant. Matt. xi. 30. 

1 In the sense, not worn out by use, different from the old worn-out garments : 
but uUd applied to the wine, new, in the sense of fresh, recent, opposed to wine 
mellowed by age ; i/iog is lately originated, as opposed to that originated some 
time back ; neiiuog, not yet used, new, and different, as opposed to that which was 
formerly : hence Jesus does not say viov; dtrxoig, nor iftarioii ikon, nor ohav xaiuiu, 
but x,att/ovs ccaKovg, 'ifAUTtov Kottnov, and oivav niou. See Tittm. Syn. — Ed. and 

C3 6T LUKE VI. 1-6. 


1. 'Ev ^ajS^drtfi hmnporpuTw, on the second Sabbath after the first) 
See the Ordo Temporum, p.' 255, etc. [Ed. ii., p. 222, etc.J The 
Sabbath called nrpoirov was that one which combined the Sabbath and 
New Moon on one and the same day : the biuTipoirpoirov Sabbath was 
the day before the New Moon, and that too, in the present instance, the 
Sabbath on the last day of the month Ve-adar, in the 29th year of 
the common era.^ On every iiMnfoirpiiirov Sabbath there was read, 
as the Haphtara or public lesson, 1 Sam. xx. 18-42, concerning 
David. Appositely therefore, in ver. 3, our Lord quotes the case of 
what David did, from 1 Sam. xxi. 6. — Not. Crit. That year was 
with the Jews an intercalary one, and therefore the beginning of the 
month Nisan was late. Therefore already at that time they were 
having the ears ripe, namely, those of the barley crop. — V. g. 

3. Ohbi rovTo aviymri, Have ye not even read this) How often truly 
some passage of Scripture exactly suited to the existing state of 
things (the particular contingency), is presented before the eyes of 
men when they are thinking of nothing of the kind! — Y. g. — iJ im'ricit 
Aauld, what David did) The text of this very Sabbath exhibited the 
straits to which David was reduced, and the eating of the shew- 
bread follows immediately after this text. Thence it is that He has 
used the formula, which exactly squares with this, ovde rouro anyvurt. 
On the same Sabbath the Saviour appealed to the Priests, who in the 
temple " profane the Sabbath" (by slaying sacrifices), and yet are 
* blameless,' Matt. xii. 5 : viz. at that very time of year Leviticus 
used to be read in the regular course, and in it there is frequent 
mention of offering sacrifices, even on the Sabbath : ch. vi. 12, viii. 
33, xvi. 29, xxiii. 38.— Harm., p. 307, 308. 

[6. 'H Si^ia, the right hand) The benefit conferred in healing it was 
the greater (as it was the right, rather than the left hand). — V. g.] 

' Most scholars now explain livrspoTrpurov " the first of the seven numbered 
Sabbaths after the morrow of the Sabbath m the Passover feast." By the way, 
the reckoning from the morrow of the Sabbath in the Passover feast is a re- 
markable anticipation of the Resurection Lord's-day Sabbath, under the law. 
This levrepoTpurou 'Stififietroy here marks the second main division of the Gospel 
History, and the opening of the second year in our Lord's ministry. — Ed. and 

ST LUKE VI. 8-17 63 

8. KTirt, said) Doing all things openly. 

11. 'Avo/as, with madness) And yet at that very time they had 
good reason to have come to their senses spiritually [they were filled 
with ama, whereas they needed /Asravo/a]. 

12. UpodiuxV} player) It is even because of these His prayers that 
the Twelvp disciples are said to have been given to Jesus Christ : 
John xvii. 6 [comp. ver. 13 here in Luke vi.]. A great business 
was transacted on this night between God and the Mediator ! [Even 
elsewhere also Luke frequently mentions the prayers of Jesus: for 
instance, after His baptism, ch. iii. 21 ; before the questioning of 
His disciples to test them, recorded ch. ix. 18 ; before the transfigu- 
ration, ch. ix. 29 ; and when He taught His disciples to pray, ch. 
xi. 1. Comp. Mark i. 35 ; Luke v. 16 ; Matt. xiv. 23. No evan- 
gelist however but John, excepting in the instance of the history of 
His passion, has detailed the very words of Jesus when praying. — 
Harm., p. 239.] — rou ©eoD, of God) Comp. Mark xi. 22, note. 

13. "Or£, when) at early morning. — /j^a^nrag, the disciples) who as 
yet formed a mixed multitude. — iTtki^aj/tivoi, having chosen out) The 
construction remains pendent up to ver. 17 [where the verb 'iarri 
completes the Syntax]. — xat, also) Two appellations for them arose 
from this, and were subsequently used in other passages of Scripting, 
viz. The Twelve, and The Apostles. 

15. ZriXarriv, the devotee) The name of His native country l_Cana 
or Canaan] hereby is turned, from its derivation, into a designation 
of merit.^ 

16. 'lovdav'laxujSov, Judas the son [but Engl. Vers, the brother] 
of James) This James begat Judas and James. Comp. Jude ver. 1. 

17. AuTuv, them) [The Twelve] The First Class of His hearers. — 
roVou ■TTidrnv, on a level spot) This .spot was not in the bottom of the 
valley, but half-way down the mountain : a more suitable locality for 
addressing a large audience than a completely level plain.^ Such a 
locality is called in Lxx. Is. xiii. 2, opog ■Tndimv, a mountain table-land 

' In Matt. X. 4, Simon, the Canaanke, Th. ssp^, to be zealous. However Kaux- 
m/of is probably not, as Bang, thinks, the name of his country, but Is-tE = ^«?vOT^f . 
So the LXX. Exod xx. 5. Matthew* as writing to Jews, uses the Hebrew name 
Luke, as writing to Gentiles, the Greek. Before conversion he probably had be- 
longed to the sect of Zealots, who, like Phinehas, Num. xxv. 7, took the execu- 
tion of the law into their own hands. Subsequently, he was probably zealous id 
the better sense, and in that sense the name was still applied to him as an 
apostle. The Greek subsequently supplanted the Hebrew name, as nkpos did 
Cephas. — Ed. and Teansl. 

• Comp. Gnomon on ch. i. 1. Obs. 2, Note, Marg.— E. B. 

64 ST LUKE VI. 18-23. 

[but Engl. Vers, from Hebr., " Lift ye up a banner upon the high 
mountain "]. — o;(/aos /ta^jjrwu, a crowd of His disciples) The Second 
Class, which was divided further [by the selection of the Seventy], 
ch. X. 1. Supply idrri, stood. — ^rX^^os rnXu roZ XaoD, a great multitude 
of the people) The Third Class. — ma^aX'm) viz. %wfas, ruf-ou, the sea- 

18. Ka/ of) and they that were, etc. This is a species : the words 
■xXn^i iroXh, a great multitude, is the genus. 

20. Airfs, Himself) In antithesis to the people, whose attention 
was directed to His miracles rather than to His word (or to Himself, 
the Word). — tig, on) among. — o) irroixoi, the poor) These briefly- 
enunciated sentiments constitute D''^B'D parables : the meaning of 
which is presented to us more fully in Matt. v. 3, etc. Internal and 
external things often go together : for which reason the one is deno- 
minated of the other ; for instance, poverty or riches [i.e. " the poor 
in spirit" are simply called here the poor, by a denomination taken 
from external poverty. So of " the rich "] : ver. 24. — l/Liripa, yours 
peculiarly) Herein is His application of consolation individually. 
The expression s'lrdpa.g (tovs o(p6aX/iovg), having lifted up {His eyes), 
corresponds : for the glances of His eyes point out individuals [have 
a demonstrative power]. 

21. NDv, now) This particle is added to those particulars which 
apply to both worlds, according to the different characters of the 
men referred to.' 

22. 'Ex^dXciiii, cast out) defaming you in the way of contumelies 
in public and private. This is more than ovuSil^nv. The same 
phrase occurs, Deut. xxii. 19. — [rh ovo/ia v//,uv, your name) viz. the de- 
signation whereby they were called, the Disciples of Jesus Christ. 
— V. g.] — hixa, for the sake) viz. for this reason, because ye believe 
in the Christ, whom ye see. 

23. 'Elf, in) See Rom. ii. 16, note. — exipr^gaTi, leap for joy) The 
reward must surely be a great one : since He who thus commands 
us, is One whose words contain no hyperbole. — xara, raZra, accords 
ing to these things) Characteristics and means of distingTushing char- 
acter may be derived from examples : so ver. 26. Hebr. iijiNS, lxx. 
xara ravra. Num. xxviii. 24 ; but xara r^ aurd is the formula, Ezek. 
xlv. 25. And this is the reading of Epiphanius and the Cambridge 
MS. here." 

' i.e. Those who do not himger or weep now in this world, shall hunger and 
weep in the world to come, and vice versa. — Ed. 

' BDQ read kutiH rii uiira ; ' eadem ' in c ; ' similiter ' in a ; ' sic ' in d But 

ST LTJKE VI. 24-35. fiS 

24. [Oua/ \iij.%, woe is [not be] unto you) This is a denunciation, not 
an imprecation.— V. g?\—ita.(ayXn(siv, consolation) Ps. xlix. 7, 19, 
xvii. 14. 

25. 0/ liiitiirMsiLivoi, who are full) Their fulness does not deserve 
the name of "full satisfaction." Comp. {xopraeSrieisk, ye shall be 
filled to satisfaction, ye shall be fully satisfied] ver. 21. 

[26. KaX&Jj, well) whereas they do not wish well to Christ Him- 
self. — V. g.J — 27. ToTg axouovaiv, who hear) All My hearers, not 
merely the disciples : ver. 20 [where He limits His address to the 
disciples]. Hereby their attention is sharpened. 

30. {jlavrl di, but to every one) There is in this respect too much 
accumulation of exceptions by human ingenuity. — V. g.] — cc'if^ovro;, 
that taketh away) without asking. 

32. Xdpii, thanks) So thrice the idea is expressed ; see ver. 33, 34. 
What thanks are due to you, as though you had done some service of 
extraordinary merit, worthy of a special reward ? 

35. nXriv, but hoivever [though others do differently]) These three 
words, love, do good, lend, refer to the 32d, 33d, and 34th verses, 
from which reference the appropriateness of the verb davilt^^en is 
apparent. — ayaSomiiTrs, do good) Understand, to them who hold you 
in hatred. — baniZfri, lend) To give a loan with the hope of receiving 
it back, is an office of kindness becoming a man ; to do so without 
such hope, is one becoining a Christian : The latter is enjoined, the 
former is not forbidden, ver. 34, even as it [is not forbidden, but] 
is perfectly lawful to love friends.^ [Moreover many anxieties be- 
sides are brought upon the mind when one gives a loan, with the 
hope of receiving it back, to many men, who either cannot or will 
not repay. Thence there springs up a crop of thorns. — V. g.] — 
//.jjSsv) This means nothing, not iJ.Yi&iv, i.e. no person, for arnXviZ^oi no- 
where has an Accusative of the person. — acrEXT/^oi/rs;) am7~.afieTv IXm- 
tfivng, expecting to receive as much again : ver. 34. We might 
render it in Latin, resperantes. It is the same form of verb as 
aToyiveaaSai, avesMiiv, i.e. avo rivoi yiueaeiai, a-rro rivoc ieMiiv, as Casau- 
bon observes, from Athenseus.^ — iirl roiig d^aplaroug xal icovnfo-jg, to the 

h and Vulg. have " secundum haec ;" and AP Orig. 3,466a with Rec. Text, xard 
Tecvrct. — Ed. 

' Whilst we are enjoined to love enemies, this not being natmral to us, where- 
as the former is. — Ed. 

* xiv. c. 17 ; and d.ira.iTUu., i.e. alreiu dvo rmoi, Theophrast. Charact. ix. (xn.). 
But Wahl, Clams, fakes it, by no means despairing, viz. of being rewarded by 
God. So Diod. Sic. ii. 25 ; Pol. iii. 63, 13.— Ed. 

VOL. II. ^ 

06 ST LUKE VI. 36-39 

unthankful and the evil) the vilest of mortals : the evil, ■^ovripoHs, even 
though they have not as yet made themselves out to be unthankful 

36. Thesh- larl) These two verbs differ :' 1 FetA.16.'—o!xrlp//,on(, 
merciful) The root of all offices of kindness. [Works of mercy, 
sparing and giving mercy, are immediately subjoined. — V. g.J 

37. Mn xphiTi, [in xaradi}idt,ere, judge not, condemnnot) By judgmg, 
we decide as to the goodness or badness of an action : by condemn- 
ing, we determine as to the person, what (punishment) the guilty has 
deserved : comp. Matt. xii. 7. — aToXisre, let go free [Engl. Vers. 
forgive^]) aroXuerai, let go free (loosed), is applied to a person who was 
held fast (kept confined) ; but af)krai is applied to a debt being re- 
mitted, or forgiven, which was owed. Both verbs occur, Matt, xviii. 
27. As to the thing itself, Compare Is. Iviii. 6. 

38. KaXhv, good) in the quality, or even in the quantity, of those 
things, which are estimated by weight, number, or other means of 
measuring. — orEwsir/isi'oi', pressed down) in the case of dry goods. — 
eiffaXivf/-ivov, shaken together) in the case of soft goods. — {/■jripixx\jv6//,em, 

flowing over) in the case of liquids. 

39. AtiToTg, to them) viz. to the disciples, ver. 20. For that which 
we have in ver. 27 ["to you which hear"], where see the note, is 
not given in Matthew : nor is it the language of the Evangelist's 
narrative, but that of Jesus. Therefore it is with good reason 
thought that the discourse is constructed in the manner of a division 
into two parts, so as that the first part is addressed partly to the dis- 
ciples, in the hearing of the rest, ver. 20, partly to the crowd of 
hearers, ver. 27 ; whereas the latter part is addressed, from ver. 39, 
to the disciples. ' The material or subject-matter which the discourse 
rests upon, is itself in accordance with this view. — rufXlg, blind) 

' yiaich implifi)', that man is to become that which he is nnt naturally : wt/, 
that God essential^ is merciful. — Ed. 

^ Where Rec. Text reads yimaSt. But ABC Vulg. read 'iaiaSi, Ye shall be, 
or be ye, holy. Probably eWtfe, not yi'iimh, is used there, because no slfti follows 
«y(of, expressing that God is essentially holy : therefore the verb sTi/ai is there 
used of men, not as strictly referring to them, but with a tacit reference pro- 
perly to God, who alone is essentially holy, and whose nature we are to try to be 
partakers of. Transcribers, unable to explain the difficulty of htuSi, instead of 
the usual yimah or yhmSs, being associated with men, altered accordingly. 
Bengel's principle of testing genuine readings applies, " Praestat ardua lectio 
procliviori. " — Ed. 

• So 2 Mace. xii. 46, ufiapria; following. Wahl, Clavis, translates it condone, 
I absolve. However the distinction between dvoKiuo and igUnai supports Ben- 
gel's view. — Ed. 

ST LUKE VI. 40-48. 67 

Suffering under the pressure of " his own beam," ver. 42 ; viz. des- 
titute of compassion and love, 1 John ii. 9, etc. ; 2 Pet. i. 9 ; Phil, 
i. 9. — TvpXhv oSrjysTv, to lead the blind) An act which is a benefit if 
it be done by one possessing sight and experience. The benefits 
■ivhich are mentioned, ver. 39, 41, are more specious ones than 
those which are mentioned, ver. 37 : and so blind hypocrisy more 
readily hides itself under the former ; but in real fact the latter in a 
greater degree depress self-love. 

40. Kar/ipTidfisvog, perfect, perfected) Every disciple who has 
reached the highest goal of a particular discipline, whether that dis- 
cipline be a perfect one or imperfect, will be as his Master : moreover, 
in so far as he is a disciple, he will not exceed his Master. For which 
reason a disciple who has gotten a blind master, will with him fall into 
the pit. [He who evinces the desire to instruct others with admoni- 
tions concerning salvation, must by all means see clearly the way of 
life, be free from the " beam in the eye," be a good tree, and lay up 
and keep good treasure in his heart. — V. g.J 

41. Ae, but) But why dost thou, whereas a master ought to excel 
his disciple, wish to be master of him, to whom thou art even inr- 
ferior ? There ought to be not only vision in the eye, but also un- 
impeded vision. 

42. 'A^iXp'i, brother) Hereby is expressed the feigned assumption 
of a brother's office. To this Vocative is opposed the other, thou 
hypocrite. — uToxpiTo,, thou hypocrite) See note on y&p, for, next 
verse. — xapfog, a mote) the extraction of which, when properly done, 
is truly a work of mercy. 

43. Tap, for) The force of the for is, He who, whilst suffering 
under his own beam, yet aims at extracting rather another's mote, 
is like a bad tree affecting (aspiring) to bring forth good fruit. — 
miovv, producing,, bringing forth) A part of the subject.^ 

45. Qrjgocvpou, treasure, treasury) So it is here called : presently 
after it is called <!eipigsiv//,a, the abundance. [The interior of the 
human heart is spacious, capable of containing in no moderate de- 
gree good or else evil. Both break forth from it in words and 
deeds. — V. g.J 

[46. "A Xe/w, the things which I say) as your Lord, to whom obe- 
dience is due. — V. g.] 

48. ee/j-'eXiov, foundation) viz. an artificial one : a roch, a natural 

' The Predicate is ov—Uriv, the Subject is Ihlpou koKov iroiaZti KcepTov aairpat. 
— ^Ed. and Tbansl. 

ea ST LUKE VII. 2-6. 

one. To the former is opposed the absence of a foundation (ver. 
49, x'-'P^i 6i/iiXm) : to the latter, the mere earth {rriv ytiv). — oux "gyuat 
daXiZeai, was not able to shake it) much less to destroy it. 


2. "Evrz/io;, dear) even on account of his obedience [as well as for 
other reasons] : ver. 8. 

3. 'A/toutfas, having hearcl) He had not yet seen Jesus. — ■apteSvTi- 
poug, elders) These, though they were not destitute of faith, ver. 4, 
yet had less faith than he by whom they were being sent, ver. 9. 
Yet nevertheless it is not in vain that they ask in his behalf. [The 
benefits of Christ at that time appertained especially to the Jews : 
hence it was becomingly that the Jews in this case acted as inter- 
cessors. — V. g.J Often those who have little weight of influence 
with God, have more power to be of service to others, who are their 
superiors, than to themselves. 

4. "a^ios, worthy) The centurion himself thought differently of 
himself, " Neither thought I myself worthy," ver. 7. — wapiE.'i) Others 
read waps^ii ; but the construction supports the Subjunctive: &^i6; 
effriVf w '?rap'i^ti touto.^ 

5. ' Kjam^, he loveth) A feeling which is rare in a Roman soldier. 
— yap, for) It was in a different tiling that his chiei worthiness lay, 
namely, in \a.s faith; ver. 9. — aurhg) himself, of himself, of his own 
accord. This act, viz. his building a synagogue, was something 
greater and more rare than his loving their nation. — ^'xoSo^jjifsii, lie 
has built) at his own expense, or by his command : not merely did 
he not (as others) profane and violate a synagogue. 

6. "h3/i hi, but now) Whilst he feels sensibly the promptness of the 
Lord, the reverence of his faith increases in the centurion. — p/Xouj, 
friends) He had sent elderi for the sake of beseeching (ver. 4) : now 
he employs friends to deliver a second message. Could then friends 
" come unto" the Lord, when the centurion himself did not ? Yes ; 
because they went unto the Lord in behalf of the centurion, not in 

' ABCDLA read xa/iilj). « Dignus est ut hoc illi prsestes," Vulg. Kec. Text 
lias T«csj£( without aoy very old authority. — Ed. and Teansl. 

ST LUKE VII. 7-11. 69 

behalf of themselves. The one and the same faith produces in dif- 
ferent persons different mental effects and emotions. 

7. E/Vs Xo'y^) say (command) in a word. 

8. Taego/iews) The present, with a reference to each particular 
order [being subject in each particular instance of awiAoniy exercised 
over me]. 

10. 'ryiahovra) not merely whole and sound {uyiri), hnt using the 
health and soundness given him [hymhovTa']. 

, 11. 'Ev tSj sg^s) So iv rSj xah^ijg, ch. viii. 1. Ancient translators 
generally understand this expression of a day following, I know not 
whether precisely, the next day. The Vulgate has deinceps ; but the 
genuine text of the Vulg. has, according to Mill, alia die. Mill 
cites no authority : and yet it is not of much consequence ; for the 
sense even thus may be indefinite. Altera die [the second or next 
day"], sequenti die,^ which the Vulgate elsewhere is wont to use, 
would be different.^ The series of events in this place requires a 
less definite time ; for the raising of the young man of Nain is con- 
nected more closely with the subsequent message [deputation] sent 
by John, than with the preceding healing of the centurion's servant, 
as we have shown in the Harmony of the Gospels, § 62. [The 
daughter of Jairus was first raised to life before the young man of 
Nain : and on that account the faith of Jairus is the more praise- 
worthy, because it had no precedent to look to of a dead man raised 
to hfe by Jesus. The Lord secretly raised the daughter of Jairus, 
and ordered that act of raising the dead to be even kept secret ; but 
then next He raised up both the young man of Nain and Lazarus 
publicly. Nain was one of those cities of which mention is made in 
Matt. xi. 1, nay, indeed previously in Matt. ix. 35. For since the 
disciples went to the city of Nain in a body [whereas when sent forth 
they went " by two and two,'' Mark ri. 7], there is hardly reason to 
doubt that the raising up of the young man took place before the 
sending forth of the Twelve Apostles, who were confirmed in the 
faith by this very miracle. — Harm., p. 296.] — Nah, Nain) The spe- 
cification of the name of the town, as also the double multitude [the 
" much people" following the Lord, and also the " much people " 
following the funeral of the young man, ver. 11, 12] of spectators, 
confirms the certainty of the miracle. 

' Not die sequenti : the latter may be a day followinff : the former is neces- 
sarily the/ollowinff day. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

" ab and the oldest MSS. of Vulg. have deinceps. c has sequenti die—Eo. 
and Tbansl. 

TO ST LUKE VII. 12-18. 

12. ■ E^ixofj^llero, was being carried forth) It is right that the dead' 
should be carried forth for burial to places somewhat removed from 
the abodes of the hving.— siiv avrri, with her) Funeral rites and ser- 
vices were designed rather for the sake of the mourners than for the 
sake of the dead bodies. 

13. "O Kvpios, the Lord) This sublime appellation was better known 
and more used when Luke and John wrote, than when Matthew 
wrote. Mark holds a midway place. This head of the faith needed 
to be taught and estabhshed in the beginning : then afterwards it 
might be taken for granted.— lo-TrXay^wV^)], the bowels of Eis compas- 
sion were moved) And so for the consolation of the mother, the young 
man must return to this life. — fji,ri xXaTi, weep not) His thus adminis- 
tering consolation before the performance of the miracle, shows His 
power of surely performing it. It is His frequent preface elsewhere, 
Fear not. Among men [on the part of men] there is always some- 
thing which the approach of God has to remove out of the way at 
the beginning. 

14. "H-4^aro, touched) A touch full of power. — sopou, the bier) on 
which the youth seems to have been laid, rather than shut into [as 
in a coflin\. — /SaoTa^ovrs?, the bearers) expecting help. — vjawVxf, young 
man) Jesus knew that the youth who had died was not a daughter, 
but a son. He employed in such addresses, either the appellative, 
Mark v. 41, or else a proper name, John xi. 43. — <sol Xiyos, I say to 
thee) to thee, not as yet [as I shall at the general resurrection] to the 
other men. 

15. "'EStaxiv, gave) For the youth had already ceased to belong to 
his mother.' Comp. aiirsdoni, ch. ix. 42 ; 1 Mace. x. 9. 

16. UpotpriTyjs, a prophet) Hebr. N''33 is not only one who predicts 
the future, but one who imparts to men divine gifts, lessons. — 
xal on) By this formula the two epiphonemata [exclamations sub- 
joined to the narrative which gave rise to them] are divided from 
one another. — [I'Triex.i-^aTo, hath visited) For that visitation we have 
even still reason to celebrate the divine love to man, piXavSpuTria. — 

17. Tri mpi'xuipu, the region round about) viz. of Galilee, not how- 
ever excluding the adjacent Gentile regions. 

[18. Kai uvfiyyiiXav, and the disciples of John announced) viz. 
when the works of Christ, then raising the dead, had reached their 
climax. Comp. John v. 21. — V. g.] 

' By His death : therefore he used eSwxej/, not dTrehaiav, which however Ac 
reads, though BDa6 Vulg. Iran, support tWei/. — Ed. and Transl. 

ST LUKE VII. 19-30, 71 

19. TlpoexaXida/j^etoc:, having called to him) John had not disciples 
so frequently with him as the Saviour had. 

20. "Avdpeg, men) John had disciples of a more advanced age : 
Jesus had those who were youths. 

21. Nodcav xal /iaffr/ywv, diseases and plagues) The "oeoi were linger- 
ing diseases : the fidanytg, plagues, were attended with acute pain. 
— sX<''P'<"^'^o, He freely gave) A magnificent expression. To bestow as 
a free gift, %af ;Vaff5a/, was not a prerogative of the Apostles in their 
miracles. Comp. Uaimv, He gave, in ver. 15. 

[23. Mri exaidaXia^r), shall not have taJcen offence at) Whatsoever is in 
Jesus Christ is good and profitable; even that very exterior (of low- 
liness, which Jesus had for a time, and) which gave offence to men 
of a perverse mind, is worthy of its own peculiar praise (has its 
peculiar meritoriousness). — V. g.] 

27. 'Idoij, Behold) See Matt. xi. 10, notes. 

29. Ka^ ■Trag, and all) Luke sets forth what the people did, and 
what on the other hand the Pharisees did, in order that he may 
show, why Jesus spake at the one time those things which are joined 
together by both verses.' A similar division of the sentence is to be 
seen. Matt. ix. 6.^ — axoiaac, having heard) John. — xat) and [that is] 
especially the publicans, whom others had most despaired of as irre- 
claimable. — idixaiuaav, justified) They approved and submitted to 
the ordinance of God, the baptism of repentance, as being just. The 
same verb occurs presently, ver. 35. 

30. No/iixol, the lawyers) Luke departs further from the Hebrew 
idiom than Matthew and Mark ; for instance, he says even akrtSus for 
a/i^v. So often he says vof/^ixovg, meaning the same persons, I imagine, 
as are elsewhere called ypa//,/x,aTiTg, Hebr. D''^aD, scribes.^ — slg iauToug) 

' i.e. The things spoken ver. 24-28, which refer to the multitude (roiis o^Tioi/f 
in ver. 24, answering to 6 TiaoV, ver. 29), are joined with those spoken ver. 31-35, 
in reference to the Pharisees and lawyers (ver. 30), by the pair of verses, 29, 30, 
introduced parenthetically by way of explanation.— Ed. and Transl. 

' Where similarly the writer introduces, parenthetically, a necessary remark 
of his own between the former and latter parts of Christ's words — Ed. and 

' S. B. D. Crusius, Hypomn. P. I., pp. 509, 510, has given many proofs to 
show that these terms vo/aixol, i/ofioiihaenaT^oi, ypafifictTils, were used indiscrim- 
inately, so as to be defined at times from the context and scope of the speaker. 
— E. B. Though in Matt, xxviii. 35, Luke x. 26, ' lawyer ' answers to ypxpi- 
(itmiiig, Mark xii. 28, it does not follow the two are identical ; for the person 
may have been both a lawyer and a scribe. All that is definitely known is, that 
the lawyers were expounders of the law, whether publicly or privately, or both. 
—Ed. and Tra-NSL. 

73 ST LUKE VII. 31-35. 

j/'s has the effect of limiting ; as far as they themselves were concerned 
[But Engl. Vers, against themselves] : for they were not able to set 
aside the counsel of God itself, [however they might frustrate the 
loving provision of grace in their own case.] 

31. 'Of/,Ditieu, shall I liken) viz. in words.— ofioioi, like) viz. in actual 
fact. True -vyords express the actual fact. 

33. "Aprov, bread)lnthe baking of bread, art intervenes : but John 
used whatever food was thrown in his way altogether unartificial.— 
xal Xsyiri, and ye say) See ver. 39, where similar bad language was 
being spoken in the heart of a Pharisee. 

35. Kal idixaiiiSfi ri aopia a-ro tZ\i rixiiuv aurri; itawm) and wisdom 
has been (habitually) justified hy [on the part of, owing to] all who 
are her sons. Kal has the force, and; for Jesus manifestly continues 
His complaint (comp. Matt. xi. 19, where He does not express until 
the end of ver. 25 that which these words might otherwise be 
thought to denote, but all her children have justified wisdom) : and 
moreover transfers, as it were indirectly, the complaint from the 
hypothesis, viz. concerning the perverseness of the men of that time, 
to the thesis, viz. concerning the perpetual and habitual characteris- 
tic of the Jewish people, just as He has also transferred it in ch. xi. 
47, 48. It is to this that the adjective Tavrm, all, has reference : 
this also is the intention of the use of the past time (wherein often is 
included the force of the verb, is wont) in has been (habitually) jus- 
tified (whereas, ye say, in the present time, precedes : ver. 34) : this 
also is the reason of the employment of the term. Wisdom [viz. 
as appropriate when speaking, as here, of a fact habitual in all 
times] ; for He is no longer now called the Son of man, as in the 
preceding verse, but Wisdom : and of these terms the one (Son of 
man) is suitable to Christ's manifested state ; the other (Wisdom) 
to all times : ch. xi. 49. Furthermore He is called in this place 
Wisdom, inasmuch as He Himself best knows what is ' to be done ; 
and His own actions, replete with the purest accommodation [adapta- 
tion] to sinners, ought not to have been called to account. Add 
Prov. viii. 1, 32. The children of this Wisdom are not Pharisees, 
and those like them (which otherwise would not be inappropriate to 
be said here ; comp. ch. xiii. 34, at the end, and Matt. viii. 12) ; but 
the Apostles, as well as all publicans and sinners who had been con- 
verted to Jesus out of the whole people ; whom He thus names, in 
order to show His own tie of connection with them, and His right 
of associating with them, and the perverseness of the calumniators. 
In Thucydides and other writers, dixaiouv, to justify, when used of a 

ST LUKE VIl. 35. 73 

person, denotes to pass sentence or fix a punishment against (to be 
inflicted on) any one, and that a just sentence or punishment ; when 
used of a thing, it denotes to account anything just. Gataker, Diss, 
de stilo Novi Instr. cap. 8, proves this in opposition to Pfochenius, and 
considers this to be an altogether striking instance of Biblical Gra3- 
cism being different from the Greek style of the heathen classics : 
for in the sacred writings pisn, dixaiovv, signifies to give one's judg- 
ment in favour of any one, or in other words, to pronounce one just, 
whether by a just or unjust judgment. Comp. note on Kom. iii. 20. 
AixaioiJsSai, Sir. xviii. 22, is the same as a.'jrodouvai : for he who owes 
a debt is as it were arraigned [a defendant] ; he who pays it [kto- 
Sldoiei], or makes good what he was bound to make good, is set free 
[S/xa/oura;]. French, s'acqidtter [to pay off, lit. to acquit one's self]. 
And yet we are not to think that both senses of the term cannot be 
reduced to the one notion, justifying ; for the judge accounts that 
satisfaction has been given him, both in the case of him who has borne 
his fiill punishment, and in the case of him who has been acquitted, 
and thence that both are in his eyes just. There is in the former 
use of the word the additional element of an Euphemism, which is not 
needed in the latter. In this passage also dixaiouv is employed in 
the good sense : and sdixaiuiri, has been justified, contains a Metonymy 
of the consequent for the antecedent (for every justification presup- 
poses an accusation, a caiise at issue and some controversy, Kom. iii. 
4 ; Gen. xliv. 16, LXX. : [and so here the consequent, has been jus- 
tified, is put instead of the antecedent, has been subjected to trial]), 
combined with a strong Euphemism. Wisdom has been justified ; 
that is to say, accusers have brought her to trial, have been offended 
at her, ver. 23, and have brought the matter to such a pass, that she 
has been at length obliged to have herself justified, and to be vindi- 
cated as just, and that it should be shown, that all her actions have 
been so ordered as to swallow up (counteract) injustice, and fulfil 
righteousness ; whereas, however, she ought to have been embraced 
without any objection being raised to need justification of her. A 
similar passage occurs, Eom. x. 21 : 1 Cor. iv. 12, 13. Wisdom 
has been defended and justified from the taunts of gluttony and 
wine-bibbing, thrown out against her ; and that too by (a^J) her 
own children, and by them all : on the part of all her own sons 
arose to her the necessity of justifying herself, and of defending all 
her actions along with them [as well as defending them]. See ch. 
V. 22, 30, 33, vi. 2, 7, and in this 7th chapter itself ver. 40, xi. l7, 
xiii. 16, XV. 3, xix. 7 ; Matt. xv. 2. Comp. the use of icri, Luke 

7-t • ST LUKE VII. 3G, 37. 

^x. 3 [He was not able, dcrJ roD 'ix^ou, owing to the throng] ; 2 Cor. 
ii. 3,^ X. 7; Heb. x. 22; Lxx. Eccl. viii. 11; Is. xxv. 9; Job 
XXXV. 9 ; Ps. xxviii. (xxvii.) 1, xxxiii. 8, cxix. 53, and Is. xlix. 19, 
ii. 3, in the Hebr. VamD. So am, on account of, LXX. Ps. Ixvii. 
(Hebr. Ixviii.) 29 [a^^ roD vaoD eov M 'lipoveaXrifi, on account of, 
because of, thy temple at Jerusalem; as here. Because of her 
children, Wisdom has had to be justified], where D and 7J? are 

36. 'AvexXi6n, He lay down (sat down) to meat) without having 
first taken a look at the house, as guests given to curiosity are 
wont ; also without having taken water or oil, ver. 44 (comp. ch. 
xi. 37), so as to admit (receive) to Himself the penitent woman the 
sooner, ver. 45. 

37. Tuvri, a woman) whose name is unknown. [There is certainly 
a great correspondence between this history and that which John 
xii. 3, etc. ; Matt. xxvi. 6, etc. ; and Mark xiv. 3, etc., record : 
especially in this respect, that both events happened in the house of 
a certain Simon. But indeed the anointing described by Luke 
took place in a city of Galilee, before the transfiguration, nay, even 
before the second Passover: the other anointing took place at 
Bethany, six days before the third Passover. The woman in Luke 
had been heretofore a sinner ; Mary had been a different kind of 
character, John xi. 1, 2 (comp. ver. 5). In fine, Simon the Pharisee 
doubted whether Jesus was a prophet : whereas Simon the leper 
had no longer any grounds left for doubting, inasmuch as Lazarus, 
who had been raised to life, was present. — Haj^n., p. 302.] — a/j^ap- 
ToiXhg, a sinner) Referring to the chief sin which women can commit, 
unchastity. — -/.at smyvoijsa, and having come to know [having learnt]) 
Ka), and, omitted by many, is here a redundant particle ;' but yet 
it adds grace to the sentence, as 1 in "iriD'l, 1 Chron. xxviii. 5. The 
particle may also seem to have been repeated after a parenthesis 
[xa; /3oi) yuvj) ( — ) xal iTTiyv.], for the purpose of separating the men- 
tion of her sins and of her conversion. — sv rfi oixic^, in the house). 
Love impelled her so, as that she did not expect to find a more 
convenient place or opportunity for eflFecting her purpose elsewhere. 

' " Have sorrow, dip' Zu 'ilii fi,e x'^ipem, arising from those from Tvhom I 
ought to have cause of joy." So here, Wisdom has needed to justify her ac- 
tions, the need arising on the part o/her children, whom, as well as herself and 
her actions, with respect to them she has had to justify. — Ed. and Transl. 

^ ABPA Memph. Syr. support it. Rec. Text and Vulg. omit it. — Ed. and 

ST LUKE VII. 38-46. 75 

38. 'OTTieu, behind) As being one who wished to make no osten- 
tatious display of what she was doing. Love taught her to do that 
which, to one who loves not, would seem out of place [inept], and 
which no one would require his servant (slave) to do : and so love 
taught her without human instruction. Similar instances occur, 
ch. xvii. 15, xix. 37. — 6pi^l) with the hairs, dishevelled, as in mourn- 
ing. Most exquisite [refinement in her] reverence ! 

39. E/, if) Nay, but if thou, Simon, didst know what kind of a 
character this woman was now become, thou wouldest judge other- 
wise. — -rrpoiprirng, a prophet) [The people had called Him so, ver. 16. 
— V. g.J Previously Simon had doubted: now he quickly [and 
without hesitation] affirms the contrary [viz. that He without doubt 
is not a prophet]. — 'Byimaxiv an, He would have known) Not even does 
this follow, that he, whoever does not know any man that comes in 
his way, is decidedly no prophet. — d'jmrai, touches) His idea was, 
that not even a touch of such a sinner was to be borne, much less 
the whole of her proceeding. 

40. "Ej/w, I have) A courteous preface. He does not call this 
Pharisee a hypocrite. — AiddaxaXe, Master) Simon had some degree of 
respectful modesty. 

42. Ms] i^ovrm, when they had nothing) Therefore the debt is not 
paid by the love and grateful feeling which follow after. — ayw^rjasi, 
will love) Future. For the debtor, who is not able to pay, before 
the remission of the debt, Jlies from the creditor [rather than loves 

43. 'opSag) p, LXX. 6p6u;. — 'ixpims, thou hast judged) a judg- 
ment which goes against thine own self; ver. 47. 

44. Tavrriv, this) The woman, by her very attitude and appear- 
ance at the time, was refuting Simon, and moving the emotions of 
all present [save Simon]. — ioij, thy) Therefore in this instance 
Simon's obligation [as being in his own house, and the host] was 
greater than that of the woman. — ovx Uuxag, thou hast not given) 
Simon treated Jesus in the way that a guest who is not honoured 
is treated. — roTg ddKpvem, with tears) The Lord observed and notices 
all the circumstantial details of her pious action : Ps. Ivi. 9 (8). 
Tears are the most precious of waters. 

45. 0iXn/j,a, a kiss) This Simon had omitted, owing to the small- 
uess (the little degree) of his love : otherwise we do not read of even 
any of His disciples or friends having kissed the face of Jesus, which 
had something remarkable about it, ch. ix. 29 ; but the highest 
degree of love, such as here in ver. 38, and the utmost familiarity 

76 ST LUKE VII. 46, 47. 

of intimacy, as in John xiii. 25, stopped considerably short of that 
hberty. We do not read of His having kissed even the Httle 
children. The traitor alone (for the unprecedented familiarity of a 
kiss was not a thing alien to his treachery) with impure mouth pro- 
faned the face of the Lord : except in this instance, it remained 
intact and unviolated by sinful flesh. 

46. 'EXa/w, with oil) To this is opposed in antithesis fivpov, the 
ointment [of the woman], precious and compounded. Oil was un- 
compounded, and, owing to the abundance of olives among the 
Jews, was less costly. — roug vobai, My feet) as she did not presume 
to anoint My head. 

47. a; mXKal, the many, [Engl. Vers, not so well, which are 
manyj) the many sins, which thou, Simon, dost bring forward as 
objections against her. The article is to be referred to ver. 39.— - 
oTi, because, seeing that) That is to say, the forgiveness of her sins, 
which was not thought of by Simon, is proved by the fruit, ver. 42 
[where the love of the forgiven debtor is the proof that he has been 
indeed forgiven], which is evident, and forces itself upon the eyes 
of all present [is obvious to be seen], even though the forgiveness 
be hidden [is not to be seen with the eyes]. Add the antithesis 
which follows in the text, JBut to whom^ etc. In order to refute 
Simon, there is cited by the Lord that vsdiich is " the fulfilling of 
the law," namely, love, as being the criterion of sins being forgiven 
which was suited to the comprehension of the Pharisee : whereas to 
the woman herself, her faith (ver. 50) is said to have saved her. 
The former expression has more of an enigmatical character in it : 
the latter is more strictly literal. The more weight that each 
assigns to love in this matter above faith, the more like to Simon 
he is, and the more removed is he from the feeling of the woman, 
and of the Lord Himself. Love is the criterion of forgiveness, 
even though he who loves does not so think as to forgiveness.' — 
S) Si, hut to whom) mildly expressed ; not actually saying, though 
meaning, thou, to whom, as the force of the antithesis implies ; other- 
wise there are not wanting persons who " love much," even though 
great transgressions have not been committed by them previous to 
their forgiveness. — hxiyov, little) Speaking comparatively, and after 
the manner of men, he loves tenfold less ; ver 41 [as the debtor who 
was forgiven fifty pence, a tenfold less debt than five hundred, loved 

^ He does not so dwell in thought on his own acts of love as the pledges of 
his forgiveness. He dwells rather hj faith on what Christ has done,' than ou 
what he himself has done. — Ed. and Teansl. 

ST LUKE VIII. 48-50._VIII. 1, 2. 77 

proportionally less].— ayaTa, loves) but yet he loves, provided only 
he has obtained forgiveness. The multitude of sins forgiven will 
exceedingly stimulate in the elect their eternal love tow^ards God. 

48. ' Aip'eaiiTai, are forgiven) Forgiveness is not now for the first 
time given to the woman, but is confirmed to her. The greatest 
sinners often become the largest vessels of grace. Even at table the 
Saviour used " the power of the keys." 

49. T/'s ovToc IdTiv, who is this?) Answer : It is the Son of man.— - 
xa.!) even. It is a greater exercise of power to forgive sins, as far as 
the reality is concerned, than to heal miraculously a sick man. 

50. EJVs 8i, moreover He said) Jesus confirms the woman in her 
faith against all doubts. The same expression is found, ch. viii. 48, 
xvii. 19, xviii. 42. — mang, faith) not thy love. Faith has regard to 
ourselves : by love others are convinced [and convicted of their own 
want of love, in many cases, as in this instance]. — mpiuou els £//>!Jln^^ 
So Lxx. 1 Sam. i. 17. So below, ch. viii. 48. 


1. AvTos diii&iui xaT& 'jro'kiv xal xutfiriv, The Lord Himself toas pass- 
ing throughout evert/ city and village [lit. city by city and village by 
village]) How great was the loving condescension of the Son of God! 
[There is no need that we should be anxious to form a calculation of 
the number of His journeyings. The several evangehsts record them 
on different occasions : in fact, all the daily life of Jesus was spent 
in conferring benefits on all by word and deed. — Harm., p. 315.] 

2. Tihpa'7riu//,'sva,i, healed) By this the power of Jesus was being 
shown, as well as the pious affection of the women, in that they were 
following Him. [Though these women were not present at the 
voyage to Gadara, which is to be presently mentioned by Luke, 
although it in reality occurred previously, nor, as it appears, at 
the journey which the Lord took " in secret" (John vii. 10) to the 
feast of tabernacles, and which is narrated by John alone; yet, 
from this point of time, which was (distant) by the interval of a 
year from the Passion, they endeavoured in every way to show 
their adherence to the Lord Jesus, and to minister to Him : for it 
was during this very attendance on Him that they accompanied 
Him to Jerusalem ; which is the reason why Luke, ch, xxiii. 49, 55, 

73 ST LUK.K VIII. 3-14. 

thinks it unnecessary to repeat their names, as he refers to this verj' 
passage, ch. viii. 2.— Harm., p. 315, 316.] This retinue of women 
were, from the utmost wretchedness [viz. their possession by evil 
spirits'], admitted to the utmost fehcity [viz. their hourly communion 
with Jesus], just as happened in the case of David's veteran band. 
It was a matter of custom among the Jews (as Simonius remarks), 
that women, especially widows, should relieve doctors and Eabbis 
out of their private resources, and should, for that purpose, accom- 
pany them on their journeys. — [Mapla, Mary) Somewhat fastidious 
men, even then, may have been inclined to turn away from her with 
disgust, on account of her former wretchedness : but she was held 
in high account with Jesus. — V. g.] 

3. 'ludi/va, Joanna) the wife of a husband of high standing in the 
world. [Her public attendance on the Saviour does not seem to 
have been without effect, in bringing it about that Herod came to 
know something concerning Jesus, ch. ix. 7. — ^V. g.] : yet in the 
household of Jesus Mary Magdalene takes precedency of her. — 
imrpomv, steward). — Sirjxovouv, ministered) The record of their minis- 
try to the Lord is an ample reward of their liberality. But at that 
time, no doubt, many supposed them to be silly women. 

4. Tuv xaTtt. mXiv) out of evert/ city there was some body of men. — 
l-jTimpeuo/iimv) 'E'ttI is to be referred to the multitude of the people. 

5. 'O (S'Tnip'M Tov (SinTpai tov a-jropov, a sower to sow his seed) Conju- 
gate words excite attention. 

8. 'Exa.Tovra'TrXasiom, a hundredfold) Matthew and Mark add sixty 
and thirty. Luke, wishing to give but one genus, expresses, as is 
customary, the highest ; in which the others are included. 

12. 'Avh TTjg xaphiac, out o/ their heart) Implying the great power 
of the Devil ; [who, however, has less power on the second and third 
classes mentioned in this place than on the first. — V. g.] — irianv- 
eavTig, having believed) We are saved by the word through faith : 
ver. 13. Faith is the appropriate fruit of the word. 

13. C^ija'irM, receive) This is the beginning of faith. — '!:pli %aiplv) 
So 1 Cor. vii. 5. 

14. Kai "TrXoiirou) Repeat wo ; comparing Mark iv. 19, [where the 
cares of this world are made distinct from the deceitfulness of riches : 
showing that -TrXoirou here is governed, not by lapif/^vuv, but by i'^iJ.] 
Construe the words with gu/jimlyovrai, they are choked. — Topiuofisvoi, 
setting out, going their way) without any rapid and manifest apos- 
tasy (faUing away), nay, even with some degree of progress. For 
this is the force of the verb 1?'' 'Tropeio/iui. The increments in good 

ST LUKE VIII. 15-21, 79 

and evil go on simultaneously, not only in the case of men collec- 
tively, Matt. xiii. 30, but also in the case of individuals. — oi reXie- 
0opovs/) they do not bear the fruit perfected and ripened, viz. faith 
itself, in such a way as that they should attain the reXog, or " end of 
faith, the salvation of their souls:" ver. 12 : comp. 1 Pet. i. 9. 
Plutarch, riXigpopa devdpa,. 

15. ['El' rfj xaXri yri, on the good ground) Lest such a soil should 
not be sown upon, it is better that some seed should be thrown 
away on the wayside, etc.— Y. g.J — nakr, xal ayaS^) See Matt. vii. 
17. A frequent compound is xaXoxayaSog. KocXhg has somewhat of 
a relative meaning, ayaShg is absolute. — yiarixovai, retain, keep it fast) 
not as on the wayside.^ — -xapn^opove/, bear fruit) not as among- the 
thorns. — iv hvo/jiof/i, with patience) not as on the rocky ground. 
'Tirofiovri answers to the one Hebrew word nipn, waiting, hope. It is 
strength of mind, sustained by good hope. It precedes the act of 
bearing fruit in such a way as even to accompany it : on this 
account it is here put at the end. This constitutes the sum of 

16. t6 pus) the light, not the candlestick [or lamp which holds 
the light, Xu;)^K)i']. Man's nature no more has light of itself [derived 
from itself], than the material of the candlestick has it. For this 
light is added from without, that is, by Divine agency, through the 
word. Therefore the candlestick does not seek to be beheld, as far 
as itself is concerned, but serves that the light may be beheld : and 
the good hearer, like the candlestick, always hears in such a way 
as that he may be of use to as many as possible by his shining : 
and he himself, in turn, day by day increases in the brightness 
of his shining. 

17. V&.p, for) The light even now already loves to be seen, be- 
cause it is about to be wholly revealed. 

18. [nSs, how) With what result and fruit. — V. g. — axoviTc, ye 
hear) Ye especially who are appointed to instruct others. — V. g 

iJs yap uv 'ix'fl, for whosoever hath) and has accordingly done his best, 
by word and deed, to effect that the word or light should strike the 
eyes of others. — V. g.] — ^oxe?; seems) He only seems to have who 
does not use. Accordingly, if that too [the semblance of having] 
be taken away, what, I would ask, will remain left to the wretched 
being ? 

20. AiyovTuv) The genitive absolute, i.e. when they were saying, 
•yavh. So the lxx. 1 Chron. xvii. 24, etc. 
, 21. [MfiTTip /iou, my mother) See ver. 2. -V. g. — adtXpo! /tou, my 

80 ST LUKE VUI. 22-43. 

brethren) ver. 1, at tlie end.— V. g.j—ouToi, these) Used demon- 

22. Ka; lyhiTo, and it came to pass) The author, in the Harm. Ev., 
§ 49, shows that a transposition has place here in Luke, and also 
in Mark; and in the same work, p. 264, he considers as most cor- 
responding to the truth such a series of events, as that there should 
follow after one another in succession : 1) The evening, on which 
Christ bade them get ready for the voyage (sailing) across (Mark iv. 
35 ; Luke viii. 22) ; 2) The morning, in which, having been sought 
out by the multitude. He declared that He must preach to others 
also (Mark i. 35, 36 ; Luke iv. 42, 43) ; 3) The voyage, and the 
preaching throughout the whole of Gahlee, partly before, partly 
after the voyage (Matt. viii. 23 ; Mark iv. 36, 37, i. 39 ; Luke 
viii. 22, 23, iv. 44). 

23. Kari^rj, came down) viz. from the air. 

24. 'Emffrara, ImardTo,, Master, Master) An Epizeuxis [a repeti- 
tion of the same word in the same sentence to give force. Append.] 
answering to the feeling of the moment. 

25. Iioi;, where) There was some faith on their part, but it was 
not ready at hand in the emergency 

27. ['Avjj/s rig, a certain man) A remarkable and extraordinary 
instance of demoniacal possession. — ^V. g.] — om hididUxiTo, wore no 
clothes) Satan, when he can, reduces man to such a state of misery 
as even to neglect natural decorum. God loves order, propriety, 
measure, etc. 

29. Tap, for) This assigns the caUse of the expulsion, and of the 
greater suffering which was conjoined with it. — fiXavviro, was driven) 
with the utmost violence ; comp. ver. 33 ; and without his being 
able to exercise his reason, ver. 35. 

31. E/'ff rriv ajSuifffov, into the deep) Dnn, LXX. a^useog often ; corap. 
Rev. ix. 11, XX. 3. In the deep or abyss, 1) They are not wor- 
shipped by bad men ; 2) They cannot injure men ; 3) They feed 
(brood) upon their own wretchedness, and do not, however, as yet 
seem to be tortured in that place of confinement. The power of 
Jesus Christ extends over animals, demons, and the abyss : and 
the demons acknowledged the fact. 

[39. 2o/', unto thee) Every one can be the weightiest witness of 
those things which have been vouchsafed to himself by the Divine 
favour. — V. g. 

42. Movoysvjj?, one only-begotten) Ch. vii. 12. — V. g.] 

43. 'loirpoTi, physicians) Luke, being a physician himself, writes 

ST LUKE VIII. 47-54.-1X. 1-9. 81 

candidly, — •jrpogavaXJJeam) The Tphg implies, besides his affliction of 
body. — oiix "g^vm — heam\j6riva.i) was not able — to be healed, i.e. the 
physicians were not able to heal her. 

47. oOx sXah, that she had not escaped notice [was not hid]) She 
had wished to escape Jesus' notice. — humov, in the presence of) Faith 
drives away all unseasonable modesty. 

50. Kal geaSrjgirai, and she shall be saved [made wholej) from 
death. The word was one suited to give hope. 

51. 'liridvvriv xa.1 'Idxta^ov, John and James) That John should be 
at times put first is the less wonderful, as even John alone is some- 
times added to Peter : ch. xxii. 8. 

53. Eidorig, knowing) Therefore all of these persons must have 
recognised the reality of the miracle. 

54. 'h 'xccTg, maid) Luke has least of all employed Hebrew idioms. 


1. ['SuyxaXiaa/jLivo;, having called together) Therefore it was no 
ordinary business. — V. g.] — wavra, all) All of every kind, which 
might meet them. — kpamvuv, to cure) This depends on 'ibtaxiv, He 

3. "'E-xiiv, to have) The Infinitive may be resolved either into an 
Imperative or into a Gerund. 

4. 'ExeMev, frora thence) Let your exit from the house and from 
the city be at one and the same time. 

6. Kw/iac, the villages [towns]) The cities are not excluded, but , 
much rather are taken for granted : ver. 5. 

7. Airimpij, was perplexed) They who have not faith are liable to 
be miserably carried about by the various opinions of others. [And 
whosoever are given to self-indulgence (whoever indulge their ap- 
petites), their disquieting alarms are at once excited, as soon as 
ever anything falls upon them connected with spiritual matters. 

8. 'Eipdvri, appeared) This is put midway between nysph, was 
raised up, and Aisgrri, had risen again. For Elias had not died. 

9. 'Et,riTsi, he desired) Any one of the common people that wished, 
could more readily accomplish that desire. For Jesus was not one 

VOL. II. * 

83 ST LUKE IX. 11-26. 

wont to enter courts : Herod was not one who thought'it necessary 
to go forth from his court (palace) for the sake of Jesus. — [l&eTi 
auriv, to see Him) Whether He was hke John, or whether, for the 
sake of Herod, He would perform a miracle ? — V. g.J 

11. Ai^d/j,smg avrou;, having received them) Adhere closely to 
Jesus, and give in your name to Him as His follower, if indeed such 
be your desire : and you will be at once received by Him. — V. g.] 

14. ' Avci ■TTivrrixovra, by fifties) A, convenient number, on account 
of there being five loaves : and also the men thus formed one hun- 
dred fifties ; Mark vi. 40. 

18. [Kal ly'iviro, and it came to pass) A memorable point of ter- 
mination (epoch or boundary of time), marked at once by Matthew, 
Mark, and Luke (Matt. xvi. 13, Mark viii. 27). They all, with a 
remarkable concert of statement, place here the commencement of the 
last departure of the Saviour to the northern borders (coasts) of the 
land of Israel. It is near Csesarea-Phihppi that He privately asks 
His disciples, "Whom do men say that I am ? And then He informs 
them as to His Passion. Then He so directs His route, as finally 
now to sow the good seed throughout the whole land of Israel. After 
the transfiguration He again returns to Capernaum, passing thence 
through the middle of Samaria and Galilee : fiirther, in continua- 
tion, having crossed the Jordan, He proceeds to the land of Judea 
from that side ; and having at length bid farewell to Bethabara and 
crossed the Jordan again, He came to Jericho and Bethany. — Harm., 
p. 367.] — irpoisiu-xoiJiivov, praying) Jesus had prayed the Father that 
He would reveal Himself to His disciples. For the subject of the 
prayers of Jesus may be inferred from His subsequent words and 
actions; ch. vi. 12, 13 [His praying all night was preparatory to 
the election of the Twelve]. 

23. "'Ekiyi, He said) Matthew states the occasion of His speaking 
thus, which having taken for granted, Luke thinks it sufficient to 
set down the discourse itself. — -ffpie ■jravrag, to all) even to those who 
had not heard concerning the coming Passion of the Lord. 

25. ' AmKistx.g, having destroyed himself) when he might have been 
saved [ver. 24]. — Zfl/iiuMg, having incurred loss [having become a 
castaway]) when he might have gained [ver. 25] himself. 

26. Ka/ — xa}, and — and) The mention of God and His creature 
is here conjoined. See Judg. vii. 18, 20 ; 1 Sam.xii. 18; Heb. xii. 
23 ; Rev. iii. 5, xiv. 10. — [rSv ayiuv ayyiXuv, of the holy angels) 
who by their attendance on Him as His retinue, shall subserve to 
the glorifying of GoD and of His Son. — V. g.] 

ST LUKE IX. 27-31. 83 

27. 1'uv u&i idTuruv) This Genitive may seem to have arisen from 
parallelism.^ For the Vulg. has " hie stantes.'" 

28. 'Eyinro, it came to pass) Impersonal. For with ii/j^ipai, we 
are to understand ^iraii, as in oerifiipai \nsa,\i], daily. So Mark viii. 
2, in the best MSS., fifj^spai rpiTg vpoefihovs! /mi. — xoi,! 'Judvvrjv xal 
'idxaijSov, and John and James) Where the most usual order of these 
names [James and John] is kept, nothing particular can be elicited 
from them : as in ver. 54. But where the order is changed, in no 
case must this be thought to have been done without purpose. 
Here Luke puts John before James, who had been put to death 
long ago, before the time when Luke wrote, inasmuch as John was 
yet alive, and therefore a better known witness of this most im- 
portant event : in this respect he writes differently from Mark, ch. 
V. 37, who, it seems, wrote before Luke.* 

29. E^^os) the aspect, the expression and look of His countenance. 
— iTipov, altered) The language of the earth does not suffice to ex- 
press things strictly celestial. So it is said of the godly, aXXayrjao- 
/jbiSa, we shall be changed, 1 Cor. xv. 51. — l^aarpd'^rTm, glistering 
[flashing brightly forth]) the glory of His body shining out 
transparently from within, and passing through the pores of the 

30. "AvSpig 5{io, two men) Who would believe that these were not 
angels, but that their names as men are added ? 

31. 'El/ So^ri, in glory) They were like their Lord in this scene [and 
sseem to have obtained a greater degree of glory after the death and 
glorification of Christ. These two personages are a sample of the 
comiQg resurrection and transfiguration. — V. g.] — sfoSov, His de- 
parture [decease]) out of the world. Comp. Heb. xiii. 12, 13. The 
same word occurs, 2 Pet. i. 1 5.* The subject was a great one : the 
term describing it a very weighty one, wherein are contained the 
Passion, Cross, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Christ. 

1 To stand parallel to the Genitives at the close of ver. 26. — Ed. and 

2 So also ab. But "hie stantium" in c; d has "qui hie stant." — Ed. and 

5 The Germ. Vers, has " James and John," following the margin of both 
editions rather than the Gnomon in this place. — E. B. DL support " James 
and John." But Lachm. with best reading of Vulg. and some of the oldest 
authorities, has " John and James." — Ed. and Tkaksl. 

■* Appropriately it was used by one who had himself been an eye-witness of 
the transfiguration, and who was divinely taught the connection of the I'JoSof 
with the i6i», 1 Pet. i. 11.— Ed. and Tkaksl. 

64, ST, LUKE IX. 32-iO. 

The antithetic word is i7sodog, His entrance into the world, Acts 
xiii. 24, 

32. Siji/ avTSi, with Mm) By this formula Peter is given the pre- 
cedency over James and John.^Wvy, with sleep) Comp. Gen. ii. 
21. [By the mediation of that sleep an oblivion of all earthly 
thoughts and images whatever took possession of them. — ^V. g.J — 
iiaypnyoprieavrig) when they had recovered themselves from sleep. [By 
the sleep they were now become more alert. — V. g.] It is pro- 
bable that it was night : ver. 37 [" the next day"] seems to imply this. 
— ilbov r/jv do^av avroij, they saw His glory) Peter, who was present at 
the scene, has described it in the same words, 2 Pet. i. 16, 17 : so 
also John i. 14. 

34. [NspsXjj, a cloud) This cloud, as is evident from what follows, 

let itself down low to the earth. — V. g slg rriv npiXriv, into the cloud) 

out of which the voice of God issued forth. To such an exalted 
audience (presence) are both of these saints admitted. Exod. xxxiv. 
5 ; 1 Kings xix. 13. — V. g.] — £-/.imvg, as they entered, etc.) The 
they refers to Moses and Elias [not to the disciples']. 

43. 'E^i'TrX'^asovTo, they were struck with amazement) in mind. — 
fieyaXeiornri) God is fiiyac, great ; His works are jxiyaktTa, magnifi- 
cent. — Savfia^ovToiv, whilst they were ivondering) and were also ex- 
pressing their wonder in words. — £?!r£, said) For this one word the 
Gothic Version has the following : Quath Psetrus, Fan, du we veis 
ni mahtedum usdreiban thamma : ith Jesus quath : thata kuni ni 
usgangith nibai in bidom jah irt fastubnja : quath than ; that is, 
Peter said, Lord, why were we not able to cast him out ? And Jesus 
said. Tide sort goeth not forth hut in prayer and fasting. Then He 
said, etc. Comp. App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.^ If Luke 
himself wrote these words, we must suppose that Peter along with 
the rest, struck with admiration at the magnificent miracles per- 
formed by the Lord, identifies himself with the inability of the 
disciples to perform the miracle, and acknowledges that if he had 
been present [which he was not, being at the transfiguration at the 
time], he would not have prevailed against the unclean spirit. 
Therefore he inquires the cause why not.^ 

[40. Olx ridvvr}dr]sa]i, they were not able) This demon was one of a 

' ABDaJ Vulg. support the omission of these words, c however agrees with 
Goth. Vers, in inserting them. They seem to me to have crept in here through 
the Harmonies and transcribers from the parallel passages, Matt. xvii. 19, 21, 
Mark ix. 28, 29. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

- However the Vers Germ, omits this inserted clause. — E. B. 

ST LUKE IX. 44-50. 85 

peculiar kind. For in ver. 1, the disciples are said to have received 
power over all demons. — V. g.] 

44. '"CiiiTi, ye) It is a secret hidden from others.^ — e/s t&, ura, into 
your ears) The first degree of comprehension : the heart of the dis- 
ciples was still less capable of comprehending this matter. See ver. 
45. — TouTovs, these) This may also be referred to what precedes. — 
-iroipadidog^ai, delivered up) He hereby produces an equilibrium in 
their thoughts, which are thus evenly balanced between His glory 
on the one hand, and His Passibn on the other. Comp. what goes 
before this ver., and also ver. 35, 20, 22. In joy we are to remember 
the cross : and the knowledge of His Majesty ife a preparation for 
receiving the word of the cross. 

45. A'/eSciivTai, that they perceived it not) ''Rmyvusig, knowing a 
thing, or understanding it (referring to riyvoouv), produces alsSriaig, 
sense, or perception and feeling of it : when the former is wanting, 
the latter is necessarily so. 

46. E/ff^X^£, entered [arose] among) The flesh often takes occasion 
for its motions : and this, even when all things are opposed to it. 

48. T&,p, for) It is the part of humility to care for little children • 
it is the part of greatness to receive God.^ 

49. 'O 'laanng, John) Comp. concerning this ver. 54, [where, alpng 
with his brother James, he hkewise evinced extraordinary zeal after 
the glorification on the mount. — V. g.J 

50. "Os y&p oux lari xaf l/iuv, hvip v/^Siv istdi, for lie who is not 
against you is for you) So too Mark ix. 40, although some Greek 
MSS. in Mark, and most of them in Luke, have written ^/aSv for 
tfiZv. To such a degree were the Greek transcribers indifferent in 
their confounding these pronouns, that the true reading must be de- 
cided not so much by the number of Greek MSS., as by the ancient 
versions, which translate and present these pronouns with greater 
accuracy of distinction, and also especially by a comparison of the 
context. The more or the less different is the condition of those 
concerning whom the expression we and you is used, the more or the 
less weight in proportion the variety of reading has. And in this 
passage the variety of reading is not a matter of indifference. For 
when He is speaking of external association and mode of procedure 
(conversatione), the Lord used the first person Plural, " Let us pass 
over to the other side ; Lo, we go up to Jerusalem," etc. But when 

' It proved to be hid also from the disciples themselves, ver. 45. — Ed. and Tkansl. 
' And whoever receives a little child, Jesus saith, receiveth God. Therefore 
"he that is least," in this sense, " the same shall be great."— Ed. and Tuaksl. 

86 ST LUKE IX. 51-53. 

matters of a more internal character were concerned, He made an 
appropriate distinction in His language, and did not say, we, but, /, 
or else, you. " / ascend," saith He, " to My Father and your Father, 
and My God and your God," not, "to our Father and God." 
Therefore He does not here say, " He who is not against us, is for 
MS," but, " he who is not against you, is for you ;" and in another 
passage, " He who is not with Me, is against M«."^ 

51. ' AmXri-^Jiag, of His being received up [of His assumption]) An 
appropriate term, especially after His glorification on the mount : 
comp. Acts i. 2. There was but one day of His being received up 
into heaven ; but the forty days after the resurrection, nay, even 
these days before His Passion, were equivalent to a Preparation 
(parascene) : comp. Luke ii. 22. There were stiU imminent His 
passion, cross, death, sepulture ; but through all these Jesus looked 
onward to the goal ; and this feeling of His is imitated by the style 
of the Evangelist. He who is aiming at reaching the city, and must 
pass a rugged part of the path to it, does not mention the path but 
the goal, when he wishes to say whither he is going. [The passages, 
Luke ix. 51, x. 38, xiii. 10, 22, 33, xvii. 11, xviii. 31, 35, xix. 11, 
28, with which comp. ix. 31, subsequently bring Him on nearer and 
nearer towards Jerusalem, and cannot be understood excepting of 
one and the same journey. No other journey can be placed be- 
tween this journey and the Passion itself, excepting that secret going 
up to the Feast of Tabernacles, John vii. 10. — Harm., p. 387.] — 
rb -jrpoBwmv avTov, His face) ver. 29. — sar^pi^e) Ezek. xxviii. 21, 
■]iJ3 DiB>, LXX. grripi^ov rb Tpogu'rrov gov. And SO often. Add Is. 1. 6, 
7, Tb ■Trpogoiwo]! fjiov ovx anerpi-^ia, a-rrJ aia^uvrjg sfi-jrrjg/jjdrcav — 'iSrixa rb 
vpogoi'jroii /iou iig gnpzav wsrpav, x,al 'iymv, or; ou /Jifj aig^uvSZ. [A firm 
resolution is of the greatest use in the case of difficulties.— V. g.J — 
e!g 'lepovgaX^fjt,, to Jerusalem) ver. 31. Herein is seen the fruit of the 
' appearance' on the mount [ver. 31]. 

52. 'EToifiagai, to make ready) viz. whatever needed to be made 
ready. The great number of those accompanying Him required 
this : nor was Jesus wont in His place of lodging to blend with the 

53. "On, because) It was openly manifest that He was seeking to 
reach Jerusalem : this the Samaritans regarded with aversion [as 

1 ABCDaic Vulg. have^xa^' vftZi>. BCDabc Vulg. have also imp 
But AA have vickp iifiuii. Rec. Text has x,a.f vifiuu — vvip ijfiau. In Mark ix, 
40, ADaftc Vulg. read vi/,aii twice. But BOA Memph. later Syr. in marg. read 
kfiuv — Ed. and Transl. 

ST LTJKE IX. 54-69. 87 

being bitter enemies to Jewish ordinances of worship. — V. g.J — 
wpoffwToi', face) So the LXX. 2 Sam. xvii. 11, %a.t to mfoeuvliv eou rropivo- 
(isvov h ijjiatx) ahrSiv. Whithersoever the face is turned, thither is 
directed the ardour of mind which conquers every difficulty. 

54. 'la3cw/3o5 xai 'imanm, James and John) Who had been selected 
above the others to see the glory of Jesus, ver. 28, along with Peter, 
who however in this instance remained quiet. After that they had 
heard of the approaching death of Jesus [ver. 44], on that account 
the more they try now to preserve His life. They seem also to have 
had in mind that injunction which is recorded, ver. 5 : see Markix. 
41. — mp, fire) It was not for this end that they were named the 
Sons of Thunder. Christ wrought miracles in all the elements 
except fire. Tire was reserved for the end (consummation) of the 
present world. — avi rou oupavov, from heaven) Vengeance being im- 
potent on earth, is readily disposed to stretch out its hand, its wishes, 
its sighs, to heaven for the weapons from above. — iig aal, even as) 
We are too willing to imitate the saints just in the cases where we 
ought not. — 'HXlai, Elias) who also did so, as in the present case, 
against the Samaritans, 2 Kings i. 2, seqq. They at the time had 
Elias fresh in their remembrance and thoughts ; ver. 8, 19, 30. 

55. O/ou 'unhiMaroi, of what manner of Spirit) Namely, of that 
Spirit which is the Spirit of Christ, and the Spirit of grace. There 
may be compared with this the fact, that when Jesus prayed on 
the cross, employing the very words of the twenty-second and thirty- 
first psalms, yet He did not pray against His enemies, which would 
have been also in accordance with prophetical psalms, but for His 
enemies. — J/is/;) ye. The appeal to Elias is hereby proved erroneous. 

56. Tu%as, souls [/iues]) which are precious. — hripav, another) A 
most excellent and clearly-obvious plan ; see Matt. ii. 12 ; Num. 
XX. 21. — x<JJ//,riv, village) the inhabitants of which were ibyinenpoi, 
of a more liberal spirit, than those of whom ver. 52 speaks. 

[57. E/Ve rig irphg aurov, a certain man said unto Him) Three per- 
sons are recorded in this place as having been stirred up to follow 
Christ, of whom the two first, who had been mentioned already hy 
Matthew (ch. viii. 19-22), are, now that the suitable occasion pre- 
sents itself (ch. X. 1, which follows immediately after), jomed to a 
third, who has been adopted (enrolled) by Luke among the number 
of the Seventy, as we may conjecture. — Harm., p. 388.] 

58. 0\ix. i-xfi, hath not) In ver. 53, 56 an example occurs. 

59. 'AvbXMvti, having departed [i.e. to go and]) The dative. 
Here the man takes for granted his departure, does not ask leave for 

88 ST LUKE IX. 60-62.-X. I. 

it. A different Xind of departure {aiaX^iiv, ^' go thou and preach") 
is enjoined in ver. 60. 

60. AiayyiXkt) announce everywhere} The same verb occurs, 
Eom. ix. 17. This the Lord was pressing forward at the time 
with the utmost ardour ; comp. ver. 62, and the beginning of the 
following chapter. [It is probable that both this person and he of 
whom the following verses treat, were shortly after enrolled in the 
number of the Seventy. — V. g.] 

61. TlpuTov, first) This person was one as yet entangled in natural 
affections ; therefore the less indulgence was to be given him in 
respect of them.^ Moreover, he seems to have had in mind the 
example of Elisha, to whom Elijah gave the same indulgence ; for 
Jesus replies in an image derived from the plough (comp. 1 Kings 
xix. 19). The kingdom of God demands souls more unencumbered 
for its service than the prophetic discipleship : nor must we appeal 
to Elijah or Elisha, without making the necessary distinctions 
between the case now as compared with then ; see ver. 53. — a-^oTd- 
^agSai, to bid farewell) Perhaps attended with a sumptuous farewell 

62. "o 'ijjtfous, Jesus) Being presently after about to send forta 
the Seventy. — ^Xsitav, looking) He who looks back, strictly speaking, 
is deranged.* — e/'s njn jSaaiKilav rou Qsoij, for the kingdom of God) [the 
Gospel], viz. for holding it fast and propagating it. 


1. Msra ravTcc, after these things) i.e. after proving those who 
were fit for the embassy or the contrary, of whom three are men- 
tioned in ch. ix. 57, et seqq. — Mdn^ev, declared or designated) as 
His ambassadors [Engl. Vers, appointed]. — 6 Kipiog, the Lord) 
There is described in this passage an act truly worthy of the Lord 
[ver. 2, 3, 9, 11]. — kripovg, others) [of whom the embassy was not 

' This is the force of S/a, throughout, everywhere. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

' Lest they should rob him of that self-denial which the Christian, and espe- 
cially the preacher, needs. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

' Delirat, alluding to its literal meaning, to draw the furrow awry in 
ploughing, Th. de and lira, a furrow : metaphorically, is demented, misses the 
right Gospel track. — Ed. and Transl. 

ST LUKE X. 1. 89 

indeed of long continuance, but yet was of such a nature as to be 
very nearly approximating to the apostolical office, so as that also 
not a few of them might be able in subsequent times to establish 
the testimony concerning Jesus Christ. Nay, indeed, individuals 
among them, who had seen and heard Jesus, as well as also through 
the faith which they entertained towards Him, testified concerning 
Him, had something analogous, according to their position (in their 
own sphere), to the eminence of the apostles themselves. — Harm., 
p. 391]. The kingdom of God is always acquiring more strength, 
and good undertakings have a tendency to growth : especially 
the prophetical office of Christ was not without speedy fruits appear- 
ing. The number increased from twelve to seventy, then to jive 
hundred and more ; see 1 Cor. xv. 6. — Wdofi'^xovTa, seventy) L. Valla 
remarks : " We observe the number both of the apostles and of the 
disciples prefigured by the Lord in the books of Moses, by the 
twelve fountains and seventy palms in the desert [Exod. xv. 27]. 
Therefore we ought to read here seventy [not seventy-two] : which 
was also the number of those upon whom God bestowed a portion 
of the spirit which was in Moses [Num. xi. 16, 17]." Valla finds 
fault with the Latin of the Vulgate, which has " septuaginta duos." 
The word dio follows within four words after ijSdofirj-Kovra, [and. dio.'] 
It would' seem that some very ancient transcriber hastily transferred 
the word Suo from thence ' to this place. Or else Luke wrote the 
accurate number, seventy-two, in the first verse, and then in the 
seventeenth verse wrote in round numbers seventy : and so others 
set down in both verses either seventy or seventy-two.^ — [x.a.i ame- 
TtiXiv, and sent them) It is not said that power was granted to these, 
as to the Twelve, to heal the sick and to cast out demons (comp. 
ver. 17, note). — V. g.J — ava hho, two by two) There were thus 
thirty-five or else thirty-six pairs. — ou i//.iXXev avrhg 'ip'/ia^ai, whither He 
Himself was about to come) So, when the apostles preceded the 
Lord, those who wished to hear and to be healed, were able to 
flock together to Christ from the localities on both sides, adjoining 
the route through which they were directing their journey. — \}iriSr,ri 
oh, pray ye then) By this precept Jesus forthwith provoked the 

1 The Ivo, which Lachm. brackets, and Tisch. omits, is supported by BDac<?, 
Amiat. the oldest MS. and other MSS. of Vulg. and Hil. But Kb and Cod. 
Puldensis of the Vulg. Iren. 200, and, in express words, 146, support e/SSo^ij- 
xoj-T« without lio. In ver. 17, all the best MSS. of Vulg. have the 'duo.' But 
otherwise the same authorities, respectively support the opposite readings.— Ed. 
apd Transl. 

90 ST LUKE X. 3-7. 

longing desires of the workmen, as also their prayers, and satisfied 
those prayers. — V. g.] 

3. "Api'as, lambs) So the Seventy are called ; but the twelve 
apostles, sheep, Matt. x. 16. [He gave to both a safe-conduct, as 
it is termed, by the words, Behold, I send you. — V. g.] 

4. M/jSsra xixtSi, rriv odbv asirasnek, salute no man by the way) It is 
not inappropriate, that this should be understood literally. He who 
is engaged in a very serious and sudden emergency, has it less in 
his power to observe ceremonies of etiquette, and is readily exempted 
from the ordinary rules of politeness. Comp. 2 Kings iv. 29, and 
in a similar case, Luke xix. 30, et seqq. There were various 
classes of men among the Jews exempted from the duty of saluta- 
tions, especially religious men (men exercising some religious func- 
tion), as Lightfoot shows. They used to salute [in the East, and 
still salute] with many formal words and gestures ; but by omitting 
these words (by silence), the sincerity of the mind is retained : and 
the time of these envoys was very precious (comp. John xx. 17) ; 
very precious too \i.e. not to be indiscriminately thrown away on 
every one] was a salutation on the part of the envoys : see following 
verse, and Matt. x. 12. Hearers are more attentive in their home 
than on the way-side ; and salutations by the way might deprive the 
envoys, who were so many in number, of a considerable portion of 
time. [In fine, even the very omission of salutations by the way in 
a useful manner admonished men, that the business of the Seventy 
was a weighty one, and one which required mature despatch. — 

5. UpaTdv, first) The messenger of God ought to make his begin- 
ning with praying for the salvation of men, before that he proceeds 
to reprove them. 

6. 'O u/is i'lpnvTii) If there be there one who is a son of peace, one 
worthy of peace. — i'TramTaueirai, shall rest) in such a way as that 
you shall sensibly perceive it. As to the term, comp. 1 Pet. iv. 14. 
Peace, when once it has gone out, does not cease to seek until it has 
found a place wherein it may stay. — J^y' aurhv) This may be referred 
to v'ibv eiprjvri; primarily, to ohov by implication."^ 

7. Ta vap^ avrojv, such things as are in their house) with finigality 
and freedom (frankness) : as you shall find them. — nu /j,is6ou, of his 
hire) It was lawful for them to receive their food : they must not 

' ' Participative,' in the way of participation. Vulg. has in some MSS.' 
" super ilium ;" in others, " super illam." — Ed. and Tbansl. 

ST LUKE X. 9-17. . 91 

seek to get money, although they are not ordered altogether to refiise 
even that. But, on the other hand again, the hire is worthy of a 
labourer (one who earns it by work) : there must be no idleness. 

9. 'Ev aOrjj, in it) viz. in the city. So all the sick in a whole 
region might be healed. — ^yyixiv, is come nigh) See ver. 1, at 
the end. 

10. nXariiae, the streets) near the walls. Comp. on Eev. xi. 8. — 
s/Vars, say) publicly. 

11. TXKy\v TOUTO ynuaxsre, on riyyixiv ij ^aeiXtla, rou 0eoD) The mes- 
sengers at first said ^yyixev l<p ii/j,ag, x.r.X., ver. 9 ; then to those who 
proved to be contumacious they used a more general mode of ex- 
pression (omitting the words Ip' i/ficig), ijyyixev, x.T.X. : however 
many have supplied the omitted words even in ver. 11.^ 

13—15. Oiial, woe) A most weighty denunciation : with which 
comp. Matt. xi. 20, et seqq. It is now repeated by apostrophe 
[i.e. when the speech is suddenly directed to some other person, 
present or absent, differently from what the sentence had begun 
with. Append.], as a formula whereby the ungrateful cities are 
dismissed ; and it is intimated that these Seventy ambassadors are to 
go to other cities rather than to these, and that others are to take 
warning from the example of these. 

13. Xo/!a^;v) So my editions write the word, although others in 
my name have edited XupaZ^h. Some have written Xupa^h irom a 
slip of the pen, as I have observed in Appar., p. 473 : and these in 
serious earnest have made out of Chorazin, which is mentioned in 
Matt. xi. 21 among the towns, the region of Zin {x.'^pa and ^/») : 
D. Kus, T. i. Harmon. Ev., p. 1199, et seqq., mentions and refutes 
this notion. 

16. 'Axois;, heareth) Supply, from the antithesis, but (moreover) 
he who heareth Me, heareth Him who sent Me. 

17. 'r-Kidrps-^av, returned) one pair after another. [They had 
not been long away. — V. g. To wit, Luke mentions their mission 
and return in the one passage ; for having been sent forth only a 
few weeks before the Lord's passion, they could not be away very 
long.— Harm., p. 390.]— [^srci xaf'Sg, with joy) They had two most 
weighty and sufficient reasons for their joy : 1) because a short while 
before the disciples had not been able to drive a demon out of a 
lunatic : 2) because, in giving them His instructions, the Lord had 

' BDLicc? Vulg. omit i(p' ipcAg in ver. 11. A, as Rec. Text, supports the 
words. — Ed and Tkansl. 

D2 . ST LUKE X. 18, 19. 

indeed made mention in general of healing the sick, but not of 
casting out demons. — Harm., p. 390.] — ra, 5ai/i6tiia, even the 
demons) They experienced more things (more gifts conferred on 
them) in the actual effect, than Jesus had expressed. 

18. 'Ehupo-jv, I was beholding) viz. in spirit : at the time when ye 
went forth, or when ye acted} — we aarpavni, as lightning) with the 
utmost rapidity. — ex. rov oupavov, from heaven) in which Satan seems 
to have been accusing the little ones, i.e. the disciples. — Tscovra) fall- 
ing headlong (or rushing) : and this, either, he had been banished by 
force out of heaven (certainly Satan at that time received many 
strokes, even through the instrumentahty of those little ones ;' in 
which view the ehupouv, I was beholding, signifies, that the disciples 
themselves in some measure had acted against Satan, the Lord be- 
holding them all the time, and rejoicing that He is conquering Satan 
tlu-ough them as His instruments) : or else, because he (Satan) had 
obtained permission to resist the disciples, by whom Satan was to be 
overcome ; and he had hastened to come to the succour of the 
demons which obey him, ana to support (prop up) his bad cause. 
Comp. ver. 19. At all events -rsaiiv, with which comp. Acts xxvii. 
26, LXX. (!\jf/,Ti'!rTeiv, OB'S, 1 Chron. xiv. 9, 13, is not always the same 
as ISXrtSnvai ; Rev. xii. 9.^ Action in heaven includes action on earth, 
not vice versa.^ The image, as lightning, is in consonance; and it is 
not until afterwards that Satan is said to be about to be cast out : 
John xii. 31. 

19. AlS(ii//,i) As I have given, so in continuation T give. — o<pim, 
serpents) Mark xvi. 18. An appellation appropriate to an earthly 
enemy: He no longer alludes to the enemy descending " from hea- 
ven," as in the image, as lightning. The passage, Acts xxviii. 3, et 
seqq., is parallel to Mark xvi. 18 ; but between Mark and Luke (the 
Gospel) there is a verbal parallelism, yet one not of the things them- 
selves, but of the names.* Believers were secured against serpents, 
called so both in the literal and metaphorical sense. — exop'irlm, scor- 
pions) which are more subtle (keen, or else more minute) than ser- 

1 When ye were actually preaching and performing the miracles which I en- 
abled you to perform. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

' Where l/SA^^tj o lpax.av refers to the forcible ejection of the dragon, which 
was to be long subsequent. — Ed. and Transl. 

" Therefore it does not follow that because demons were cast out on earth, 
therefore Satan was cast out from heaven. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

■* ' Homonymicus,' i.e. where the same name or term is applied to different 
things.— Ed. and Transl. 

ST LUKE X. 20-25. 93 

pents. — Sumfibiv) power, or, S3S, forces. Serpents and scorpions are 
the species : All the power is the genus. — toD ex^pov, of the enemy) 
The singular number, applying to the chief enemy [Matt. xiii. 39 ; 
Ps. viii. 3]. — ou fifi abr/.fierj, shall not hurt) Greater danger was lying 
hidden beneath, than the inexperienced had been sensible of. 

20. Ml) x'^^ipiTt, rejoice not) An admonition salutary at the time 
of their first experience, intended to moderate in a due degree their 
joy. Their joy is not forbidden, but is reduced to proper bounds. 
They who rejoice in excess through self-love, are Kable to become 
like Satan.' — u/iSv) the names of you, who are Mine. — kypd<pnj have 
been written) Although Satan hath exclaimed against it [accusing 
you, Eev. xii. 10] in heaven : (your names are written in heaven) 
even though on earth you have no celebrity. — b roTg oupavoTgf in the 
heavens) in the book which is in the heavens, the kingdom of which 
ye are announcing : in these heavens moreover from which Satan 
hath fallen down. The contrary is declared concerning apostates 
(prsevaricatoribus, those who do not steadily follow the Lord: shufflers; 
crooked walkers), Jer. xvii. 13, they shall be written in the earth. 

21. ''H.yaXkia.ea.To, exulted) The crowning point of the fruits of 
Christ's ofBce was reached at that time. He Himself rejoiced in the 
joy of His disciples described in ver. 20, But rejoice, etc. — Klpn rou 
ovpavou xai Ttjg yrjs. Lord of heaven and earth) Satan is cast out from 
heaven and earth : the kingdom of God stands in heaven and on 
earth. — [vrivioig, babes) Such were the Seventy, and those who had 
received their testimony. — V. g.} 

22. Tig) who, and how great and good. 

23. Ka( (STpa(psig, and having turned) Luke is wont accurately to note 
the pauses and turns in the Lord's discourses. Jesus had prayed to 
the Father : after that, He had spoken concerning the Father : now 
He directs His discourse to the disciples apart. 

24. TlpoipnTat xat ^agiXiTg, prophets and kings) who were otherwise 
highly blessed. An example of both is furnished in Abraham, who was 
at once a prophet and prince : Gen. xxiii. 6, xx. 7 : so also David, 
who was both a prophet and a king, and the father of so many kings. 

25. 'A/idTri, stood up) on purpose that he might question Him. — 
rl woi^aag, by doing what) It is just the same as if he were to say : 
By doing what shall I see the Sun of Righteousness? Nay, it is not 
by doing but by seeing that He is to be seen : see ver. 23. It is to 
this miridccg, doing, that the verb, mhi, do, in ver. 28 and 37, has refer- 
ence; just as ^^sjj, thou shall live, ver. 28, refers to t,ur,v, in this verse 

1 Overweening pride was his great sin. — Ed. and Tkansl 

94 ST LUKE X. 26-31. 

26. N6/i!fi, in the law) This is apposite in reference to v6/iixov, a 
lawyer, a teacher of the law, ver. 25.— tS?, how) The Jews used 
daily to repeat the subsequent text. We must read Scripture often, 
but also daily [with due care to ascertain its spiritual meaning]. 
[It is your duty to strive to attain the scope of Scripture. — V. g.] 

28. ToDro irohi, do this) Jesus in His turn •jreipdlii, tries, justly, 
rightly [tempts, in the sense puts to the proof, sounds, and tests, Gen. 
xxii. 1], the man who had ' tempted' Him with a wrong motive 
[ver. 25] : see ver. 37. [In doing, he might have experience of 
the real fact, namely, what things were wanting in his obedience, 
and so might be led to seek fuller instruction. It is not said. Thou 
art adequate to the doing. — V. g.] 

29. ■Q'sXm, wishing) with a heart not broken or bruised into con- 
trition: priding himself on his one right reply. — dixaiovv, to justify) 
They who ask many questions have no delight in doing many deeds 
of obedience, and prefer to exempt themselves by subterftiges from 
the obligations of the law. He who limits, by exceptions and qua- 
lifications, those duties which ought to be performed, and the per- 
sons to whom such just duties are to be performed, invents for him- 
self a righteousness easy of attainment. — xa.1, and who) This particle 
approves of the immediately preceding speech of the Lord, and yet 
adds something to it : it has a wonderfully characteristic effect in 
expressing the ^hc or feeling of the speaker. 

30. 'TiroXa^uv) So often the LXX. write in translating njy, espe- 
cially in Job, as applied to a ftill reply. — uvSpwjrog ng, a certain man) 
A Jew, called however by the common (general) designation, man, 
for the sake of expressing the common tie of humanity which con- 
nected the Jews even with foreigners. — Tuyx"''"^'^''')^ Not caring 
whether the man should live or die. 

31. Kara guyxvplixv, by a contingency [chance]) Many good oppor- 
tunities lie hid under those things which may seem to be matters of 
chance. Scripture describes nothing at random, as if a matter of 
chance: in this passage it is a suitable Syncategorema [accessory 
proposition added to the principal one] in relation to the parable ; and 
it is opposed to that which is inevitable. — 'npiu;, a priest) There was 
many a journey of Priests and Levites wont to be taken on that 
road to the city and the temple. — oSa, way) Even on the way-side, 
in inns, ver. 34, in the middle of the intercourse of social hfe, piety 

' Leaving him to whatever might happen to be his state, which was that of 
one half dead. — Ed. and Tuansl. 

ST LUKE X. 34-37. 8S 

and mutual love can be exercised or omitted : Exod. xxiii. 4, 5. 

avTivaprikhv, he passed by on the other side) without showing any 
compassion, being in haste to go to Jerusalem. 

34. "EXaiov xai oJvov, oil and wine) Those things are easy to be pro- 
cured, which are most necessary for the exercising of love. — Im^/- 
^asoig, having set him on) with labour to himself. — 'idiov, his own) 
which he himself had used. — I'lg vavhoyiTov, to an inn) The language 
in this passage is wonderfully popular (adapted to the intelHgence of 
even the common multitude). 

35. Aijo drivapia, two denarii) twenty asses. He might be able to 
return in two days : the expense of one day would be a denarius. — 
t'ffatspxigSa.i, to return) On the way from Jerusalem, through Jericho, 
to Samaria. 

36. T pi oJv, of the three) who were, the one a Priest, the second a 
Levite, the third a Samaritan. God does not accept the person [Acts 
X. 35] : the three men, though different in position, are enumerated 
together. — frXrjff/ov, neighbour) The Samaritan, in doing a benefit to a 
Jew, his national enemy, was his neighbour : but the lawyer had 
asked his question concerning the neighbour to whom love was to be 
exhibited [not concerning the neighbour who was to exhibit love to 
another]. The two are mutually related.^ The Jews also are 
hereby reproved, inasmuch as they regarded the Samaritans with 
loathing.^ It might happen that even the lawyer should want the 
help of a Samaritan, the very person whom he did not account as his 

37. 'O voifjaag rh 's\to; fur aurov) LXX. 2 Sam. ix. 1, etc., has 
voi^gai /ier aurou 'iXtog. It is not without design, that the lawyer 
refrains from giving the proper appellation, "the Samaritan." [He 
shrunk from attributing such credit to a Samaritan, and therefore 
does not use the name.] — mpiiov, go thy way) Not yet was this law- 
yer fit for discipleship. — yial eu, thou also) When once the love of 
one's own people and sect is removed out of the way, the access then 
at length is the easier to the Grace, which is free and common to all. 
Therefore the Samaritan, say you, has by this act of his obtained 

^ The one infers the other. Jesus' mode of answering implies, that it is of 
more consequence for us to ask, Have we the true neighbourly spirit of love in 
ourselves f than to ask, What is the qualification needed in him (the neighbour) 
to whom we show that love ? — Ed. and Transl. . 

' It was wiser therefore to give an example of love in one of the despised 
Samaritans, than to offend Jewish prejudice directly by saying, The Samaritan 
is thv ' neighbour,' and therefore " love him as thyself."— Ed. and Tbansl. 

96 ST LUKE X 38-42. 

eternal life? [ver. 25.] Comp. ver. 27-29. The answer to this 
may be given from Eom. ii. 26. — mhi, do) This is in consonance 
with mitiaai, he that did the deed of mercy.— [o/^o/w?, likewise) We 
need not be ashamed of copying any good example set us, even 
though it be a Samaritan who is to be imitated. — V. g.j 
38 Aiiris, He Himself) Sometimes He did not enter. 

39. 'AiiX(pn, a sister) a younger sister as is probable, and as it were 
a domestic virgin [free from all care of the household]. Martha 
stood in the position of matron of the household ; John xii. 2, 3. 
[The author, in the Harm., pp. 392, 393, is of opinion that the Sa- 
viour was not at Bethany at this time,' and that Martha of Bethany 
did not possess at the same time a house in Gahlee as well as in 
Bethany ( John xi. 1, xii. 2); and that therefore the pair of sisters bear- 
ing the same names (o/ioivii/iwv) is different in Luke from the pair men 
tioned in the passages of John already quoted.] Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 
32, 33. — vapaxaiigaaa, sitting down close to Him) So absolutely, 
BxaSi^iTo, sat, John xi. 20. The antithetic word is •Kipnaitaro, was 
distracted or cumbered. 

40. Tlipisemro) The Greek LXX. have often in Eccl. mpieiraeij.hs 
for pj?.— ou iiiXii mi, hast Thou no care ?) What then ? Something 
better is an object of care to Him. Martha herself acknowledged 
some degree of unhappiness as existing on her part. — ^ a6iX<p^ fiou, 
my sister) An argument as it were drawn from an injustice done to 
her. — ■Kari'Kmi) She does not say, suffers me, but, has left me. Hence 
it may be inferred that Mary had done something in the way of 
diaxovia, or external service, perhaps before the arrival of the Master : 
but presently after betook herself to devoting her whole attention to 
the Master. — s/Ve, bid her) Martha did not dare herself to order 

41. MdpSa, MdpSa, Martha, Martha) An Epizeuxis [the forcible 
repetition of the same word in the same sentence] calculated deeply 
to impress Martha's mind. — /iipi/x,vag, thou art careful) inwardly. 
The antithesis is, ob fiiXsi eoi, hast Thou no care ? — rvp^dZrj, thou art 
troubled) externally. Its synonym is, •jtipnsitaro, was distracted or 
cumbered. See Eustathius. 

42. 'EdJs ii edri %f£;'a, whereas there is need of but one thing) 
The antithesis is Tip! •KoWd, about many things, ver. 41. Comp. 
Sir. (Ecclus.) xi. 11, 10 in the Greek. This one thing seems to be 

' It is called " a certain village," and seems to have been in Galilee, not 
Judea, — Ed. and Tbansl. 

ST LUKE XI. 1. 97 

said of the same kind (class, genus) as the many things. One 
thing (sv is the original, not rh "iv, the one thing) in relation to the 
necessities of food (living), without the distracting varieties of a 
great feast.' The Si, hut, twice employed, accords with this view. 
One needful thing, in the class (genus) of spiritual things, is equally 
commended [at the same time that the one needful thing in the way 
oi food is praised], when it is termed ^ aya^n f^ip!g, that good part : 
and therefore, if you refer the h, one thing, to frugality in the viands 
of the entertainment, not only is the doctrinal lesson in the whole 
passage^ not attenuated, but it is rendered the more full and fruitful 
by this interpretation. However, I do not dogmatically assert this 
view. I have said, ' seems.' As concerns the thing itself, the force 
of the sentiment is not diminished thereby. — aya^nv, good) better 
than Martha thought : tranquillizing, enriching. — //,epida, portion) A 
metaphor from a feast. — i^sX's^aro, hath chosen out for herself) 
What each soul chooses out, that it enjoys. The elect soul is ac- 
counted to have chosen the good part. So great is the goodness of 
the Lord towards those who are wilUng to receive it. — ova a<paipi6^- 
eirai, shall not be taken away) Comp. Mark iv. 25. The exemption 
from worldly service was thus confirmed to Mary 


1. 'ag iitaUaTo, when He ceased) Liasmuch as it was their duty 
not to interrupt Him before He had ceased. — tuv /iaSrirZv, of His 

1 Called by the Latins " dubia coena ;" ubi dubites quid capias, wliere you are 
puzzled by the variety what to take. — Ed. and Transl. 

2 In a similar way, ch. xvii. 21, there is no disparagement to the truth that 
the kingdom of God possesses the whole inner man of believers, even though the 
discourse, addressed directly to the Pharisees (and not to believers), is thus to be 
understood : The kingdom of God and the Messiah Himself is even already near 
at hand and in the midst of you. So also in Phil. i. 21, Christ does not cease to 
be the life of Paul, although Paul says in that particular passage, " My life, 
wherein I must remain in the world for some time longer, altogether aims to- 
wards Christ as its object and mark." There is no reason that we should try to 
gain for the meaning and intention of the sacred words of Scripture, which are 
never void of the power of the Spirit, a richness of meaning even fuller than was 
designed. The denial of mere human caprice and fancy is certainly better 
than giving scope to such exercises of religious devotion. — V. g. 

VOL. 11. G 

98 ST LUKE XI. 2. 

disciples) Who either had heard the words of the Lord whilst pray- 
ing, or at least had seen His most sweet and impressive gestures. — 
dlda^ov, teach) By this very fact they already pray, whilst in the 
act of begging that they should be taught how to pray. Most 
gratifying it was to the Master to be solicited that He should teach 
them, as also this very act of teaching. John had taught his dis- 
ciples to pray ; but not in such a way as that they should call God 
Father (although in other respects the formula of John was not 
widely different from the formula of Christ) : it was a privilege re- 
served pecuHarly to the Son of God to give this power to His dis- 
ciples. Already He had given them it, in Matt. vi. 9, 10, but had 
suffered somewhat of an interval to elapse [during which it laj' in 
abeyance], exhorting the disciples in common to pray, and leaving 
them to the ordinary custom of praying according to the common 
Israelitish formula (for otherwise the disciples would not have quoted 
the example of John teaching his disciples to pray), until they had 
made sufScient progress in the knowledge of the Father and of the 
Son : when once this was accomplished, He then at last threw 
open to them the richest fulness of access to pray to the Father in 
the name of Himself, the Son; see John xvi. 23. — ^/iSs, us) The 
cause of the disciples was joint and common to them all : he who 
was making the request was making it even for others, as well as on 
his own behalf. — xal'ladvv/ig, John also) A good teacher ought even 
most especially to teach his own followers to pray aright. See Ber- 
nard's " Scala ClaustraHum." He cannot teach, who is himself ig- 
norant [how to pray]. Moreover, there are degrees in prayer. 
John had taught how to pray ; Christ also had taught it : now, when 
requested, He still further teaches those already far advanced. — 
[roi)5 fiadrjrag durou, his disciples) Andrew, for instance, had been 
one of them (one of John's disciples), John i. — ^V. g.] 

2. E/Vs, He said) The Master promptly teaches both the words 
and right manner of praying : ver. 2, 3, 5, 6. — Xiysri, ye say) 
Matthew on the one occasion records this incomparable form of 
prayer, as it was prescribed to the people, in more words : Luke on 
a different occasion records it, as it was prescribed in briefer form 
to the disciples, who had begged to be taught. Therefore the main 
substance of prayers is in all cases the same : but at one time all 
the ahniMara,, or chief topics of prayer, are introduced ; at another, 
only some out of them all, the choice of the words and subjects being 
left free. Nor did Luke hold it necessary to agree exactly with 
Matthew in the number of petitions ; which latter evangelist, how- 

ST LUKE XI. 8-8. 99 

ever, does not expressly say that they are seven : for Luke enume- 
rates the beatitudes also in ch. vi. 20, et seqq., differently from 
Matthew : so also he recounts the commandments of the Decalogue 
differently from Moses. [Comp. Marg. of Vers. Germ, on this 
passage.] — [ndrep, Father) By this one word, especially the spirit of 
the prayers of Christ, and of His disciples, is distinguished from the 
spirit that characterizes the prayers habitually used by believers 
under the Old Testament, as also those used by John and his dis- 
ciples. — v. g.] 

3. TJ xaS' Tjfilpav) Comp. Acts vi. 1. 

4. Ka! yap, for also) The for denotes here the removal of an ob- 
struction in the way of prayers being heard, not a meritorious cause. 
Great as is the brevity of this prayer in Luke, yet a petition is set 
down in it for the remission of our debts or sins. 

5. Ka; elve, and He said) The Scripture exhorts us abundantly 
to prayer. In what lies the whole principle and right mode of 
prayer ? In importuning, and that, in good earnest. — fisaovuxriov, at 
midnight) at a time least of all convenient. In the case of God, no 
time is unseasonable vrith respect to hearing and giving. — <piXs, 
friend) A familiar and courteous appellation, employed instead of a 
proper name : it is not repeated at ver. 7. — TpeTi, three) one for my 
guest : one for myself : one supernumerary by way of compUment. 
The language in this passage is wonderfully familiar, and adapted 
to the popular understanding. 

6. O/Xof, a friend) Therefore the service which we owe towards 
others may be alleged in prayer as a ground for being heard. 

7. K'sxXiigTa.1, has been shut) with a bolt (long since) : such as is 
removed with greater diiBculty. — /isr l/ioD, with me) It is the duty 
of parents to guard their children, especially at night. — ou divafiai, I 
cannot) namely, without great inconvenience and trouble. 

8. Aiya, I say) Almost all the codices of the Latin Vulg. omit 
the clause, " Et si ille perseveraverit pulsans," or " et ille si perse- 
veraverit pulsans.^ See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. It 
might seem to be a gloss ftom Acts xii. 16, "Petrus autem perse- 
uerabat pulsans." But Bede, Augustine, Ambrose, and especially 
Tertullian, set aside this conjecture. See lib. de Or. cap. 6, where 
Tertulhan says, " Sed et nocturnus ille PuLSATOE panem pulsa- 
BAT." Add his lib. de Prcescript. c. 11 and 12, and his lib. iv. c. 
Marcion, ch. 26. The more recent Armenian translators, and the 

■ c has it, and some old MSS. of Vulg.— Ed. and Tkaksl. 

100 ST LUKE XI. 9-13. 

old English Versions, follow the Latin ; [however the Germ. Vers, 
of Bengel himself does not follow it.— E. B.]— «/« rh, because that 
he is) God hears on account of His own love, and is not affected by 
sense of trouble. — r^v avalkiav, shameless importunity) unabashed 
boldness, shown in coming by night [In prayer, we must not pro- 
ceed with timidity, but ask, seek, knock : ch. xviii. 1, 5, 7 ; Ps. Iv. 
18. — ^V. g.] In the case of such an importunate petitioner, it would 
cost one less trouble to grant his request than to refase it. Comp. 
ch. xviii. 5. The order of the words is well-considered, — ddisu ava- 
crds—iyipklg dueei : though he will not give rising up— jet- being 
aroused he will give. Friendship might have impelled him to give 
[but it did not] : shameless importunity, persevering in knocking, 
does impel him to the labour of rising [therefore the giving is made 
prominent by being first in the former clause ; the rising in the 
latter]. — oam, as many as) even if the loaves asked for be more 
than what urgent necessity requires. It is no greater inconvenience 
now to give many, than to give three, or even one loaf. 

9. Kal MijgiTai, and it shall be given) as to that friend in the 

11. Tim — rh <!raripa,) The article riv has in this passage a force 
less definite : there is an Apposition [0/ what man who is a father 
will his son ask bread, etc.]. — &i, but) There is a gradation (ascend- 
ing climax) from a friend to a parent : and yet in this case also there 
is added the How much more, in ver. 13. — i^^iiv, ajisK) viz. ahrten, 
shall ash. — awi lyfiLoi;, for a fish) The child might take (mistake) a 
serpent or snake for a fish.'^ 

12. "H xal, or even) His confidence in asking is increased. 
— uhv, an egg) The requests of the children proceed on from neces- 
saries to what are more of luxuries than necessaries : yet not only 
the bread, but the fish also, and the egg, are not denied. — gxopmov, a 
scorpion) which is a most deadly reptile. 

13. [ll6g(ji /j,&Xkov, how much more) Since the readiness in freely 
giving is so great on the part of GoD : how great, I ask, must be 
thought to be the torpor which lurks beneath on the part of men, 
even though offering prayer, seeing that so few things are obtained 
by prayer ! — V. g.] — o llarrip o Ig ohpanv, the Father who is of heaven) 
who is supremely good.— nvsD/ia 'Aym,^ the Holy Spirit) the best of 

1 So spiritually also, in estimating things Ed. and Tbansl. 

2 The Germ. Vers, prefers the reading dyecdov, which is considered an inferior 
reading in the margin of both Editions. — E. B. AB and Rec. Text read 
■initvfia xyioii. Bbcd (datum), Orig. 1,213c y 3,650rf, read dyaioi' lofiec. L and 

ST LUKE XI. U-23. 101 

all good gifts, and with it all things : ch. xxiv. 49. The Holy Spirit 
is a spirit good and joyous : rJ Hviufid gov rh aya.66v, Ps. cxliii. 10, in 
LXX. It is the Holy Spirit Himself that works in man the first be- 
ginning of the desire for HimsehF. He is moreover more necessary 
to the soul than food is to the body. 

14. 'Uv U^aKktav, He was casting out) that is to say, He was ac- 
tually at the time engaged in that miracle. These things took 
place before mid-day. Comp. ver. 37. 

15. Tiiis, some) Their objection is met in ver. 17', 18. [They were 
not able to deny some agency being at work superior to nature. — 


16. "Erepoi, others) Their cavil is met in ver. 29, 30. 

17. X)r/.og, a house, or family). — I*/ oJxov, upon the house [super 
domVim]) That is to say, A house divided upon (against) itself falleth, 
Mark iii. 25.' The noun is put for the reciprocal or reflexive pro- 
noun, kavroK Matt. xii. 26 ; Acts iii. 16 ; Eph. iv. 16 ; 2 Tim. i. 18, 
where see the note. LXX. Lev. xiv. 15 ; Num. x. 29. 

18. Kai 6 even Satan : of whom however this is not at all 
to be supposed likely. 

20. AaxrvXu, with the finger) by a power manifestly divine, and 
without any difficulty. Comp. Exod. viii. 19. 

21. 'O ig^uphg, a strong man) intrinsically strong. This is the 
Subject. — xaSciiTXig/ihog, armed) extrinsically : Armed, i.e. whilst 
he is armed, so long as no one strips him of his armour. This is to 
be joined to the Predicate. — rriv iaurou, his own) See 2 Pet. ii. 19 
[" servants of corruption," who constitute Satan's own palace^. — to, 
ii-rrdp^ovra aurou, his goods, his resources) which are kept safe in his 

22. 'EtsX^wv, having come upon him) unexpectedly. — s-ri'Trolhi, he 
had been confident) The victory of Christ was the more glorious, after 
that He had overcome Satan, who had prevailed mightily, and had 
been confident, for so many ages. — gxiiXa, spoils) which Satan had 
wrested from mankind.— 5;a3/3w(r/, distributeth) Eph. iv. 8 [When 
He ascended on high He led captivity captive, and gave gifts 
to men]. 

[23. Msr i/iou, loithMe) No mortal man could by his own strengtn 
(powers) have assisted Jesus, and many were fighting against Him : 

Vulg. read ■jrviiifux. dyeiUii. The dyadou and lofio. have both probably crept in 
here, through the harmonies, from Matt. vii. 11. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

' Vulg. translates, Regnum in se ipsum (or Cod. Amiat. ipso) divisum 
desolatur, et domus svpra domum cadet (cadit). — Ed. and Transl. 

102 ST LUKE XI. 27-83. 

yet notwithstanding He performed such stupendous miracle^. He 
is therefore o lex'^poripog, the stronger man, ver. 22. — V. g.J 

27. 'E-!rdpasa, having lifted up) It would be good, and not a thing 
to be laughed at, if hearers would discover the tmotions of their 
hearts whilst hearing, in however simple a manner. — ^ xo/X/a, the 
womb) The woman has good sentiments, but speaks as a woman in 
woman's fashion. The Saviour reduces this into due order. — fiaeroi, 
the paps) Comp. concerning the Messiah, Ps. xxii. 10. 

28. Mivouvys) The mother of One who teaches so well is pronounced 
' blessed :' but in truth rather blessed are they who follow the Teacher. 
So fjievoiJvys, [Nay but, O man, etc.] Eom. ix. 20, x. 18 {j/^ivoZvyi s/'s 
iradav rriv yrjv, etc. : " Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound 
went into all the earth"]. — o! axovovng, they who hear) including even 
that pious woman herself. — (pvXdesovTig, who keep it) viz. they who 
bear Christ and His word in their heart, as His mother had borne 
the Saviour Himself in her womb. [She however was one who 
herself also kept the word, being on that very account ' blessed.' 
Luke i. 45 (ii. 19).— V. g.] 

29. Tuiv dh oxXwi;, but when crowds [the multitudes]) This took 
place at the same time. Comp. ver. 37, at the beginning. — [i'xa.Spoi- 
^ofiimv, were rushing in upon Him ["were gathered thick together," 
Engl. Vers.]) to see whether a sign was about to follow from 
heaven. See ver. 16. — V. g.] 

30. Tots 'Nivevhais, unto the Ninevites) Therefore the Ninevites 
knew as to the three days of Jonah ; and were thereby led to re- 
pentance : but afterwards they through impenitence drew down 
punishment upon themselves, after almost the same interval had 
elapsed from the time of the respite given to them (because of 
their penitence), as subsequently elapsed in the case of the Jews : 
which may in both cases be compared with the time given for re- 
pentance.' — ouTUi, so) This has the force of a promise, extending to 
a distant period. 

31. 'AvdpSiv, the men) Because, though but a woman, this queen 
followed after wisdom. 

33. [Ovdelg Ss, moreover no man) We ought to give ourselves 
wholly up to the Word of God, so as that those who are thoroughly 
and inwardly enlightened by it may be enabled to gain over others. 

1 Forty days, Jonah iii. 4, given for repentance to the Ninevites after 
Jonah's "three days," somewhat analogous to the time, about forty years, 
between Jesus' " three days " and the destruction of Jerusalem. — Ed. and 


ST LUKE XI. 3i-39. 103 

— ^V. g.] — E/'s xpiivrfiv) Feminine, according to the Hebrew idiom, 
for the Neuter. 

34. ■ O Xux'os, the lamp Qight]) Light is freely open to us, and is 
manifest and single (not complex, without duplicity) : we therefore, 
in turn, ought to be open to the whole light. 

35. M^) whether.^ For the Indicative, earh, follows. 

36. "O'Kov foiTiivh — (puiTiivh '67m, all full of light — full of light all 
over or wholly) An instance of Ploce [when the same word is 
twice employed, so as, that in one instance the notion of the word 
itself simply, in the other an attribute of it, is understood]. The 
perfection of the parts [oXsv in the first instance] tends to the perfec- 
tion of degrees [oXoV in the second instance : light wholly and per- 
fectly in degree]. [Often two words are put in inverted order, in two » 
successive clauses, in such a way, as that in each clause the word that 
stands first is to have the emphasis. Matt. xxiv. 33 (where see the 
note on the present passage), 34 ; John viii. 21, 24, xiv. 1, et seqq. ; 

1 Cor. vii. 22 ; Gal. iv. 25 ; Eph. ii. 1, 5 ; Phil. ii. 7, 8 ; James ii. 
18, 22. The analogy of examples shows that this is no vain sub- 
tlety of hyper-criticism. — Not. Crit.'] — o Xu^vog [a candle] the lamp) 
that lamp [candle] of which in ver. 33 He had spoken. — rr, aeTpairn) 
with its utmost degree of bright shining (brilliancy). 

37. EldiXSuv de avi-TTieiv, having entered in, He lay [sat] down to 
meat) forthwith, without having washed (ver. 38) before sitting 
down to table. Perhaps He was wearied [with the crowds, ver. 

38. 'lhd)v, having seen) that He had lain down [sat down]. 

39. [Ehrs Ss 6 Kipiog, but the Lord said) Jesus spake these things 
which here follow in Galilee first, subsequently at Jerusalem (Matt, 
xxiii. 1-39). In Galilee He said, in this passage [ver. 49], " I will 
send [Future] Prophets and Apostles among- them." Then also at 
Jerusalem [Matt, xxiii. 34], He said, " Behold, I send" [Present] : 
To wit, in the intervening time He was come nearer to the actual 
sending of them. — Harm., p. 398.] — vvv, now) The particle has the 
force of demonstrating a thing present : on this account the LXX. 
employ it for n:n. Behold, 2 Kings vii. 6 ; and in this passage it at 
the same time involves an antithesis between external pimty and 
impurity ; in the same way as nunc among the Latins has often the 
force of atqui. — to e^ahv) that which is exterior (the outside) : for 

' Not as Engl. Vers, that— not lest, which would require the Subjunctive 
after it. — En. and Traksl. 

104 ST LUKE XI. 40, 41. 

instance, the exterior of a very clean cup. — rh 'inakv -owZv) your in- 
terior (inner man), viz. your manner of life. — ys/^", is full) like a 
cup or dish. First, i^ahv and 'isukv are adverbs ; then in Matthew, 
ch. xxiii. 25, 26, it is the cup and the dish that are said to be full, 
yiu,in : in Luke it is " the inward part" itself of the Pharisees. The 
exterior of vessels is not only convex, but also concave [what is 
commonly, though not correctly, called the inside] : the interior is 
both the heart and the manner of life.' It makes no difference 
whether aprayri, rapine, be taken, in the material sense, for the 
thing cartied off, or, in the formal sense, for rapaciousness. How- 
ever, it is taken in the formal sense, inasmuch as in Matthew 
aKpasia or adixloc, intemperance or injustice, and in Luke vovnp'ia, 
% malignity, wickedness, are added. It may be thus paraphrased : Ye 
Pharisees keep clean the part in the vessel which is exterior ; but 
your interior is full of rapaciousness and malignity. Ye fools, did 
not He, who made the exterior thing, to wit, the vessel, at the 
same time also make the interior thing, namely, the heart ? But 
as concerns those things which are in the vessel [which is but the 
exterior thing], give alms, and behold all things, your whole man- 
ner of life, are clean to you, whatever be the case as regards the 
vessel, whether it be more or less clean. 

40. 'O mirieag. He who made) God. — xal rb) On this account, both 
must be attended to. Cleanness of the manner of life [answering 
to the vessel] becomes a clean heart [answering to the interior or 
inward part]. 

41. nX)5v) Although the exterior thing has been made by Him 
by whom the interior has been made : nevertheless in the case of 
man, who has contracted uncleanness, the footing on which the 
exterior stands, which does not in itself defile, is different from 
that on which the interior stands, which is in the greatest degree 
in need of purification. — to. bovra) An anonymous writer in Suidas 
(V. ivov) says : Ovelav sx rm Ivovtuv xal <!rap6vTti>v vpoaa^SiTgav, a sacri- 
fice brought of the animals which were there, and which he had ; as 
is observed by Pricseus, whom see on this passage. Therefore ra, 
hovTii are not rb 'iaoskv, but articles of food and drink which are in 
the vessels. Supply xara. — Uri, give) The more usual expression 
is voiiiv, to do alms : but in this place give, used (as in ch. xii. 33) 
in antithesis to rapaciousness [ravening : Give is antithetic to rapa- 

' Not what is commonly called the inside of a cup : to iaaSiu, according to 
Beng., applies here cmli/ to the heart, and not to the cup figuratively. — Ed. and 

ST LUKE XI. 42-44. 108 

ciously snatcli, implied in apvayTjg], ver. 39. — xml ISoiJ, and behold) 
He does not say, and then, but and behold; and presently after, not 
shall be [in consequence], but are. Therefore He does not say, 
that it is by giving alms in particular that cleanness or purity is 
to be gained for one's food and drink ; but that purity exists in the 
creature of God in itself (that is, in the food and drink regarded 
per se in itself) : that all that is effected by the alms when given, not 
by the washing of hands, is that the stain is wiped away, which 
the Pharisees had contracted by their rapacity.^ — ■irdvra xaSapa.) all 
things, which are in the cup and the dish, are clean unto you. For 
Grod hath made all these things : ver. 40. None of these things 
defileth a man : Matt. xv. 11. 

42. 'AXX' o!jui)'AX\a, a particle of transition ; 2 Cor. vii. 11. — 
rriv xp.siv, judgment) which is in the understanding. True judgment 
dictates the assertion, that the love of God is the greatest of 
the commandments. [Comp. ch. xii. 57.] — r^v Ayd'Tirriv rou 0eoD, 
the love of God) which is in the will. [He saith, the love of God, 
and that of our neighbour for the sake of God. — Y. g.j It is he 
who loves God, and he alone, that is endowed with a true judgment. 
See 1 Cor. viii. 3, 2. In Matthew [xxiii. 23, there is added to, 
" Ye have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment"^, 
mercy and faith. In fact, along with 'love,' is conjoined and 
implied that faith, of which Matthew makes mention. See 1 Tim. 
i. 5. Mercy [in the form of giving alms] is recommended in ver. 
41. — [raura — xaixum, these things — and those things) The former of 
less consequence — the latter of more importance. — V. g.] 

44. Oxiai xj/Lri, on, x.T.K.) Here the Lord does not add roT; <^upisaioir,, 
as He had added the words in ver. 42. Moreover it seems that, 
together with His discourse, the countenance (look) also of the 
Lord was turned towards the lawyers, as we may infer from ver. 
45, where a certain lawyer feels that the Lord's saying was spoken 
to him. The words, ypafLfj^aTiTi; xal 'bapisalbi, i-roxpiral, were intro- 
duced here from Matthew [xxiii. 27] by some transcribers.^ — adnXa, 
hidden [which appear not]) not whitened over [as was the custom 

' i.e. Having been guilty of rapacity, and having found pardon through re- 
pentance and faith, the only outward amends which one can make to his neigh- 
bour, as a fruit of faith and a pledge of sanetification, is, besides restoration of 
what has been wrongfully taken, almsgiving. — Ed. and Transl. 

' And through the Harmonies. ADJ Lucif. 133 and Ree. Text support the 
words ; except that D and Lucif. omit v'lrox.pna.i. BCLoc Vulg. Memph. omit 
the words. Tisch. therefore omits them ; Lachm. brackets them. — Ed. and 

10« ST LUKE XI. 45-53. 

in order to warn against defilement]. — oux o'lBaaiv, they know not) 
and therefore become defiled. 

45. [TaCra, these things) which precede, especially in ver. 43. — 
V. g^—l'PpiZfii, thou dost insult) v^?il,(i\i, to insult, to treat with inso- 
lence, is a different idea from that of justly reproving, as expressed 
by hviihiZiiv, to reproach. 

46. 'Ev/, with one) There is an ascending climax, of which the 
steps are — to touch with one finger, to touch with the fingers, to 
move with the fingers, to lift with the hand, to lay on the shoulder 
[Matt, xxiii. 4]. The latter they used to compel the people to : the 
former they shrank back from themselves. 

47. Oi7iobo//,iTTi, ye build) This in itself does not seem to have 
been wrong; but what was wrong was, that they imitated their 

48. Ka;, and) Ye bear witness that ye have them for your fathers, 
and approve of (' allow') their deeds. They did not think this : and 
yet it was true, and it is justly ascribed to them. 

49. 'H eo(p!a Tou 0£oO, the Wisdom of God) A sweet designation. 
The n^np, Koheleth or Ecclesiastes : the Preacher that gathers to- 
gether assemblies. See ch. xiii. 34. — sT'ttiv, said) See Matt, xxiii. 
34, note. — irfixprirai, prophets) who existed under the Old Testa- 
ment. — avoSToXoug, apostles) who exist under the New Testament. — 
£xdi<i^ovm) they shall by persecution cast out. A word of frequent 
occiirrence in the LXX. 

50. 'Ej£^?jrj;^5i) Hebrew Em 2 Chron. xxiv. 22. — 'TrdvToiv, of all) 
There were prophets at all times : among these was also Abel. — 
a-jri rrig) Construe with Ix^jjt-jj^jj : with this comp. ver., 51. — [51. 
Za'^a.plov, of Zechariah) the prophet. See 2 Chron. xxiv. 20. — 


52. "HpoiTi) ye have taken away, [They had thrust themselves 
into the ecclesiastical office : and he who neglected them was left 
bound in all kinds of ignorance. — V. g.] — rriv xXuba, rrjs yviLemig, the 
key of knowledge) i.e. true knowledge, viz. of the Messiah (ch. xx. 41), 
which is the key of the kingdom of the heavens. — ovx iierjXhrs, ye 
have not entered in) into the kingdom of the heavens. 

53. Aiivag, vehemently) Under this vehemence there was lurking 
a cunning design. See following verse. — avoaTOfiaTl^nv) 'AToirro- 
/iar/^w, / urge (whether myself or another), to give vent to [random 
or hasty] words from the mouth. With this comp. the following 

ST LUKE XII. 1-6. 107 


1. 'Ev ofg) ["in the meantime"] during these things. — rm) of those 
who were wont to be present. — //^npidduv, myriads) Not merely the 
adjective //^vpioi, but this substantive //.upiadig, is wont to be used of a 
large indefinite number. — -Trphg roiig //.adtir&g, unto His disciples) The 
rest were not yet able to comprehend this doctrine. — -irpurov, first of all) 
To the disciples first : then, after one or two interruptions and ques- 
tions, to the multitude of people also : ver. 54. — woxpimg, hypocrisy) 
This charge is afterwards brought also in the case of the people: ver. 
56. Hypocrisy, like a leaven, infects the whole man, and through the 
one man infects many. Hypocrisy is either when evil is covered over 
with a good veil by evU men, or when good is in an evil manner (impro- 
perly) covered by good men. This latter kind of hypocrisy is what 
is denoted in the present instance. Comp. the following verses. 

2. Ohbh h't, [for, Engl. Vers.] but nothing) All things, both bad 
and good, shall be revealed : and they who reveal the truth, are re- 
moved (shrink) from hypocrisy. — svy/.i-AaXv/MfLivov, covered all over) 
removed from the eyes of men : so, in darkness {h Tjj axoricf), ver. 3. 
— xpwTTThv, hidden) removed also from the knowledge of men : so, to 
the ear (^irpbg ri ous), ver, 3. 

3. E/VarE, ye have spohen) with some degree of fear. 

4. */Xo;s, my friends) A faithful counsel, and a spur to strength 
of resolution, and a conciliatory appellation, which is intended to 
temper the severity (sternness) of His language respecting a diffi- 
cult and hard matter. In war, a General addresses his soldiers 
whilst doing battle by the kindly title. Brothers [in arms, fellow- 
soldiers], etc. — [,ajj po/3!j^^T£, Be not afraid of) in your confession of 
the truth. — V. g.] — rh eu/ia, z.r.X.) Mei'asig. — /iira, after) The after 
[He hath killed], in ver. 5, corresponds to this after. 

5. 'T/i/V, I will show or suggest to you) viz. my friends. — (pojSrjSn^i, 
fear) This verb is employed thrice with the greatest force.^ — fura rh 
dmxTiTvaj) The verb is employed as it were impersonally [after the 
act of killing has taken place]. — yhnav, hell, Gehenna) Weighty and 
stern language this, addressed even to friends. 

' Therefore in ver. 4 it would be better, instead of Engl. Vers. Be—afraid of, 
to use the same word /ear to translate the thrice repeated (pojlnSiiTi, both in ver. 
4 and 5. — Kd. and Tkansl. 

108 ST LUKE XII. 6-17 

6. "Ev) not any one : not even an odd one, a supernumerary one. 

7. noXXSi/) Others read mXkt/i. Comp. ver. 24.^ 

8. " E/j,<!r.poskv Tuiv ayyiXoiv, in the presence of the angels) in the last 
judgment. The appellation, Son of man, denoting His manifested 
state, is in consonance with this. 

10. Ka;, and) From the denying of Christ in ver. 9, the transition 
is easy to blasphemy against Him. 

11. "h ri i'ltrtTs, or what ye shall say) Even independent of the 
absolute need there is of a defence [W arnXoyrierieh ; independent of 
the defence in answer to the charge, which you must necessarily 

13. TVi) some one, who had become sensible that Jesus is " the 
Just One." — &8iK<pa, to my brother) who perhaps had begun to hold 
Jesus in high estimation. Eeadily those who admire a spiritual 
teacher sink down to that point, that they wish to convert him into 
an umpire for the settlement of domestic and civil matters in 

14. "AvSpati, man) He addresses him as a stranger (one alien to 
Him). — dmasTriv, a judge) to give (pronounce) sentence of law. — 
fiipisT^v, a divider) to divide goods [between parties at issue]. 

15. Tlpbg aiiToug, unto them) viz. to the two brothers, or else, to His 
hearers: comp. ver. 16.^ The discourse returns to the disciples 
[to whom it was at first addressed], at ver. 22. — ■Tr'keovi^lag, covetous- 
ness) which may possibly lurk beneath, even in the case of a cause 
however just : ver. 13. — J% ruv) These words are to be construed 
with Z,oin.^ Life is well lived on little.* 

16. Eiipop^iffSK, brought forth plentiful fruits) on one particular year, 
or else year by year. This is the most innocent manner of becom- 
ing rich, and yet it is attended with dangers. — x^ipa) not merely 

17. T/ iToiri<S(ti, what shall I do) The characteristics of a mind set at 
rest, and yet void of real repose [" animi sine requie quieti" ^], are 

1 ABDQ Eec. Text and Origen read ■itaXKaii. a has multo ; but be Vulg. 
multis Ed. and Transl. 

2 Where also t/io? xiirou; occurs : the parable there would probably be ad- 
dressed to all His hearers. — Ed. and Transl. 

' i.e. " In the case of one's having abundance, his life is not derived from 
one's goods." But Engl. Vers, joins ix, tZv with h ra •xiptasivtiv, in the abund- 
ance of the things which Ke possesseth. — Ed. and Transl. 

* If there be contentment and the grace of God. — Ed. and Transl 

" X^px, a tract, ' regio,' is the more extensive of the two. — Ed. and Tkansl. 

* Perhaps ' quieti ' may be intended by Beng. as Ablat. of old Adjective quies. 

ST LUKE XII. 18-21. 109 

herein happily portrayed. [They exert themselves in order to fill 
their chests and coffers ; and, when these are full to overflowing, 
they contrive and plan new storehouses. — V. g.] The same formula 
occurs in ch. xvi, 3. Comp.,ver. 4. 

18. udvra, all) There is no mention made here of the poor. 

19. Ksi/ji,£m, laid up, lying in store) He speaks of them as if pre- 
sent. — am'jravou, begin to rest [Take thine ease]) cease to toil. Comp. 
Sir. xi. 23, 24, in the Greek. — (pdys, eat) He might have done so 
long ago, and in good style [he might have eaten and enjoyed good 

20. E'tte, said) if not by an express revelation, yet in His secret 
judgment: [Comp. Is. Ivii. 11.] — appov, thou fool) This is put in 
contrast with his opinion of his own prudence, of which ver. 17, et 
seqq., treat. — wTirt, this night) It is at night that most of the Divine 
addresses to men take place : it is at night that there occur many 
Sudden deaths. [Job xxvii. 20, " A tempest stealeth him away in 
the night."] — •4"'X'5''j soul) concerning which he had spoken so confi- 
dently in ver. 19. — a.-Kamygiv) They to whom the power of requiring 
the. soul is given, require thine of thee: — they whom thou thyself 
knowest not, O rich man. An elliptical expression, as Eev. xii. 6. 
So 1 Sam. iii. 9 in the Hebr., where the LXX., according to the 
Aldine copy, has the full expression, lav xaXiart o xaXZv. conlp. 2 
Sam. xvii. 9. — [a, te iiToi/jt,a<sag, those possessions which thou hast 
acquired [provided]) Not seldom, if one is said to have acquired and 
left behind many thousands, we may be sure that he has bestowed 
on that object the greatest share of his vital energies. — ^V. g.] — ti'vi, 
for whom, for whose advantage) The dative of profit (Dativus com- 
modi). So Gen. xlv. 20, t/^Tv 'ierai. There are many things 
belonging to the rich, which, however, are not for the rich. The 
rich man knows not for whom they are about to be [who shall have 
the good of them, the enjoyment out of them] : at all events, they 
shall not be for the rich man himself. 

21. Oirui, so) viz. shall be. — iaura, for himself) for his own soul. 
See ver. 19, 22. — ^)j s/'s 0s5i', not toward God) It is not said, ©sffi, for 
God, as iaurtJi, for himself. Nothing can be added or diminished 
from the perfection of God [whether a man seeks His glory or not 
in laying out his wealth]. He is rich toward God, who uses and 
enjoys his riches in the way that God would have him [1 Tim. vi. 

-etis. The sense will then be dearer, " a mind void of any tranquil repose." — 
Bd. and Tbansl. 

110 ST LUKE XII. 22-26. 

17]. — vXouTuv, who acts the part of a rich man [who is in the enjoy- 
ment of wealth]) This denotes the state : Srieauplluv, one who layeth 
up treasure, denotes the aim and desire [to be rich]. 

22. Ma,6nTac, His disciples) who had but little of riches. — 6/i7P Xiyoi, 
unto you I say) The pronoun placed before the verb has the greater 
emphasis. See Devar. de partic. in l/io/. 

24. Ko>aza5, the ravens) which are least of all birds useful to man, 
though even birds, too, are subservient toman.' — ra^s/'oi', storehouse) 
from which they may draw forth seed for ' sowing.' — avoiriKn, barn) 
in which they may store up what they ' reap' : as the ants have a 
nest, into which they gather together their stores. — o ©eJj, God) 
Comp. ver. 28. 

25. Tig ii Ig li[t,uv, moreover which of you) In antithesis to God, 
who feeds the ravens, and all birds, and all animals, and men. — 
riXixlav, stature) Some make the reference of this word be to length 
of life or age : but no one measures age by cubits. — aurou, his 
own) If our own stature is not at our disposal, how much less 
are all the creatures, from which we derive our meat and drink ! 
— ■jrrjx'"' ha, one cubit) The height of a man is equal to four of his 
own cubits [the •:rilx'Jij cubitum, is strictly the length from the point 
of the elbow to the end of middle finger] : a man cannot, however 
anxious (with all his anxieties), add even one such cubit, i.e. a fifth, 
to his height ; whether he wish for it, or does not. A man is not 
likely to wish that a hand-breadth or a foot, much less a cubit, 
should be added to his height : but he who is unduly anxious as to 
his life (what he is to eat, drink, and put on), in reality, even though 
imconsciously, wishes for greater stature, wherewith he may expend 
more toil and make more gain. 

26. OvTi iXd'^igTov, not even that lohich is least) The argument is 
drawn from the greater to the less in ver. 23. Now it is by an 
argument from the less to the greater that the truth is shown, that " 
our anxieties are vain and driftless. To add a cubit to the stature 
of a man already bom and in full strength, was regarded by Jesus 
as a thing the least difficult M'ith God Almighty, and as even a less 
exertion of power than the remarkable increase of the five loaves, 
etc., ch. ix. 16. On the contrary, it is the greatest exhibition of 
power, that He has given us stature itself and strength of body, 
whereby the necessaries of life are obtained, — nay more, hath given 

' And so «ven the ravens on one occasion, 1 Kings xvii. 4-6. — Ed. and 

ST LITRE XII. 28-33. lU 

lis the soul along with the body : and year by year, and day by day, 
produces com, wine, oil, spices, fruits, berries, vegetables, herbs, 
cows, sheep, wild beasts, birds, and fishes, and preserves and main- 
tains the whole world of nature. These are the r&jv Xo/*Sv, the rest, 
the other remaining things, which are much less in our power than 
the height of our stature : and yet they have a much closer con- 
nection with our sustenance than our stature has. 

28. 'En rtS aypSi, in the field) This may be construed either with 
To» ypfTov : in which view, comp. Matt. vi. 30, rJv yo^Tov rou kypou : 
or else with o'lra, so as to be in antithesis to t'n xXl^am. 

29. Kai i/iiT;, SO ye also) as the ravens and the liKes. — /j,ri //^inu- 
plt,iek') Mireapog means elevated, lifted aloft : whence iLinupiZiciSai is, 
to he borne up aloft, or to be kept in a state of elevation [and so, 
suspensel- It is said of a mind elated, or tossed to and fro. He 
who is anxious with cares is driven hither and thither : being in 
suspense, he fluctuates in feelings, and is seized wiih dizziness. For 
which reason, what in the parallel passage of Matthew is /jjspi/Lmv 
(to be distracted with solicitudes), is expressed in Luke by //jiTiupi^iedai. 
Pricseus compares with this the language found in Josephus, /iir'ecapoii 
iJmi xal xpoidoclvieSai : and in Suidas, fisrsapoi xccl Tpig rh [lAXKov 
eaXihovTig. Cic. i. XV. ad Att., Ep. 14, " Ita sum /jLiridipog et magnis 
cogitationibus impeditus." 

30. Havra) Construe with T-aura, 

32. M)j <po^ou, fear not) This passage is full of benignity. — /i,ixp6v) 
That which is little might seem to have cause for fearing : but it is 
for that reason with so much the more benignity guarded in safety. 
Both the several Httle sheep individually are small (as a people is 
said to be ' feeble,' which consists of the feeble, Prov. xxx. 25, 26, 
the ants and conies) : and the whole flock is by no means numerous, 
if it be compared with the world at large, and is easily fed, even on 
this very account, because it is not numerous, and is [therefore also 
the more] precious. [Such persons as belong to this " little flock," 
do not hunt after worldly splendour. — V. g.] — voiiivm) A diminutive 
most sweet and ftiU of love. — suSoxijifsv) It hath been the good pleasure 
of your Father Himself. — did ^asiXiiav, the kingdom) A grand ex- 
pression, implying much : see ver. 31 : why then should not bread 
be included in His promise ? [Truly the son of a king has no 
reason to be anxious as to meat, drink, and clothing. — V. g.] 

33. ['EauT-o/f, for yourselves) Laying out your money at the 
highest interest, Heb. x. 34.— V. g.]— TrwXjjirars, sell) This the Lord 
said, not to the crowds [ver. 1, 54], to whom however He was 

lia ST LUKE XII. 35-37. 

showing the way of salvation in a manner appropriate to that very 
time, ver. 54, 56 ; nor to the apostles, who had left their all pre- 
viously, and therefore had nothing to ' sell :' but to the rest of the 
disciples : see ver. 22, 41. His departure from Galilee, ch. xiii; 32, 
and his Passion itself, were at hand : and He was now already pre- 
paring His disciples, that they might be thenceforth as lightly 
equipped (with as few encumbrances) as possible. For these were 
they, of whom Luke makes mention in Acts i. 15, ii. 44, etc. : so 
that there is no doubt but that soon after this discourse they sold 
their possessions in Galilee. Otherwise the indiscriminate sale of 
all one's resources is not enjoined on all, so as to require that they 
should convert them into alms, and that themselves, as well as their 
families, should either seek or re-seek [seek to' get in their turn] 
from others the alms which they had once given. Nevertheless 
spiritual prudence makes men, from being mercenary, even though 
they have not the most abundant supply of goods, to become liberal, 
and disposed to sell in order to have wherewith to give, especially 
when the exigency requires it. See Eccl. xi. 2 ; James v. 1. — 
(iakawia,, purses) Plural. He who sells after the manner of the 
world, fills his purse : but this kind of purse waxes old, even as the 
natural heaven itself doth.^ — drjaavpiv annkimTov, a treasure that faileth 
not) The treasure, as opposed to the purse, is the abundance of 
articles of food, which are very soon spent or spoiled [consumed oi 
corrupted]. — h) namely [purses and a treasure] in the heavens. 
This appertains to both of the preceding clauses. 

35. "EsTcagav, Let-be) What goes before and what foUows, and 
the connection between them, applies most exactly to those times 
which followed after Christ's ascension. As to selling, comp. Acts 
iv. 34. He wishes that His people should be free from encumbrances. 
— o(rpu£s, loins) So afterwards Peter enjoins, 1 Ep. ch. i. 13, and Paul, 
Eph. vi. 14. 

36. 'T/jbiTg, ye yourselves). — vpoedi^ofisvoic, expecting lyaiting^orj) 
with longing desire and joy. — mri) when He is about to return. — Jx 
1-uiv yd//-cii», from the nuptials [wedding]) Therefore the nuptials are 
[going on] in heaven before the (second) Advent of our Lord. — 
ev6eag, immediately) on hearing the first knock. 

37. TlapskSdiv haMvfidii) The participle is pleonastic (wapiXxov), and 
often occurs in similar cases where a banquet is spoken of. See ch. 

^ Opposed to the spiritual toi; oipctaol;, which do not wax old. — Ed. and 

ST LUKE XII. 88-45. 113 

xvii. 7, 'JTapiK^uv avaitidi} Sir. xxix. 33 (26), Tapikk xoe/iridov Tj>dinYa.M. 
This promise of Hiniself ministering to (serving) His servants is the 
most distinguishing and greatest of all marks of honour. It is thus 
that the Bridegroom receives and entertains His friends on the 
solemn day of the marriage feast. 

38. AnjTipa, in the second) The first watch is not mentioned : inas- 
much as it veas the very time itself of the nuptial feast. — rpirri, in the 
third) The Romans used to divide the night into four watches, the 
Jews into three. Accordingly Simonius establishes it as certain, 
that Luke alludes to the Jewish division. 

39. TivdsdxiTi) ye know [but Engl. Vers. Know je\,—\jypriy6!>n()i\i S,v, 
he would Iiave watched) Nor would that have been anything parti- 
cularly remarkable. The doubtfulness attending the hour (of the 
thief's coming) renders the watching both continuously-maintained 
and praiseworthy. — ^V. g.] 

41. 'U/j,ag,us) the apostles, and disciples.^xcs/, even, also) we not 
being excluded. See ver. 22 [where His discourse is restricted to 
the disciples]. — -rravra,;, all) viz. all then present. Comp. ver. 1, 4, 
15, 22, 54. 

42. T/'s, who) The Lord does not expressly reply to the question 
of Peter ; but yet He intimates, that He addresses the parable 
strictly to the disciples (for the steward is distinct from the house- 
hold committed to him) : and He shapes His address to them in the 
singular number, so as thereby to stimulate them singly and indivi- 
dually the more. Then in ver. 54, 55, He says something to all 
then present, reproving the people, inasmuch as, not as yet having 
become sensible of the truth of the Messiah's first Advent, they were 
not able to comprehend the doctrine of the Second Advent. — xara- 
gTridii, shall appoint ['make']) The Future tense : because it is faith- 
fulness [which had yet to be proved] that makes the servant worthy 
to be appointed over the household. A new xaraarfissi, shall appoint 
['make'], follows in ver. 44. There is a gradation from the charge 
over the ' household,' to that over " all that He hath" [all his goods, 
Toii i-jrap^oumv aurouj, 

45. [as, but) Hereby is implied the great contrast there is be- 
tween the conduct of the servant then, and his feeling now, when 
retribution overtakes him. — V-g-] — ssSliiv xal le'miv, to eat and to drink) 

' Go forward and sit to meat. Wahl, Glavis, under Aularn^i, duccara;, attri- 
butes this pleonastic junction of a participle with the finite verb to the simplicity 
of antiquity, which is wont " totum rei ambitum emetiri, nihilque cogitalionuni, 
quod eodem spectet, missum facere." — Ed. and Transl. 

A'OL. II. H 

114 ST LUKE XII. 4fi-50. 

These constitute the act : ij.i^i(^ai, to be drunken, to give way to 
intoxication, denotes the habit. 

46. 'AT/Vrwi;, unbelievers) In antithesis to vieroi, believing 6v faithful, 
ver. 42. He who has a heart divided [between his Master's service 
and the indulgence of his own appetites], shall be himself divided 
\cut in sunder^. 

47. tJ 6i\n/j,a, will) whereby vigilance is required. — /ijj iroifidaag, 
[having got ready]) Neuter, as in ch. ix. 52. [There follows mitjaag 
in respect of the servant himself: for iroi/jMSag has respect to others, 
whom the servant ought to have got ready .^ — V. g.J — nroXkai, many) 
viz. vXriyag, stripes. The same ellipsis occurs, 2 Cor. xi. 24. 

48. 'OX'iyag) not merely fewer than he who knew his Lord's will, 
hut few absolutely. — w ibUn nXv, to wJiom much has been given) es- 
pecially if he himself has got it by solicitation and by violence. — 
irapikvTo) To whom those, whose business it was to commit it, have 
committed, as a deposit, much. A personal verb used with the ellipsis 
of the person [those or m«n]. 

49. Uup, fire) A fire which is to be wished for, the fire of spiritual 
ardour. [The love of God.— V. g.] See ch. iii. 16 ; Matt. x. 37, 
compared with what precedes and follows. The Lord continues His 
former discourse, which calls men from earthly to heavenly things ; 
and gradually returns to those subjects which He had been speaking 
of before the interruption. See ver. 13, 12. — ^aXiTv) viz. from 
heaven, to send. — s/s tyiv yHiv, on or into the earth) That fire is not na- 
tural to the earth [not sprung of earth] : therefore He does not say, 
a rri yfi, in earth [the distinction is lost by Engl. Vers, rendering both 
" on earth"], as in ver. 51. — r/ fiXoi, what will I) The Present, I will, 
I wish, for / would, I would wish, is appropriate to a thing much 
wished for and sure to be accomplished : What further need I wish, 
if (when) the fire be already kindled ? The conflict preceded the 
kindling of the fire. It was kindled on Pentecost : Acts ii. 

50. BdiTTiefia di) But a baptism, and that too a baptism completely 
consummated, must precede the fire, and the kindling of it. — ej^m 
BavrisCrimi) Comp. Mark x. 38. — -ttus su/i^o/iai, how am I straitened 
[severely pressed]) John xii. 27 ["Now is My soul troubled," etc.] ; 
Matt. xxvi. 37. The nearer His passion approached, the greater 
were the emotions by which He was affected. The preceding 
formula, What will I? indicates the mere will and inclination by 

' Engl. Vers, understands sain-o}/ to hoiftaaitc, " prepared not himself:" it 
thus loses the point of distinction between hoifniaus and -rrofiiaas. — Ed. and 

ST LUKE XU. 51-5fi. 115 

itself; but the words, How am I straitened (witli which comp. Phil, 
i. 23; 2 Cor. v. 14), implies the will struggling forth through oppos- 
ing objects and obstructions. — nXisSfi, it shall have been accomplished 
[finished, consummated]) Comp. John xix. 30 [riTiXigTai, It is 
finished, or consummated'^. 

51. Ou%;) Nay; not peace of such a kind as that which congre- 
gates together heterogeneous elements, the good and bad alike. — 
&ia/jbipigfiov, division) The sword has the power of ' dividing,' Heb. iv. 
12. And the fire, of which ver. 49 treats, separates heterogeneous 
elements, and congregates together homogeneous ones. 

52. UivTi, five) The Father, the Mother, the Son, the Daughter, 
and the Daughter-in-law. The Son-in-law is not added; for. he 
constitutes a different household [as its head]. — rpiTg sir! Sval, three 
against [or upon, ' super,' ueber. Germ.] two) Numbers most suitable 
to form the division of the household. 

54. Ku> ToTg 'ixXoic, also to the multitudes) For He had spoken the 
former words to the apostles. See ver. 42, note. The imitators of 
Christ ought to submit even to division (dia/iipiafibv, ver. 51) for the 
sake of His name: whereas the multitude, being void of the influence 
of that heavenly motive, ought to seek after peace as their chief aim. 
In the case of the people, quarrels are an impediment to the entrance 
of grace. See ver. 58. — airh Sugf/,uv, fi:om the west [the setting of the 
sun]) The sea was on the west of the Jews : whence rain arose from 
that quarter. — suHug, straightway) without hesitation or doubt. 

55. No'roii, south) See ch. xiii. 29 ; Acts xxvii. l^.—xauaav) xadeut 
sometimes is used to express the wind itself fi-om the East. But in 
this passage the South Wind is a prognostic of the xaCauv ; therefore 
KadaoDi expresses the heat, which the wind coming from the regions 
situated at the equator used to occasion to the Jews. 

56. ' TrnxpiTo,!, ye hypocrites) A hypocrite is a term used to charac- 
terize him whosoever aims at a portion of good, or the appearance of 
what is good, and yet neglects the greater good. It is applied also, 
for instance, to an interpreter of dreams, Ivoxpir^g oniptav ; but in this 
passage the Lord without doubt employed the usual Hebrew word, 
which means an evil-disposed hypocrite : for such signs of the times 
are adduced, as any even of the common people, without any physical 
science, might have appreciated. — rris yrjg, of the earth) ver. 54. — 
roii ovpavov, of the heaven) ver. 55. — xaiphv) the tim,e of the Messiah. 
See ver. 49, dO.—irZ; ou, how is it that ye do not) Spiritual proving 
[doxifid^iiv, "ye know how to prove or discern," etc.] ought to be 
much more easy to man than the proving of things in the world of 

116 ST LUKE XII. 57, 58. 

nature. [Yet notwithstanding, from the multitude of things which are 
the subjects of investigation in the latter, the former (the proving of 
spiritual things) is dechned even by those who are placed in the 
highest and most favourable positions.— V. g.J 

.57. [A£, hut) What precedes has respect to faith ; but what is 
nere treated of has respect to love. The matters which are set forth 
in this place ought to be accounted of the greatest importance, in- 
asmuch as out of the whole range of whatever is ]v^i, this one thing 
alone is mentioned to the people by Jesus. — V. g.] — xa/ ap' eavruv) 
of your own accord, even without signs, and irrespective of the con- 
sideration of this present time. So ap' saurwv, ch. xxi. 30. Comp. 
Matt. xvi. 3, note. [Or else the phrase, ap' kavroiv, expresses this : 
Before that the Judge pronounces sentence, and the matter become 
known to you, to your cost, from some other quarter (than by your- 
selves settling the matter in dispute). Often one, when admonished 
as to what is just or unjust, is compelled thereby to perceive the 
truth. But it would be better for him to infer it " of himself." 
Nabal came to know subsequently, when taught it, in what way 
he ought to have received and entertained David ; but previously 
he neglected to use reflection. — V. g.] — ro dhaiov) what is true 
and just, and conducive to true peace ; ver. 58, with which comp. 
ver. 51 and ver. 13 as to the quarrel between the brothers. The 
kingdom of Christ is a kingdom of justice [' righteousness :' Heb. 
i. 8, 9 ; Ps. xlv. 6, 7]. 

58. T&p,for) T&p, for, is often employed where the discussion 
follows the proposition [statement of subject]. — i^ays/s, goest) al- 
though against thy will. — dvridmov, adversary) the plaintiff, to whom 
thou art bound to repay the debt, ver. 59. — ap^ovra, prince) the 
judge [or magistrate\. —'kXax&a.i, to he delivered) by any negotia- 
tioh, or on any condition whatever. A friendly compromise is wont to 
be recommended, even in civil cases. This is a favourable (agree- 
able) kind of (^TOmon.^ — xaraevpri, hurry thee off by force [hale thee]) 
The power of the offended party is great : so much so, as sometimes 
to snap asunder the tie which binds the soul to the body.^— rffl irpdx- 
Topi, to the officer who exacts what is due) the avenger or executioner. 
Satan himself is a party in the action (plaintiff), not an executioner.' 

Ver. 51. The parting asunder, by a compromise and reconciliation, of those 
who meet for litigation, is a good kind of hctfiipia^o; Ed. and Transi,. 

» i.e. The violence of a quarrel sometimes hastens the death of the delinquent 
through fear and chagrin. — Ed. and Transl. 

' Eeus, non executor. Rev. xii. 10; Job i. 9, ii. 5; Zech. iii. i. Perhaps 

ST LUKE XIII. 1-4. 117 


1. Tp xaipSi, at that same season) Opportunely they were present , 
comp. eh. xii. 57. — civayyiWovTig, announcing the tidings) as of a re- 
cent event. — IliXdro;, Pilate) This act of Pilate> is in consonance 
with the ' enmity* which he had entertained towards Herod ; ch. 
xxiii. 12. Each of the t's^ had a different cause [for the enmity]. 
— 'if/'i^i, mingled) An Euphemism. [See Append.] 

2. AoxiTrs) A Metonymy for, Think ye that you are innocent, and 
will escape without punishment ? We ought to have regard, not so 
much to what has happened to others, or why it has so happened, as 
to what may happen to ourselves, and what ought to be done by us. 
[This is the principal use to be made of the news which we hear. — 
V. g. — on, seeing that, because that) It is rather unsafe to draw a con- 
clusion from individual calamities to individual sins (to think great 
calamities of individuals must be the result of their great sins, as 
Job's friends thought of him). — V. g.] 

3. 5. Asyu ijJM, I tell you) The Lord puts forth this from His 
treasures of Divine knowledge. — mvnc, all) Galileans and inhabi- 
tants of Jerusalem alike. — ueauraig) This signifies, in the same man- 
ner : ' O/ioiui means, in like manner, 'nsairug means something more 
than ofiolug [Engl. Vers, loses this by translating uaairug, likewise^. 
The event accordingly corresponded to the prediction : for the Jews 
wgre punished by the same nation to which Pilate belonged : and 
also at the same time, viz. the Passover time, when the offering of 
sacrifices prevailed : and also with the sword. 

4. "H, or) From the Galileans He passes in His discourse, inas- 
much as His departure from Galilee was close at hand, to the people 
of Jerusalem ; comp. ver. 33. He passes from slaughter inflicted 
by men to a casualty, which might seem to have happened by 
chance. — ol d'sxa xal 6xra, those eighteen) A profound and mysterious 
judgment in the case of the deaths of so many joined together.— 
opeiXirai, debtors^) Comp. ver. 34. — ■/.aToixoZvrag h 'IipovdaXfi/i) So 
the LXX, In Jerusalem, a city in other respects esteemed " the 
holy city." 

Beng, however, means by reus, " Satan is himself a condemned criminal." 2 Pet. 
ii. 4 ; Jude 6.— Ed. and Tbansl. 
/ ' Sinners,' Matt, xviii. 24, and above, ch. xi. 4. — Kv. and Tkansl. 

113 ST LUKE XIII. 5-11. 

5. 'AToXs/ir^e, ye shall perish) This actually took place in the siega 
and destruction of the city. 

6. S.yy.ny, a fig-tree) a tree which in, itself has no rightful place in 
a vineyard. God took Israel as His people by the freest exercise 
of grace.— auroC, His) The Father has a vineyard, and Christ culti- 
vates and dresses it, nin'' nnjJ. Comp. ver. 8,. Lord [which implies, 
the vineyard has Him for its Lord and owner'] : or else Christ has 
the vineyard, and Mis ministers cultivate it. — '!ri(puTiu//^s»r}v, planted) 

7. Tpla, three) A number in some measure decisive and deter- 
minate. The Lord was beginning His third year of teaching, as 
the true harmony of the Evangelists shows. — 'ifyj>, I come) An 
abbreviated expression, as in ch. xv. 29, Toaayra irri SovXiuu aoi, these 
so many years I (have served and still) serve thee. — 'Uxo-^ov, cut it off 
[down]) Great severity (stern strictness in punishing) is expressed 
in this word : as also there is implied the great power of the a/ivi- 
Xoupybg, Vine-dresser. — ha t'i xat, why even [not expressed in the 
Eijgl. Vers.]) Not only is it of no use, but it even draws off the 
juices, which the vines would otherwise extract (suck) out of 
the earth, and intercepts the sun's rays ; and it takes up valuable 

8. ' AmxpiSiig, having answered) By reason of His tender affection 
for the tree, inasmuch as being the object of His care as its dresser. 
— a^£5, let it alone) This is akin to an argument drawn from its 
costing no great trouble or expense. [To such a degree are even 
they benefited by the intercession of Christ, who if left to them- 
selves would have long since perished. — V. g.j— roCro tI 'eras, this 
year) the third year, on which Jesus most especially visited them 
(in mercy), ch. xix. 42, 44 ; and perfected the work of redemption, 
and sent His apostles : Acts ii. [It follows from this parable, that 
three Passovers in all elapsed between the baptism and resurrection 
of Christ. — Harm., p. 403.] — jtoVf ;a) Greg. Naz., xo-rpia -jrepi^aXth. 
Sing. Koirpiov, 

9. Kax, and if) The Apodosis is to be understood : It is ivell, or 
I will leave it to stand ; or else, let it bear fruit. It comes to the 
same. — Ixxo-^ns, thou shalt cut it off [down]) The Vine-dresser does 
not say, I will cut it off (down) ; comp. ver. 7 ; but refers the whole 
case to the Lord of the vineyard : however, He ceases to intercede 
for the fig-tree, that it should be spared. — /tsXXov) viz. sVos, in the 
year to come, in antithesis to this year (roDro rh eVos), ver. 8. 

11. Twrj, a woman) This seems to have been a pious woman ; for 

ST LUKE XIII. 12-16. 119 

she was one to wlioin it was not said in this passage [as in the case 
of others], Thy sins are forgiven thee : nay, even she is called a 
daughter of AbraJiam in ver. 16. — g\jy%\iir7o\)(Sa, bowed together) The 
state and posture of her body, which turned her face from the 
gaze of heaven, was in consonance with her misery in having a 
"spirit of infirmity" (nrnZf/ja aakviiai). 

12. 'ibiiv, having seen) The woman seems to have had longing 
desire after Him, and confidence in Him. — amXiyusai, thou art 
loosed) even now already: the preterite. The same expression 
occurs ver. 15, 16. 

13. ' Kvap^Mn, she was raised up straight) The upright posture is 
one that is in consonance with the nobility of man. — JSo'ga^E, glorified) 
The soul and body, after having received help [and relief from 
above], become, as it were, an instrument just freshly acquired for 
sounding the Divine praises. 

14. TtS ox^Vj *" *^*^ multitude) But all the while he obliquely 
aimed at Jesus. [For doubtless the benefit of the healing came to 
the woman without her expecting it. — -V. g.] — i'f, six) quite many 

15. 'Trnxpiral, ye hypocrites) The plural is used, including more 
persons, but addressed to one person ; comp. ver. 17 [where all 
His adversaries are included] : as also in ch. xi. 46, compared with 
ver. 45. There was some degree of reverence felt on the part of 
the ruler of the synagogue towards Jesus ; and it was not owing to 
any peculiar prejudice of his own, but owing to the common error 
of the Jews on the subject, that he was led to oppose the Saviour.^ 
— Xue;, doth loose) A most apt illustration. Comp. XuSrivai, to he 
loosed, applied to the woman in ver. 16. — a'Trayayuv, having led away) 
Words are heaped together in order to show the amount of work 
[comp. ipydl^ieSai, ver. 14, in the complaint of the ruler] done on 
the Sabbath in such a case. 

16. BuyaTspa 'A^paa/j., a daughter of Abraham) not merely a 
daughter of Adam. There is a strong antithesis to the beast of bur- 
den (the ox or the ass). Christ brought salvation to all the chil- 
dren of Abraham : they who remained without share in it had 
themselves to blame. Comp. as to Zaccheus, ch. xix. 9. — ISou Sixa 
ia.i ixrii 'irri) eighteen years ago. The nominative. So the LXX. 

^ However the Vers. Germ., following the margin of the 2d Ed., prefers the 
singular number in this passage.— E. B. ' TiroxpiTai is the reading of ABaftc Vulg. 
Iren. 236. 'Txox/wTa of the Rec. Text is only supported by D of the primary 
atrthorities. — Eu. and Transl. 

120 ST LUKE XIII. 17-22. 

according to the Aldlne copy, in Josh. i. 11, tn TfiTg ri/ispa.i UiTg J/o- 
^riaieh [Al. xal—dia.l3amrs]. A specimen of the omniscience of Jesus 
Christ : The Lord knew all about the cause of the disease, and its 
duration, which seems not to have been made known to Him pre- 
viously by any outward means of information, nt Idou TeeaapaxovTo. 
"rri, Deut. viii. 4:.—ovx Uei, ought not, was it not fitting ?) The argu- 
.jient holds good, both when drawn from the daily necessary wants 
of the beast, ver. 15, and also when drawn from any sudden danger 
into which it may fall, ch. xiv. 5. Nor is it permitted one to make 
the objection : " But the human being, who has been sick for so 
many years, may wait some few hours until the end of the Sabbath;" 
for not even in the case of the beast is the case one of the extremest 
necessity, and yet help is given to the beast ; and in the case of a 
human being's affliction, where there is the opportunity of getting or 
giving aid, even an hoiu- is of great importance, when first the 
patient and the physician meet one another. 

17. Karfis^movro 'jrdvrig oi avTix.ii//^ivoi aurSi) Comp. is. xlv. 16, LXX., 
aieyuvirjeovrai aal ivrpavfieovrai •jrdvreg oi dvTmiifitvoi aurSj [which words 
were probably in Luke's mind, whilst recording their partial fulfil- 
ment]. — TrSf, all) The following verses should be compared with 
this. — 'i-)(a.iptv, rejoiced) with a noble and ingenuous joy. — ym/jLimg, 
which were being done) by His word and His miracles. 
• 18. T/w, to what) Comp. ch. vii. 31. [The Saviour had put forth 
the same similes, as to the grain of mustard and the leaven, at about 
the interval of a year before this, as recorded in Matthew, ch. xiii. 
31, 33, and also in Mark, ch. iv. 31. — Harm., p. 404.] — ^ ^aaiXela, 
the kingdom) Many were about to enter it of the Jews and Gentiles ; 
comp. ver. 17, 29. 

19. K^'TTou, garden) which is enclosed. Comp. in connection with 
the same thought, hid Qviy.pv^iv), ver. 21. — [iial ri'u^riae, and it grew) 
You have instances in point in ver. 13, 17. — V. g.] 

21. 'Evixpu-l'iv, hid in) so that the leaven seemed to be quite ab- 
sorbed by the dough. — ttXiupov) The words, ' AXivpov sdra rpla, seem to 
have been introduced into the text here from Matthew : I have, as I 
think, demonstrated clearly enough in my Apparatus Crit. that the 
very ancient Italic Version had aXivpov. And the steady testimony 
of Ambrose to the same is exhibited, not merely in his commentary 
on this passage, but also in his Fifth Discourse. 

22. E/'s, towards) His route was arranged with a view to reaching 
Jerusalem at the terminus of a journey especially memorable. See 
ver. 33, ch. xvii. 11, xviii. 31, xix. 11, 28. 

ST LUKE XIII. 23-25. 121 

2S. e; hXiyoi, whether few) The man seems to have thought that 
out of the pale of Judaism there would be no salvation. 

24. ' Aymii^sehj-striveasin a contest) A merely speculative question 
is at the very outset turned to a practical account: strive by faith, 
with prayers, hohness, patient perseverance. However there follows 
also a reply to the subject of the question : see ver. 28, et seqq. 
[There are many, indeed, who are being saved, ver. 28, 29; but they 
are such persons whom, of all men, thou wouldest have supposed 
least likely to be saved, ver. 29, 30. — V. g.] — iroXkof) many, includ- 
ing Israelites also : see Kom. ix. 31. In antithesis to the hxiyoij/eiv. 
— o\)-ji k'^vgougiv, shall not be able) by, Lxx. /V;^u&), absolutely. The 
contest (agon, from aymlt,i<fSi) is maintained by strength, especially 
the contest which we have in relation to God. They shall not have 
strength ; namely, because they seek near by and about the gate 
[but do not go straight and direct, and with decision, to the entrance 
itself], and so at length, when the gate has been firmly shut fast, 
they shall not be able to burst through it : They neither seek in good 
earnest, nor put forth the strength which is needed for victory. See 
ver. 27 at the end. 

25. 'A<p' ou, fro7n the time that once [when once]) This being 
abruptly subjoined, has great force. The Apodosis is in riri, then, in 
ver. 26: nor is the employment of the Indicative IpiT, shall say, 
an objection to this view of the construction. Comp. note on Mark 
iii. 27. — lyspd'fl, shall have risen up) from the banquet (supper) in 
order to shut the door. For He is not speaking concerning His 
advent ; for at the Advent it is not the Lord that opens to the 
servants, but it is the servants who open unto their Lord : ch. xii. 
36. — awoxXiiari) shall have shut, against strangers alien to Him. Now, 
now is the time for striving in the [good] contest. — rriv 6lipav, the door) 
What seems to those standing outside to be a gate, is a door to those 
who are within, as in a house (home).^ — %al cip^fiak, and ye shall have 
begun) This too depends on dp' o5, from the time that once ; for the 
t^riTrisougiv, shall seek, is handled (treated of) in ver. 26 ; and the ovx 
Jg^udousit, shall not be able, is handled (treated of) in ver. 27. Such 
persons had never thought so before. O how new [implied in roVs 
ap^teh'] shall be their sense of misery then first realized, and how 

' Beng. thus reads, with Rec. Text, ttuAhs in ver. 24 ; and this reading is sup- 
ported by Abe Vulg. (' portam '), d ('januam '). But Supas, in ver. 24, is the 
reading of BDL, Origen 3,804a, who adds oV/ dx/yo; iCpia-xovain avrviii (evidently 
inserted from the parallel, Matt. vii. 13, from which probably the xyXnf also, in 
ver. 24, has come). — Ed. and Tkaksl 

122 ST LUKE XIII. 26-28. 

late, and how long-continuing ! It is when his opportunity has 
passed by, that man begins to wish : Num. xiv. 40. [The Israelites 
began thus to feel only when doomed to forty years wandering, 
whereas, had they beHeved in time, they would have entered the 
promised land at once : Too late " they rose up early, etc., and said, 
Lo we be here and will go up," etc.] — xpouuv t^v 6vpav, to knock at the 
door) which was now not merely envri, as before, ver. 24, but by this 
time closed and shut to {am^Xue-fl, ver. 25). — vokv, whence) Herein is 
impHed the point of view in which He refuses to know them. They 
are recognised by Him, in their character as workers of iniquity. 

26. Tors apt,i«6i, then ye shall begin) though previously having 
relied on other pretexts. [They who have remained estranged from 
Christ heretofore, when they had the opportunity of intimate com- 
munion with Him presented to them, shall, at the time when they 
would wish that they had been His familiar friends, be banished by 
Him from His presence. — V. g.J — Xiynv, to say) Meaning to say 
this, " Why shouldest Thou not know us ?" [Thou hast seen into 
our daily conversation and walk : we have had Thee in the midst of 
us. — V. g.] This properly applies to those who were living at that 
time. — h{ji'!ti6v aow h ratg irXariiaig rj/j^uv, in Thy presence; in our' 
streets) Therefore we must not merely eat and drink in the presence 
of Christ, but we must be partakers of (have a share in) Christ [if 
we are to be acknowledged by Him at last] ; and not merely throw 
open our streets, but our hearts, to His saving doctrine. 

27. Aiyai h/j^Tv, I say unto you, I tell you) He repeats the same 
words : His sentence stands fast and unchangeable ; but in repeat- 
ing them. He does so with emphasis. — aSmlac, of iniquity, of un- 
righteousness) Therefore the righteous shall enter the kingdom. See 
Matt. V. 20. 

28. ''E-x.iT, there) in that place, to which ye shall be commanded to 
depart. [See that thou dost in due time reflect on that " terror of 
the Lord," lest hereafter thou shouldest in actual fact be forced to 
know it by bitter experience. — V. g.J — o-v^jjo-^e) when ye shall see, but 
not -taste [their ble'.sedness]. A sight full of misery. See ch. xvi. 
23. The ungodly, on the contrary, shall be a festive sight to the 
saints :' Is. Ixvi. 23, 24. — 'AjSpaa/j., Abraham) The patriarchs and all 

1 " They shall go forth and look upon the carcasses of the men that have trans- 
gressed against Me, for their worm shall not die," etc. Their will shall be so 
entirely one with God's, that they shall rejoice in the destruction and punish- 
ment of God's enemies ; Rev. xiv. 10, at the end, xi. 17, 18, xv. 3, 4, xviii. 20. — 
Ed. and Tkansl. 

ST LUKE XIII. 29-31. 133 

the prophets looked to Christ ; and whosoever do not follow their 
faith, shall not recline at the heavenly feast with them. — traKTOs, all) 
All the prophets were saints. The Jews used to boast themselves 
of these, though their fathers had rejected them. There is here, as 
also in ver. 29, a softening down of the apprehension which the 
' fewness' of the saved might create : see ver. 23. — jSaeiXelcf, the 
kingdom) ver. 29. — sijSaXXofLivovi, persons who are being cast out) The 
Present. The weeping shall forthwith begin. 

29. "Hfouff/v, they shall come) Here there is not added many, [as 
there is in ver. 24 and Matt. viii. 11. It is a rather stern reply to 
the question proposed, inasmuch as the question was one easily liable 
to abuse. — V. g.] — avi avaroXSv xal duafico\i xa! jBoppa kol! votov, from 
the East and West and North and South) It was almost in this 
order that the several peoples were converted to the faith. It is 
especially in the South that as yet the Gospel has to be preached. 

30. 'l8ou lieh — xal ilgi, behold, there are — and there are) The pre- 
sent with emphasis, in antithesis to the future : ver. 29, 24. — ihh 
idyoiToi, there are last) This has reference to ver. 28, 29. The ab- 
sence of the article makes the whole assertion in the sentence in- 
definite, and denotes that there is to be an interchange in the relative 
positions of some, though not of all, of the first and of the last, not 
that there is to be an account taken of both in the mass without dis- 
crimination : For those coming from the four quarters of the world 
shall recline at the banquet with the fathers and the prophets, not 
the latter with them (the former). See Matt. viii. 11. — iis! itpum, 
there are Jlrst) This is to be referred to ver. 24, et seqq. 

31. 'npMrig, Herod) The Pharisees, in saying this, did not say 
what was decidedly untrue : for Herod did earn the appellation, 
fox ; and Simonius suspects that he was so called by many. But 
Herod was wishing that this worker of miracles, whom he suspected 
to be John, should be removed as far as possible from him [For 
which reason he the more frequently drove Him from place to place : 
Matt. iv. 12, xiv. 1, comparing ver. 13. — Harm., p. 407] : and the 
same object was the aim of the Pharisees : hence both conspired 
together against Jesus. Again, on the other hand, Herod does not 
seem in serious earnest to have wished to kill Jesus ; for if he was 
struck with fear after having killed John, ch. ix. 7, 8, he could not 
but have been struck with more violent fear had he killed Jesus ; 
but he tried to agitate Jesus (by alarming Him), and to thrust Him 
out of his country, under the pretext of his territorial right (comp. 
Amos vii. 12, [where Amaziah uses the same policy towards the 

134 ST LUKE XIII. 32. 

prophet]), and by means of threats derived from that plea, which 
the Pharisees reported to Him, as if in the way of friendly admoni- 
tion, not in Herod's words, but in their own words, and perhaps with 
exaggerations of their own invention. Therefore Jesus replies to 
both in accordance with the real state of the case, not being terrified 
by anything (in any respect). He calls Herod a fox, employing an 
epithet accurately characterizing him, on account of his cunning 
and hypocritical cowardice (comp. ch. ix. 7), inasmuch as he was 
throwing out threats which were but a feint, and declaring that He 
is not to be deterred by those threats from the performing of miracles : 
but, at the same time. He upbraids the persons who announced the 
tidings of Herod's threats, as also the whole of Jerusalem, with their 
ungrateful and blood-thirsty spirit : ver. 33, 34. Herod was a fox, 
a persecutor on a comparatively small scale, compared with Jerusa- 
lem, the great persecutor (' persecutrix'). — SiXu « aitoxnTmi, wishes 
to hill Thee) being irritated perhaps with the act of Pilate, mentioned 
ver. 1. 

32. E«rc6rE, tell ye) if you dare. — ixj3dXXu, x.t.X., I cast out) He 
does not add, I preach the Gospel; for this would have been less 
within the comprehension of Herod. From the goodness of Jesus' 
actions, the wickedness of Herod's designs against Him stands out 
the more palpable and glaring.* — imnXu, [use despatch in perform- 
ing cures [conficio']) I am urgent, inasmuch as My time is short. He 
speaks with majesty in making answer to His enemies ; with humi- 
lity towards His friends. See Matt. xi. 5, xii. 27. — grif/,£pov -/.a! aupiov) 

So the LXX., erifjjipov xal aupioii, Josh. xxii. 18 [sail d'TTOSTrire e^fi,ipo]i a-Tta 
Kvpm, xai abpih ml itavra 'lopariX 'iarai )j opyrj], with which comp. ver. 
28.^ It is equivalent to a proverb concerning the time to come ; as 
the phrase, yesterday and the day before, x^^i ^".1 rpiTTiv r,fj/ipav, is used 
concerning the time past. If it had depended on Herod, not even 
a day would have been left to the Lord. — nXsiou/^ai) [ reach the goal 
— the consummation. Comp. Heb. xi. 40 [" That they without us 
should not be perfect."'] On the third day He departed from Ga- 

^ After the feeding of the five thousand, recorded in ch. ix., Luke is sparinn- 
in the mention of miracles performed by our Lord in Galilee. However in this 
passage he observes, in general terms, that He ^pake thus (of casting out devils 
and doing cures) on the journey, which He had determinately undertaken for 
the enduring of His Passion : Luke gives three instances of such miracles, ch. 
xi. 14, xiii. 11, 12, xiv. 2, 3. — Harm., p. 406. 

' ixi/ — y^cihiicfcuji — THIS yiPiol; ijfiuv avpiou, where to-morrow is used for here- 
after ; to-day, for in the present times. — Ed. and Transl. 

sT LUKE XIII. 83-35. 125 

lilee [the territory of Herod], turning His course towaxds Jerusalem, 
being about to die there ; see ver. 33, at the end : and so, from this 
time forth, He vividly realized to His own mind the consummation. 
[Nor did He return after this to Galilee, previous to His resurrec- 
tion. — Harm., p. 407.] 

33. Tji i-^oiJi,ivr\, on the following day) This expression has a wider 
meaning than t5) rpirri, on the third day {the day after to-morrow), 
which is included in rji l-)(pix,hri. The journey to the city of Jerusa- 
lem was not a journey of only two days : see ver. 22, ch. xvii. 11. 
Whence it appears that the third day was not merely a day of con- 
summation, rrXriv [beginning of this ver.], hut also, before this, of 
farther journeying and progress.^ [" If I were to proceed straight- 
way," saith He, " to the place where I am about to be slain, there 
would be need of at least a three days' journey." — Harm., 1. c] — 
iropiveaSai, to walk, depart) They had said, Topsuou, depart, ver. 31. 
He replies, This very thing which you so suddenly enjoin upon Me 
(viz. to depart), is not a thing to be done in one day. — ova hdi^erai, 
it is not usuaP) This phrase admits of exceptions : for instance, John 
the Baptist was " a prophet" who " perished out of Jerusalem." — 
amXigSa,!, perish) by a public judicial procedure. 

34. ' lipo\j(SaXri[j,, Jerusalem) It is not without cause that His dis- 
course is turned to this city ; the Pharisees had an intimate tie of 
connection with it : see ver. 31 : and it was in the same city that 
Herod was about to assail Jesus [ch. xxiii. 11]. — '^inaxii, how often) 
ver. 7. He had come thither thrice since His baptism : [John ii. 23, 
v. 1, vii. 10. — Harm., 1. c.J — voaalav, her young brood) A collective noun. 

35. 'ibou afilerai v/jlTv 6 oTxog ufiSiv) Many have added 'ipr]/j.og from 
Matthew.' In Luke the Saviour is represented as having said these 
words in Galilee: nor did He subsequently aiford the people of 
Jerusalem the opportunity of seeing Him, until, after the resur- 
rection of Lazarus, at His own royal entry, they said. Blessed is He 
who Cometh in the name of the Lord.* Therefore, from the time of 

^ TropeiitcrSai, to walJc, implying His furthering the advancement of His king- 
dom during His journey. — Ed. and Transl. 

^ Lit. " It is not admissible. The phrase occurs here only in New Testament. 
— Ed. and Transl. 

' AB Vulg. Orig. 3,188J; 642i, omit 'ipnfios. But Bahc Iren. and Rec. Text, 
add 'ipyifio;. — Ed. and Transl. 

* This can only be the immediate temporary fulfilment of His prophecy. For 
that it is not the full and exhaustive fulfilment of it is plain from the fact, that 
presently after they had used the words, " Blessed is He," etc., ch. xix. 38, He 
" wept over the city," ver. 41-44, and denied that it even then " knew the time 

126 ST LUKE X^lll. 35. 

this declaration and prelude up to the time of that entry of His, He 
left their house to them,^ though not yet however ' desolate' [there- 
fore the ipni^m here is spurious]. But in Matthew, after His royal 
entry, going out from the temple for the last time. He solemnly de- 
clared their house to be left desolate.^ [We have been permitted to 
observe the same nice distinction in the words respectively used, be- 
tween Luke xi. 49, and Matt, xxiii. 34 : see the notes on both pas- 
sages. — Harm., p. 407.] — Xsyaj Si uf/.n, but I say unto you) He 
speaks sternly, and yet mercifully, as we have just now remarked. 
Nay, even in Matt, xxiii. 39, the af/,riv, verily, is wanting, by the in- 
sertion of which in Luke some have intensified the sternness of His 
denunciation.' The particle, de, but, opposes to one another the 
present desolation of their abandoned house, and their acclamations 
so soon about to follow. 

of its visitation " by Him in mercy. Therefore the time is yet future when the 
Jews, according to Psalm cxviii. 22, 26, Zech. iv. 7, xii. 10, shall recognise Him 
in the character {= name) of Lord. — Ed. and Traksl. 

. 1 I am co^fidently of opinion that the house in this passage is the same as that 
of which He speaks in Matt, xxiii. 38, though at a different time. Moreover, 
that the temple is meant in the passage of Matthew, is evident from Matt. xxiv. 
1, where, immediately after that most solemn' declaration, the Saviour is said 
to have departed from the temple. What need, then, could He have had of the 
demonstrative ourof in order to point out that house or temple, seeing that He 
spake these words in the temple itself ? Truly the article o, in such a case, was 
more than sufficient. I moreover will most freely grant, that the Jews never 
called the temple their own house, but always the house of the Lord (although 
S. R. D. S. F. Lorenz, in his diss, de Induratione Israelis ante finem dierum 
finienda, Argent. 1771, p. 50, shows the contrary to be the fact). But yet, see- 
ing that He did not hesitate to call the temple AjjutSj (ch. xix. 46), 
need we wonder that He, in order to express indignation, might have called it in 
this passage " the house of the Jews?" Never did the Jewish people, as far as I 
know, call themselves \ki^ people of Moses : and yet the Lord, when angry with 
the people, says to Moses, " Thy people have corrupted themselves," Bxod. xxxii. 
7. Comp. by all means Jer. vii. 4, 8, where the nomenclature [which they arro- 
gated to themselves]. The temple of the Lord, is reproved as false: Comp. Hos. i. 
9, y?. ^1 not— my people, and Rom. ii. 28, not— a Jew ; comp. with this Rev. 
iii. 9, etc. I make these remarks by the way of an answer to Krnesti Bibl. 
Theol. Tom. x. p. 184, et seqq.—E. B. 

2 Matt, xxiii. 38, BL Memph. Orig. 3,167cd omit spyi/^og. But both internal 
probability for the reason given by Beng., and the weighty authorities, Daicd 
Vulg. Orig. Iren. and Cypr, support it. — Ed. and Transl. 

' ABDabo Vulg. omit dft^u. Rec. Text, without any primary authority, in- 
serts it. — Ed. and Transl. i 

ST LUKE XIV. 1-8. 127 


1. 'Ell T/p cXSiTv, when He was coming) by invitation. See ver. 12. 
— ap-/6\ir<iiv, of the chiefs) The Pharisees had their own chiefs, and 
these also numerous, possessing pre-eminent authority ; which, how- 
ever, Jesus did not regard with fear. See ver. 12, at the beginning. 
[ — n<sa,v -iraparripouf^ivoi alriv, they ivere craftily watching Him) The 
spiritual Sabbath is grossly profaned by crafty and wicked thoughts. 


2. 'Tdpumxlig, a m,an in the dropsy) who was brought hither for 
this very reason. 

3. ' Amxpihts, answering) to the thoughts of His adversaries. — 
vo/iixoiic:, lawyers) who, though the law was their profession, not- 
withstanding did not understand aright the law concerning the 

4. 'idaaro, He healed him) His adversaries were using the dropsi- 
cal man as the cloke for assailing the Lord : but yet Jesus con- 
ferred the benefit on him. 

5. 'Amemeii, will pull out) wdth rnuch toil. 

7. IlapajSoXriv, a parable) Taken from external manners, but 
having regard to internal principles. — imkyjav [when He marked] 
directing His attention to the fact^) Attention in conversation and 
social intercourse is a most wholesome (profitable) habit. 

8. E/'s yd/j.ovg, to a wedding-feast) There was no wedding then 
going forward ; therefore this element is introduced into the parable 
for the sake" of treating of social civic life. — /aji, not) comp. Prov. 
XXV. 6, 7 [" Stand not in the place of great men : for better it is 
that it be said unto thee. Come up hither, than that thou shouldest 
be put lower in the presence of the prince"]. Each man knows 
his own calling, not that of all others. — iig rriv -jrpurox.'hicilav) in the 
highest seat. To this, which is in the singular, there corresponds 
the word ivTi/Mnpog, one more honourable, and rbv sa^aTov ro-Ttav, the 
lowest place. The proud man sets himself before not merely some 
men, but all men ; Ps. x. 4, 5. — hri/ji,6Tipos) This in the parable 
marks one esteemed more honourable among men (lxx.. Num. 
xxii. 15) : and at the same time one who is esteemed, in the main 

' In Vulg. 'intendens.' Supply mua, fixing His attention on the circumstance, 
obstrving. — Ed. and Tbansl. 

128 ST LUKE XIV. 9-12. 

aim of his life, more precious in the sight of God, even thougl 
sometimes coming [to the heavenly feast] somevi'hat late. More- 
over, the humble man esteems all others more precious and ' honour- 
able' than himself. Comp. Sir. x. 7— xi. 6, in the Greek. 

9. 'EA^wi/, Iiaving come) Comp. Matt. xxii. 11. — xai airhv, and him) 
The dignity of the guests, and the relative degrees of that dignity, 
depend on the ' calling' [6 ei xal alrh ■/.a'Kenail. The words xal 
avrov, and Iii'tn, are not repeated in ver. 10 [but only 6 xe}iXij!t.uig «, 
He that bade or called thee]. For in this passage the words are 
employed as a motive for modesty [seeing that he too as well as 
thyself is called]. — epiT) The Indicative, shall say, after linmn r 
xEzXjj^fKos, Subjunctive, as presently after, in ver. 12, ihrtiron avrixaXi- 
eusiii — yiVfjeiTai, where see the note.^ — Shf, give) There is not added 
<E>/Xs, Friend, as there is in ver. 10. — apf?), thou shall begin) To be 
the last and lowest is not attended with ignominy, except in the 
case of one who aspired to a higher position. — alsx^vrjg, with shame) 
In antithesis to do^a, glory [Engl. Vers, worship, in the old English 
sense of honour, respect], in ver. 10. This is appropriately so. — 
'isyarot) not merely a lower place, but the lowest of all. He who 
is once bidden to give place, is put away to a distance [from the Lord 
of the feast]. 

10. Tiopsukli, having gone [(ro and]) i.e. in taking the lowest 
place, do so with alacrity and from the heart [this is the force of 
mpivkli]. — [rov 'ia-x^arov, the lowest) He who sets himself before even 
one, may possibly be forced to give place to that one. Therefore 
it is good to take the lowest place of all. No wrong that you can 
do to yourself, can inflict less of real loss upon you than this, if 
indeed it should happen that without thinking of it you should 
thereby do to yourself a wrong. — V. g.J — irpoaava^n^i) go up higher to 
others, who are [like thyself] ' honourable' guests. Prov. xxv. 7, 
LXX., xpiTsdov yap eoi rh ptj6ijiiai avajBiivcci, ri Taviivoidai se h •jrposw'jrtii 

. 11. nSs, every one) A weighty word. [An axiom very often 
repeated, and that with the most impressive force ; ch. xviii. 14 ; 
Matt, xxiii. 12.— V. g.J 

12. [Tt5 xixXn^oTi, to him that had bidden Him) This Pharisee 
was not one of the worst stamp ; see ver. 14. — V. g.J apuroii r 

1 The Subjunctive of the first verb, in each instance, follows the ^^^ots regu- 
larly, as being contingent ; but the second verb, in each instance, follows, as it is 

regarded as not contingent, but sure to follow as the consequence of the first. 

Ed. and Tkansl. 

ST LUKE XIV. 12. 129 

SiTtsov, a dinner [rather the morning meal, or breakfast], or a supper 
[rather a dinnerj) More usually there is made the simple mention of 
supper : therefore the meal at this time may have been the early 
meal [apiSTov, prandium, breakfast or luncheon']. See v. 1, 25. — 
/j,ri (pditu Toiig (piXous, do not give an invitation to thy friends) that is to 
say, I do not tell thee to invite thy friends, etc. Jesus leaves as it 
were in their own place [as generally recognised] invitations which 
arise out of a natural or social tie of connection. He Himself enjoins 
[besides] a better class of invitations. He does not altogether 
abolish the offices of friendly courtesy. — •rXouir/ous, [when they happen 
to be] rich) This epithet is to be joined to roig (plXoug — adeXipovg — 
guyyiviTg — yiiTovag, those of thy friends, brethren, relatives, neighbours 
who may be rich, but who are often neglected when they are poor : 
But the epithet chieily belongs to ytiromg, neighbours ; to which fodr 
classes of those well-off in the world, there are opposed as many 
classes of those who are not so in ver. 13, — i/.finrore — avra-jrohoiLo., lest 
— a recompense) This kind of fear is unknown to the world, as is also 
fear of riches \_Oive me neither poverty nor riches], Prov. xxx. 8. 
This is the foundation of true liberality, and avrapxila, independent 
contentedness. Who is there that would wish that all his acts in this 
life should be recompensed according to their desert ? [And yet 
there are not wanting persons, who wish that everything whatever, 
which they give or lend, should be most quickly, abundantly, and 
with accumulated interest, repaid to them : nay they even hunt after 
both peculiar privileges and undeseiVed opportunities which for 
crushing many others, with such great eagerness, that one might 
suppose that there was no resurrection at hand or recompense of 
men's deed, nay, indeed, as if nothing is to be taken away (wrested) 
from those, who practically deny their faith in things future by their 
unbridled panting after things present. At what a fearful cost do 
these things present stand to not a few persons, with whom they 
are turned into a matter of plunder and rapacity ! Happy is be, 
who is not loath to wait (for his good things). Do not be unduly 
chagrined, if at any time it will happen that in some case you 
fail (are disappointed) in the world. But beware of judging rather 
harshly of others, whom, whether you will or not, you cannot but per- 
ceive to have precedency given to them above yourself. — V. g.] — jca; 
•yevfieeTai) Concerning this construction, /i^Tore xal a!iroi <se avrixaXsgusi 
[Subj.], xal yevrieerai [Indic], ffo; awa.'Koiofi.a., the exact counterpart 
to which occurs in ver. 9 | where see note], a judgment may be 


180 ST LUKE XIV. 13-16. 

formed from the note on Mark iii. 27, which see. From not observ • 
ing this, many have altered yivrieirai to yivriTai. 

13. KdXif) invite, bid, call, simply; not ^livn,'' as in ver. 12, 
i^uvin conveys the idea of something more loud (clear) and formal 
(solemn). — -irTajoiic, the poor) It is such whom God Himself invites • 
ver. 21. 

14. Tap, for) There is nothing left without retribution. — oo/, to 
thee) as being a friend of the Saviour.— avaoraffE/, the resurrection) 
Before the resurrection there is not a full retribution, but rather, 
whilst life lasts, an opportunity for further sowing against the final 
harvest of recompense ; and after death, there is a state of rest [not 
of full recompense]. See Eev. xiv. 13. — roiv bixaim, of the just) 
Acts xxiv. 15 [Matt. xxv. 46 ; John v. 29.] 

15. 'Axovsac, having heard) and having been touched thereby. 
[However one feels inclined to suspect, that something of a worldly 
character crept into His thoughts concerning the kingdom of God. 
— V. g.] — /jiaxdpiog, blessed) Alluding to the /laxapiog, blessed, in ver. 
14. Often this epithet includes in its signification the idea of some- 
thing that is rare and uncommon. Comp. ver. 24. It is not enough 
to pronounce godly men ' blessed ;' but each must exert himself for 
his part to the best of his ability. Comp. the following verses : also 
ch. xiii. 23. 24. — aayirai) shall eat. — apTov) Many read apienr, but 
the reading aprov is better established, especially as there is joined to 
it the verb cpayirai, which is more appropriate to aprm, than apisns : 
comp. ver. 1 [jpayiTv aprov].^ However at that time it seems to have 
been the apwrov, prandium, breakfast or luncheon, the early meal : 
see note on ver. 12. On that account it is worthy of the greater 
attention that in the parable set before them in ver. 1 6, it is a 
diT'jTvov, ccena, supper (our late dinner), which is specified.* 

16. M'lya, great) Both a sumptuous supper and one capable of 
satisfying abundantly many. What is meant is the kingdom of 
grace, in so far as through it the entrance is to be to the kingdom of 
glory. — IxdXiei, bade, invited) This word forms the bond of connec- 

1 However the oldest authorities support yhnrai, not yiviiiiirai, ABo Vulg. 
Iren. (' fiat ') Cypr. be alone have ' erit.' — E. and T. 

' Issue a formal inviiation, lit. invite with a loud voice, (pavv/. — E. and T. 

» All the oldest authorities have dprou. None but inferior uncial MSS. 
dpinToii. — E. and T. 

* No doubt alluding to the coming marriage supper, at the end of the day 
of the present last dispensation; 1 Cor. x. 11, at the end, Kev. xix. 9.— E. 

ST LUKE XIV. 17, 18. 1S1 

tion between the two discourses on the subject of banqueting or enter- 
tainments, such as are calculated to lead to blessedness, Call (invite) 
the poor to thee : Obey the call (invitation) of God. 

17. EiviTv, to say) The successive steps of the gradation are to be 
observed : ver. 17, ilviTv, to say, xmXri/x.svoi';, to the called : ver 21, 
elsdya'yi, bring in, roug "ffTDi^oug, the poor : ver. 23, uvdyxaiov, compel, 
E/'s T&; oiovg, i.e. those who are in the highways, etc. The call goes 
forward to those that are at a greater distance, and by its continually 
increasing urgency it compensates for the delay previously incurred. 
[T%e called are of Israel. — V. g. — tidri) already now. Herein the 
time of the New Testament is shown to be the present time. 

18. "Sp^avro, they began) Previously they had professed for their 
part to be in a state of expectation [waiting for the call to be given^ 
— a,'!r)) fiiag) ' Elliptical,' says Camerarius, who adds, " a'trh /j^iag, viz. 
yviil/jr\g, with one consent or mind (with unanimity); or awJ /j^iag 
■TrapaiT^gsag (with one declining), i.e. they all alike began to decline the 
invitation. So almost similarly in Iliad ^', s'lye Tor says //,idv j3ovXeu- 
gofiet, namely, supplying jSouXriv, if ever we shall deliberate with unity 
of counsel among us : and so elsewhere, ou;)^ onri, jcTaftivoiaiv IV avdpd- 
giv su^erdagSai, namely, £11%)], the vaunting is not pious wherewith one 
vaunts over the dead. And in Psalm xxvi., /^idv riT/jgd/j,ri\i vapd roij 
Kuplou, namely, a'hrigtv ; and in Psalm Ivii., suhlag xphin u'lo! tZv uv- 
Spiii'xuv, nainely, xplgng." — [jTrapairi/gSai, to make excuse) " To buy a 
piece of ground," etc., are things not bad in themselves ; but it is 
bad to be entangled and encumbered by such things, and to make as 
our pretext necessity in the case of earthly things combined with 
(alleged) impossibility (ver. 20, ou 8{im//,ai eXhif, I cannot come) in 
the case of spiritual things. — V. g. — aurffl, to Him) who had pre- 
pared the banquet. — V. g.] — aypov, afield [piece of ground]) In this 
verse there is implied a farm, in the following verse, trafiicking, mer- 
chandise. Comp. Matt. xxii. 5 [They went their ways, one to his 
farm, another to his merchandise]. The verb, nyopaga, I have bought, 
repeated in both cases, ver. 18, 19, implies eagerness to make gain, 
as is the usual feeling whilst the transaction is still recent. To a 
worldly man when he is made sensible of the Divine call, all vain 
things are new and sweet. — [jiyofaaa, I have bought) It is profitable 
to allege on the opposite side as a ground for denying the world, 
another and very different purchase of a field (the Gospel-field con- 
taining the pearl of great price), Matt. xiii. 44, another kind of 
plowing (the Gospel-plow), Luke ix. 62, in fine, another espousal 
<-vh. to Christ), 2 Cor. xi. 2. — V. g-]— e'xw amymh I must needs, I 

182 ST LUKE XIV. 19-21. 

fed it necessary) Often there meet together the most acceptable 
seasons of grace, and the most urgent calls of worldly business. This 
man makes as his pretext a feigned necessity : The second, a mere 
incUnation after other things, ver. 19, «p£uo>a/, I go ; The third, 
ver. 20, a perverse allegation of impossibility, I cannot come. This 
last one declares expressly that he cannot ; the two former declare 
that they will not, but use a courteous formula of apology. The 
holy hatred {iMSiT rbt itarifo. avroij) spoken of in ver. 26 [if they had 
felt it] could have healed them all of their excuses. However the 
variety in their modes of rejecting the invitation lay not so much in 
their state of mind [which was the same in all three] as in the ob- 
jects on which their rejection of it rested, " the piece of land," "the 
oxen," " the wife." Comp. Matt. 1. c. — IpurSi, I beg, I pray, thee) 
A most unworthy and wretched prayer (request) whereby the king- 
dom of God is refused. 

19. 'UySpaea, I have bought) 1 Cor. vii. 30. — -ttivts, Jive) A pur- 
chase by no means small. 

20. TwaTxa,) See ver. 26. Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 30, 29. — ou dvm/j-a,i, 
I cannot) This excuser of himself, the more plausible and fair- 
looking is the excuse which he thinks he has, is in proportion the 
more blunt in his refusal. 

21. ' ATfiyyiiXs, reported) It is the part of ministers to lay before 
the Lord in prayer an account of the obedience and disobedience of 
their hearers. — opyishte, being angry) Therefore He had invited 
them with entire sincerity. — e^iXh, go out) So ver. 23. — Ta^sas, 
quickly) Because all the viands were already prepared, and, as it 
were, still hot ; and the excellence of these viands is to be vindi- 
cated from contempt [such as had -been thrown on them by the self- 
excusers] by means of other guests. — ntXarilai, streets) which are 
larger. — piiM^as, lanes) which are smaller. — rl^g -joXius, of the city) We 
may suppose, that by these are meant those nations, among which 
the Jews were dispersed. — V. g. ( Comp. however the following 
note, E. B.)] — rod; STuyohg, the poor) Those already called [jtExX>i- 
ix,im, ver. 24] were those, who were accounted among the Jews to be 
the best men, ver. 1, 3 [" the chief Pharisees and lawyers"] ; the 
poor in the streets are the " Publicans and sinners" [who welcome 
the invitation in], ch. xv. 1 : see Matt. xxi. 31. — ttw;^ous, the poor) 
whom otherwise no one feels disposed to invite. — ava.'urifxivi, the 
maimed) whom no wife (woman) would take, ver. 20. — x'^^''^h ^^ 
lame) who cannot go (jropiwfjLai), ver. 19. — Tu(pXox>s, the blind) who 
nannot see (Idi/v), ver. 18. 

ST LUKE XIV. 22-26. ]S3 

22. Tiymv, it is done) Comp. Ezek. ix. 11. 

23. Ofay^ous, hedges) whicli are the house-walls of beggars [the 
only kind of houses they haye.] — [ilg ras odovg, into the highways) 
Pure unmixed paganism is hereby meant. — V. g.] — ava,y/.aao\i ilasK- 
hTv, compel them to come in) It is not compulsion of every kind that 
is meant : for he who is altogether dragged or hurried by force can- 
not be said to come in [which implies a voluntary act]. Comp. the 
^Kayxa(r£i',Matt.xiv.22, "He constrained His disciples," etc. [which does 
not mean physical force compulsion, but by urgent command induced'] ; 
2 Cor. xii. 11 ; Gal. ii. 14 ; vo.^a.^iaZfe&a.i, in Luke xxiv. 29 ; Acts 
xvi. 15. It was in altogether different ways that Saul, when mad 
with zeal for Judaism, compelled men, and Paul the servant of Jesus 
Christ compelled men. [The later the call is, the more strongly urgent 
in proportion" is he; ver. 23, s/Ve^, say, ver. 17, ikdyayi, bring in, 
ver. 21, amyxadov, compel, ver. 23, are in successive gradation (form 
an ascending climax). — V. g.] — yif/^is^ri, may be filled) Neither na- 
ture nor grace admits of a vacuum. The blessed ones form a mul- 
titude, which acquires the greatest portion of its fulness in the last 
periods of the world. [In consonance with this is the prophecy that 
Christ after " having seen the travail of His soul shall be satisfied," 
Is. liii. 11.— V. g.] 

24. Tap, for) This is to be referred to IgsX^s, Go out in ver. 23. 
The Lord now seeks any persons whatever, rather than those who 
had been bidden, and yet rejected the invitation. [Nor is there 
-any longer any room left open for the despisers of the Lord's good- 
ness. — V. g.] — u/iw, unto you) The plural appertains to the ' poor,' 
the 'maimed,' etc., who had been brought in. — rZv avSpSiv, of the 
men) men of distinction and wealth though they were. — sxiimv, of 
those men) The pronoun has the force of putting them to a dis- 
tance [the Lord putting them away from Him]. Here too that 
common saying holds good, " The absent must go without" [must 
want. He who absents himself must have no share in the good 
things of the supper]. — yiuesTai, shall even taste) much less be allowed 
to enjoy. The contumacious Jews fall short of even the kingdom 
of grace [not to say the kingdom of glory] and any taste of it. 

26. [E/ r/s, if any man) Wherever the greatest multitude of men 
flocked together, there at times Jesus used especial sternness of lan- 
guage. — V. g.] — ou /jitiSiT roi/ voiTspa auTou, doth not hate his father) viz. 
hate his father, etc., in that respect, in which he is bound to hate 
himself (riji; eauTou ■^vx^v), namely, whereinsoever father, etc., or 
self are inconsistent with love to Christ [are averse from Christ]. 

1S4 ST LUKE XIV. 27-29. 

This text applies to that time especially, in which few were really 
following Christ : many hated, who deserved to be hated themselves. 
This hatred must be understood not merely in the comparative [Jiate, 
i.e. love less] or conditional and qualified sense, but even absolutely : 
For whoever hath derived from Christ a ripened knowledge, taste, 
and appetite for God and heavenly good things (ver. 16, the viands 
of the " great supper"), has also a contempt and hatred of seF and 
of the whole creature that [of the whole creation, so far as it] is 
subject to vanity, a hatred that is at once high-spirited and yet at 
the same time removed from all bitterness of feeling. Comp. note, 
John xii. 25. — aS£X<poui, brethren) Comp. ver. 12. — eV/ di, yea besides 
his own life) What is dearest to man, himself. Often he who has 
seemed to attain to a lower degree of this holy hatred, proves want- 
ing in a higher degree of it. — rni lavTou ■^ux'nv, his own soul or life) 
i.e. himself. — /j-aSriTrjs Jvai, my disciple he cannot be) The order is 
reversed in the following verse, ihai //^aSn'^rig, be my disciple. In 
both passages the accent in pronunciation fails upon the word which 
stands first.^ 

27. Kal) " whosoever doth not bear his cross," and yet (not, and 
does not come) comes, and walks after me, as ye do, as though he 
was wishing to be my disciple. [But Engl. Ver. takes it in the way 
which Beng. rejects, " Whosoever doth not bear his cross and come 
after me," etc.] Comp. note. Matt. xvi. 24." 

28. nipyoi') a strong-hold [_' tower']. — xa^isai, having sat down) so 
as to give himself time for making a summary calculation of his 
means and resources. So too in ver. 31 [■vj/jjp/'^E/, calculates). This 
calculation of the expenses of building, or a consultation on a ques- 
tion of war, are things of no inconsiderable moment. But do thou 
see to it, whether thou hast ever bestowed more careful .deliberation 
on the (infinitely more momentous) question of eternal salvation or 
else misery. Easy is the descent to hell I — V. g.j 

29. " Ap^uvrai, begin to) No one laughs at the man, whose attempts 
are not abortive.' 

1 Tisch. however, with BLX Puld. MS. of Vulg. (" esse meus discipulus :" 
and indeed the other MSS. " meus esse disc," and so Hilary) reads thctt /iov 
fidSvirJi;. But Lachm. reads as Beng. and Rec. Text, fiov fia^nT^s thai, with 
ADaic, Orig. 1,2996, twice.— E. and T. 

' 'Q'Tctau fiou i'hkh, to come after Me, denotes mere status and profession: 
But aKoKoviih, to follow, denotes actual obedience. — E. and T. 

2 It is only when they prove failures, men then %ire to laugh E and 


ST LTJKE XIV. 30-34. 135 

30. Ouros, this man) A proper name is meant. They common! v 
put N. N.i 

31. "h, or) Christianity is a great arid difficult thmg. It is there- 
fore compared with great and difficult things : such as is the under- 
taking of a costly building ia one's private concerns, of a war, in 
the case of public concerns. The former parable expresses the 
' hatred' of " father, mother," etc. : the second parable expresses 
hatred of one's "own life." — ^aaiXeiig, king) The Christian warfare 
has something royal and kingly in it. — ils mXif^ov, to engage in war). 
Comp. Gen. xxxii. 24. 

32. 'E/Jwrijt, he beggeth) The king finds it an easier matter to pre- 
vail on himself to expend [to expose to the risks of war] an army, 
than to beg a peace. This begging of peace, therefore, expresses 
the hatred of one's own soul, wherewith one, having utterly denied 
self, gives himself up to dependence on pure and unmixed grace. 
We may also, by changing the figxire, understand peace as the avoid- 
ance of hatred on the part of his own people, which is a bad kind of 

33. Oux &<jroTa<!Sirai, doth not renounce or detach himself from [bid 
farewell to]) The builder exercises self-denial as to (renounces), and 
expends, unhesitatingly, sums of money, the warrior his forces, and 
the disciple parents, and all ties of affection. The former two have 
a positive expenditure ; the latter, a negative (self-denying) expendi- 
ture (the foregoing, where called on, of that which one might other- 
wise enjoy, home affections). [It is a mighty undertaking to com- 
pass the being a disciple of Christ. He is better to abstain from the 
attempt, who is not altogether well pleased with all the things which 
tend to the attainment of that object. — V. g.] 

34. "AXas, salt) Which means the disciples: Matt. v. 13; Mark 
ix. 50. Salt is something pungent (sharp) : let the Christian be so. 
See the preceding verse [in which the strong pungency which 
attends Christian self-renunciation is brought out strikingly.] [We 

^ The abstract expression of a proper name ; the name to be supplied as the 
particular case may require. As in the Book of Common Prayer, Catechism, 
" What is your name ?"~" M. or N."— E. and T. 

' In this view faith will constitute " the good fight," which ought to be perse- 
vered in, and no false compromise be made with the spiritual enemy without for 
the sake of escaping hatred at home, i.e. among one's friends, or for the sake of 
indulging self, in the indulgence of the indolence as to the spiritual fight, so 
natural to us : this would be saying, " Peace, peace, where there is no peace," 
Jer. vi. 14 ; Isa. Ivii. 21.— E. and T. 

136 ST LUKE XIV. 35.-XV. 1-4. 

must do sharply what is to be done, and must do it also graveiy 
(seriously).' — ^V. g.] 

35. OuTi, neither) That is to say, it brings with it neither imme- 
diate (direct) nor mediate (indirect) profit. The divine who is des- 
titute of spiritual salt is not even politically profitable : Isa. ix. 14, 
15. — 'i^a, out) There is sternness here, even in the mode of ex 


1. ndvTig, all) Not merely very many ; all who were in the place. 
[It is evident fi-om this passage in what way the Saviour afforded to 
those who flocked together to Him, and joined themselves eagerly to 
Him, that very advantage, which He would have afforded to the 
people of Jerusalem, had they for their part been willing ; namely, 
after the image of a hen, which protects and cherishes her young 
brood under her wings, so He cherished them. — Harm., p. 415.] 

2. Aiiyoyyut^ov, murmured among one another. 

3. Tn\i irapa^oX^v rdur'/iv, this parable) Extending from verse 4 to 
10. The former part declares the solicitude and joy which the Re- 
deemer feels in behalf of His sheep : the second part, the same feel 
ings on the part of God. 

4. Tig, what man) The lost sheep, the lost drachm (piece of money), 
and the lost son, express respectively the stupid (senseless) sinner, 
the sinner altogether ignorant of himself, and the knowing and wilM 
(voluntary) sinner. — lx(t,rhv,ahundred)From.the greatness of the flock, 
the solicitude of the Shepherd for His one ewe sheep is evidenced — 
h Tri ipr)ijjtf>, in the wilderness) where the flock is pastured.— To^suEra;, 
goeth away) In the recovery of the soul, it is not man but God, who 
as it were labours. See ver. 8. — lug, even until) He does not pre- 
viously give over the search : see ver. 8. It was for this reason that 
Jesus Christ followed sinners, even as far as to where their daily 
food was taken, even to their tables, where the greatest sins are 

1 In the Germ, mit nacMrucJc, " tcith eneri^iy-" Perhaps therefore ' graviter a 
a misprint for ' gnaviter.' — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XV. 5-7. 137 

5. 'EauroD, His own shoulders) He might have employed the 
agency of His servant ; but love and joy render the exertion to 
Himself sweet and delightful. 

6. "E'kiiiv els rov ohov, having come home) It was evidently at the 
Ascension that Jesus Christ returned home; for heaven is His 
home : John xiv. 2. And it was at that time especially that He 
informed the heavenly beings as to His own doings (achievements) 
on earth : 1 Tim. iii. 16. Hence the future, 'iarai, shall be, is used 
in ver. 7 ; but yUirai, there ariseth joy, present, in ver. 10.^ Inter- 
change the words with one another for a moment ; you will then at 
once see the difference. — guyxa'Ki?', calleth -together) Active here ; 
but in ver. 9, <s\)y/.aXilrai, Middle, she calleth together to herself} — 
fiXovs, 'yiiTovas, friends, neighbours) Implying that there are different 
classes of the inhabitants of heaven, nay, even of the angels. See 
ver. 10. Men who are neighbours do not occupy the same, but an 
adjoining house ; friends are those joined together by inclination 
(will). — tI) that sheep, which you know about. The heavenly 
beings are aware of the Ipss and recovery of souls. — [/iou, my) Even 
whilst the sheep was lost, the right of the Shepherd over it remained 
unimpaired. — V. g.] — amXuXhi, which was lost) which I had lost 
(or destroyed), ^v a-jruXeea, is the expression in ver. 9. The sheep, 
being a living creature, is lost as it were of its own accord, as con- 
trasted with the drachm or piece of money. 

7. ' rfj,rv, to you) Most weightily (impressively) the 'murmuring' 
[ver. 2] of the Pharisees is refuted by this joy. — %ap<i) Joy, solemn 
and festive, upon hearing the tidings of the work of salvation ac- 
comphshed on the earth. — pVra/, shall be) Future ; whereby the 
return of Jesus to His Fatherland seems to be intimated. — V. g.J — 
h roj oupavip, in heaven) The Shepherd, Jesus Christ, has even espe- 
cially the spirits of just men as His " friends and neighbours," inas- 
much as they are sharers in this joy the more in proportion as they 
have the stronger tie of connection witli men. In the 10th verse 
there is a gradation made (an ascending climax) to angels, who are 
named in that passage rather than men, because there Christ is not 
regarded as man [in His human nature, but only as God : note, 

* Appropriately, as ver. 7 is treating of the Redeemer's work, the crown- 
ing of which at the ascension was still future ; but ver. 10, the work of &od, 
who even at that time, as at all times, rejoiced over repenting sinners. — E. 

2 AD support avyx.a.T.thM or aviin.a.-Kii'ra.i (ver. 9) of Rec Text : and so 
Lachm. with Beng. ; Tisch. avyx.a.'hii, with BLXA. — E. and X. 

1S8 ST LUKE XV. 8-12. 

ver. 3]. Nor are the angels said to know the fact from their inter- 
course with the man : for they are not all with the one man ; but 
from the revelation of the Lord, which is equally capable of being 
vouchsafed to the spirits of just men. Comp. Hainlin's SoL Temp, 
f 80, and Yen. Weisemann, H. E. P. 1, p. 106. So the other inha- 
bitants of heaven are put in contradistinction to the angels, in Eev. 
xviii. 20, xix. 1, 4, 6. — hi, one) and much more joy over many; see 
ver. 1. — ri) that is, f^aXXov n- See ch. xviii. 14 [piii%aiuiJ.i\iog n ixsmg, 
i.e. fi,aX\ov 5). So APQ. But B Origen and Vulg., ^rap' IxiTm']. 
LXX., Ps. cxviii. (cxvii.) 8, 9, [a/a^ov ■KimShai eir! Kupm 5) (i.e. 
//-aXXov !)) 'jri'ffoiS'smi i-k avSpunv, etc.] This clause is not added in 
ver. 10. — ov %f>£/aii e%ouff/, have no need) inasmuch as they are with the 
Shepherd, and have long ago obtained repentance. The righteous 
is in the (right) way ; the penitent returns to the way. 

8. Tuvri, woman) There is signified "H eopla, Wisdom, or in other 
words, Koheleth (^:ExxX^giaeTfig) : or else nn, the Holy Spirit, even 
as the Son is alluded to in the 4th verse, and the Father in the 11th 
verse. The relation in which man stands towards God (the aspect 
under which God views him) is various. — sapoT, sweeps) This cannot 
be done without dust, [though not on the part of God, but] on the 
part of man. 

9. ^uyx.a.XiTTai, calleth together) forthwith. — rac piXas xat ra; ys;- 
Tovai, female friends and neighbours) The angelic forces, viewed in 
themselves, have no distinction of sex. They are, howeyer, regarded 
as acting either at home or abroad ; Heb. i. 14, note : when abroad, 
they are represented in man's attire, which is -suited to war : when 
at home, in the attire suited to peace, and which is that usually as- 
signed to women. 

10. Tmrai, there ensues [results, arises ; not is, as Engl. Vers.]) 
not merely there shall ensue or arise [as in ver. 7, shall be, hrai]. 
In this passage heaven is most openly spoken of; as is also hell, in 
ch. xvi. 23, which is the continuation of the same discourse. See 
the bond of connection between the two parts of the discourse, ch. 
xvi. 1, 14, etc. 

11. E/Ve di, moreover He said) This parable has a degree of dis- 
tinctness and separation from the first and second parables. 

12. 'o viiiripog) 'iripog is the expression in Matt. xxi. 30. There 
is hereby signified a. pair of sons different in character. — rh ivifiaX- 
Xov) So rou xap-TTou rou iwijSdWoiiTSg /ioi XafSiTv, 1 Macc. X. 29 (30). — 
/iipog, the portion) Each man receives his portion from God. — aiiToTg, 
to them) even to his elder son [as well as to the younger |, though 

ST LUKE XV. 13-17. 139 

he was not asking for it ; not giving up to him, however, as yet, the 
full actual enjoyment,^ as appears from ver. 31. 

13. 'Aaiiroig) A word employed with great propriety. "Agoing, i 
Si' aMv avoXXv/isvog, i.e. one destroyed hy himself, his own worst 
enemy ; Aristot. b. iv. Eth. eh. 1, where agtaria is excess of liberality 
conjoined with intemperance. [In this state, he was dead to his 
Fatherland, ver. 24. — V. g.] 

14. Khrhg np^aro, himself began) He was not among the last [as 
one might have expected from the ample means which he had taken 
with him to the " far country"] to feel the pressure of the famine. 

15. t5i/ irokiToiv, of the citizens) although he did not himself be- 
come a citizen of that country. The man, whom a return to sound 
propriety of character is awaiting (is in store for), often, even in the 
midst of his wanderings (John xi. 52, " The children of God — scat- 
tered abroad"), retains a something which distinguishes him from the 
ordinary (those who are distinctively and peculiarly) citizens of the 
world. — 'imj/.'^iv, sent) A great indignity done to him. — ■/pipovg, swine) 
A mean condition of life, especially according to Jewish notions [of 
swine being ' unclean' animals]. 

16. rs/i/ffa/, fiU) The greater was his emptiness, the greater in 
proportion was his appetite. — tuv xiparluv) The Syriac Version has 
K3nn, from which the opinion seems in part to have originated, and 
in part is confirmed, namely, that of those who understand the word 
not of the husks of leguminous plants (pulse, beans, etc.), but of the 
fruit of the carob tree (" St John's bread"), called xappoulSia, (from 
which comes the French word carroitges), which was the food used 
by the poorest of men and by swine : as is the view of Maldonatus, 
Bochart, Drusius, Simonius, and before them, some one or other in 
the Greek Lexicon brought out by ten writers at Basle, 1584. 
Add Buxt. Lexicon Talm., who, col. 821, shows that min is a species 
of tree. No doubt all xipdna, are siliquce, leguminous plants ; 
whether all siliquce are to be called by the name, xipdna, I know 

1 7. E/'s, to) The supply of foods that ministered to the scattering 
of his senses (which the French not inappropriately term se divertir, 

' ^ ' Usufructus,' which is both the usits smifructtts; whereas usus is only the 
use, without the full enjoyment. In both usus and usufructus the ownership 
is not given, but still remains in the hands of another. — E. and T. 

2 i.e. All xiparia are 'siliquse ' no doubt; but the carob is a 'siliqua' of a 
particular species, " Siliqua Grseca." Therefore it is not certain that this par- 
ticiilar siliqua was called xspariet. — E. and T. 

140 bT LUKE XV. 18-22. 

[the word diversion implying that one is thereby turned aside from 
self-inspection]) had now failed. The commencement of his return 
to himself is immediately linked to the height of his misery : it is 
by the latter that his mad recklessness in sin is cooled down, so that 
the man returns to himself, and presently after [also] to God. 
His repentance is his conversion. — [l/w 8i abs, hut I here) The word, 
udi, after lyu 8s, has the force of here, emphatically. — Not. Crit.] 

18. 'Avaarig, having arisen) The first steps of repentance are 
herein accurately indicated. — llanp, Father) The name, Father, re- 
mains the same [His willingness to receive us in that character, as 
our Father, remains], even though the sons be degenerate. — ilg rhv 
o'upavbv, against heaven) Comp. ver. 7 [which implies that the inhabi 
tants of heaven have a concern in the sinner's recovery, and there- 
fore also in the fall of the sinner, who accordingly in part sins 
against them]. 

19. noiriaov fis) Use me as. — iva) any one you please [even in the 
lowest position]. — fnaMav, of thy hired servants) who are taken even 
from among strangers and aliens. 

20. Kal, and) No sooner said than done. — eT&ev, saw) returning 
back, starving, naked. Comp. ver. 22. — [xa/' ieit'KayjjiU^'ri, and He 
had compassion (the bowels of His compassion yearned over him). 
This truly is a forgiveness, not even attended with the lowering 
(contraction) of the countenance in displeasure, or with a frown on the 
brow, Jer. iii. 4. 12. — -Y. g.J — dpafji^uv, running) out from His house. 
Comp. s^ivsyxari. Bring forth (viz. out of the house) the best robe, 
ver. 22. Parents, under ordinary circumstances, are not readily 
disposed to run to meet their children. — xanflXrisiv, hissed him 
warmly) [BEow could a son have looked for a more gracious saluta- 
tion, if even he had managed his property (and behaved) in the 
best way, when he was abroad ? — V. g.] 

21. eJtts, said) The son did not abuse his Father's graciousness, 
so as to prevent his proceeding to say what he had intended. Serious 
and earnest repentance does not satisfy itself with merely one thought 
unattended with cost or trouble. 

22. 'Ehi, said) The son does not speak out all that he had deter- 
mined to say ; either because that, owing to the gracious reception 
given him by his Father, who came forth to meet him, his filial con- 
fidence being enkindled, absorbed all slavish feelings : or else be- 
cause the gracious kindness of the Father broke ofl" the words of the 
son [before the latter had spoken all he had intended to say]. — 
wphs Tod( SouXoug, to the servants) He answers the son in very act [not 

ST LUKE XV. 23-30. Ul 

in mere words]. — i^iviyxaTi, Bring forth) in public. If this son 
had performed the greatest and best achievements, he could not 
have looked for a greater honour. — rfiv) that which is. — vpuirtiv) the 
first, the principal and best one. On the other hand, it is the second 
chariot [that is given by Pharaoh to Joseph], Gen. xli. 43. 

23. TJv iM6<Sypv roll direuThv) Judg. vi. 25, rbv fioa^oii rbv airiurhv xa,} 
/jbos^ov iiuTipov 'fTTTairrj} The article denotes pre-eminent excellence. — 
ilppoivSu/jbiv, let us enjoy ourselves [' Isetemur,'" rejoice : Engl. Vers. 
" be merry"]) This word is repeated with the greatest emphasis in 
ver. 24, 32. 

24. OvT0(, this) This is a [triumphal] verse, or formula of words, 
and hymn, which has in it somewhat of rhythm, and seems to have 
been often repeated ; see ver. 32 : it was accompanied with sym- 
phony (' music'), ver. 25. The ancients used verse when strongly 
affected. See Gen. xxxvii. 33 ; 1 Chron. xiii. (xii.) 18, [which are 
in the Hebraic form of poetry, parallelism.] 

25. 'Ev ay pip, in the field) as one serving [in the slave-like spirit] 
his Father: see ver. 29. — xofwi", bands [of dancers']) jojouslj danc- 
ing [or exulting]. 

27. 'O dSiXpog sou, thy brother) what should have been a moving 
argument. — nKn) Hesychius says, jjxti, i.e. sp^irai or ri^hv, he is come. 
— eSuaiv, hath hilled) The servant [fig tSiv '!raidai\ is represented as 
mentioning the killing of the calf rather than the robe, the ring, and 
the shoes, because it has the chief connection [rather than these latter] 
with the music and dancing. It is owing to this also that the elder 
son alludes to it in ver. 30, before that he saw his brother so beau- 
tifully clothed. — iyiahovTa) Safe and sound. Josh. x. 21, DIPB'3, in 
peace, which the LXX. render vyiri;. 

28. Oux Ji'^sXEv, would not) Great perversity and unkindness on his 
part. — l^eXdiiv, having come out) Great leniency and forbearance on 
the part of the Father. 

29. Todaura srv\, these so many years) In antithesis to ore, as soon 
as, in ver. 30. — SouXiuu, I serve) A confession of the slave-like spirit 
which influenced him. He does not add [in the spirit of Sonship], 
Father. — 'i&uixag, thou hast never given) much less wouldest thou kill 
[i^ueiv, mactavit, ver. 27]. — s^/pok, a kid) much less the calf, ver. 27. — 
flXojv, my friends) In antithesis to mpvuv, harlots, ver. 30. 

30. OvTog, that son of thine) [Pouiting to him contemptuously, as 

1 The reading approved of in Grabe's lxx. ; but the Vatican copy has tm 
^iogjioy rov TolvpoD, — E. and T. 

142 ST LUKE XV. 31, 82. 

the Pharisee at the Publican]. See ch. xviii. 1 1 , where see the note. 
— xarapaywv sou rhv /S/'ov, who hath devoured thy living) The elder 
brother speaks invidiously.— ?^^£v) He says, has come, speaking ot 
him as he would of an ahen : not, has returned. — aCrf, for him) The 
Dativus commodi (Dative of advantage). [The elder brother means 
to say, for that profligate. — V. g.] 

31. E/Vev, He said) He makes a twofold reply to the elder son's 
twofold complaint. — rixvov, son) He addresses him by a loving title 
[Being filled with joy to overflowing on account of the return of His 
once-lost son. — ^V. g.] ; nor does the Father immediately put away 
from Him (cast off) the envious brother. — vdvTori, always) and it is 
not therefore necessary to rejoice with peculiar joy, as if something 
extraordinary had occurred : see ver. 7, at the end of the verse.—' 
ftir l/j^ou, with Me) It is better to rejoice (enjoy one's self) with the 
Father, than vcith a company of friends. See ver. 29 pra f/'ir& ru. 
(plXaiv /iou ivfipavSu]. — rnvra, all things) This expresses the pre-eminent 
and peculiar privilege of the Jewish people. — to. I^a, which belong 
to Me) There is therefore no need that thou shouldest seek external 
friendships. — ca sari, are thine) For the younger brother had received 
his share ; and the elder-born had the priority of succession to the 
Father's goods. Many things may possibly belong to the children 
of God, of which they are not privileged to have now the full enjoy- 
ment (usufructus). Therefore the elder brother ought not to have 
complained that a kid had never yet been given to him. 

32. "eSe;) Not only is the idea intimated hereby, Thou oughtest to 
have rejoiced ; but this one. Rejoicing ought to have been commenced as it 
has been at our house. For it is a kind of apologetic defence against the 
complaint expressed in verse 30 [the killing of the fatted calf for such 
a profligate], with which comp. ver. 2 [in which the corresponding 
complaint of the Pharisees occurs, " This man receiveth sinners, and 
eateth with them"]. [How wonderful is the condescending kindness of 
the Father (in thus gently expostulating with one who evinced so 
bad a spirit) ! — V. g.] So sdn, in the sense it was befitting, not it 
would be befitting, Acts i. 16 [Peter, speaking of the past, Un 
■jtXripdiSrimi rriv ypafriv—'jipl 'louSa, It was befitting that the Scripture 
should be fulfilled concerning Judas]. — o dSsXpo? adu olrog, this thy 
brother) In antithesis to this thy son, in ver. 30 [which the elder 
brother had said contemptuously]. 

ST I HUE XVI. t, 3. 143 



1 . Ma^jjrd?, disciples) These disciples here are not inclusive of those 
Twelve who had left their all, and were rather to be accounted among 
those who were to be made friends of [with the mammon of unrighteous- 
ness, ver. 9] : but are those who had been publicans [ch. xv. 1]. And 
accordingly the Lord now speaks more weightily and sternly with 
the disciples, who had been publicans, than He had spoken for them 
(in their behalf) to others. The (prodigal) son, who has been reco- 
vered with joy, is not to have daily ' music' [in celebration of his 
recovery, ch. xv. 25, gii/j,<puvla,i;'\, but is here taught to return to duty. 
—iis^XiiSri) The verb has a middle force.' Information was given 
against the steward, and that on true grounds, whatever may have 
been the spirit that influenced the informer. — diaexop<7tl^m, [wasting] 
squandering) The Present, but including also the past. The same 
verb occurs, ch. xv. 13 [said of the prodigal, who " squandered 
[wasted] his substance with riotous living"]. The parable does not 
refer to all stewards; inasmuch as they rather, throughout the 
whole time of their stewardship, are bound to show fidelity, 1 Cor. 
iv. 2 ; but to those stewards who, in a long period of their steward-^ 
ship, have mismanaged their business (abused their trust). The 
whole system of the world's conduct, in the case of their external 
goods, is a squandering or waste, since their goods are not laid out 
(bestowed and deposited) in their proper places; although very- 
many of the unjust [worldly stewards of God's goods] seem to gather 
together [rather than to squander or scatter^ [For, indeed, whoever 
evinces alacrity in scattering abroad (in charity), hB gathers together 
treasure in heaven." — V. g.] 

2. T; roiJTo, what is this ?) The rich man speaks as if something 
had happened which he was not expecting. This implies that God 
puts trust in man. — axouu, I hear) from the complaints which have 
been made to Me concerning thee. God is represented as hearing 
of his proceedings, as if He did not see them Himself. Thus the 

' Sometimes said of a true, sometimes of a false accusation. Unless Beng. 
means the sense of the Middle Voice, he got himself accused ; i.e. by his bad 
conduct he brought himself into being accused before his master. — E. and T. , 

».Luke xii. 33 ; Prov. xi. 24 ; Ps. cxii. 9.— E. and T. 

144 ST LUKE XVI. 3-H. 

Steward was left to himself.' — tov Xoyov) the account [' libellum,' the 

3. 2xawT£;r i^rairiTi, dig; beg) Death leaves no opportunity of 
either labouring or begging : Eccles. ix. 10 [There is no work, 
nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou 
goest]. This accessory ornament of the parable [the digging and 
begging] is accommodated to the spiritual sense in the Apodosis, as 
far as the circumstances of the case admit." The complete and utter 
avropia, helplessness, of the steward is implied, if he is to have no 
place of refuge with the debtors of his Lord. — aiayywiMai, I am 
ashamed) We may suppose him to mean, that he was ashamed to 
beg, by reason of excessive modesty, and a sense of his unworthiness. 

4. "Eyvm, I know [better the Eng. Vers. I am resolved]) He sud- 
denly formed a plan. 

5. 'Eva exaarov, every one) in order that he might put as many as 
possible under obligations to him ; therefore two instances merely, for 
the sake of example, are subjoined in the following verses. 

6. Alfa;) receive from me. — yfiajj,/j,a, thy bill) bond, or agreement 
to pay. — Ta-)(ioi5, hastily) stealthily. — 'TtivTrjMVTa, fifty) A large pre- 
sent: comp. ver. 7. It is at a great cost that a friend is to be gained. 

7. 2iy di, but thou) The conjunction indicates, that the steward 
did not transact business separately with every debtor. 

8. 'E-xpisiv) Not merely did He ratify the measure adopted by the 
steward, but He approved of and praised it. — o xvpiog, the Lord) of 
the steward : see ver. 3, 5. — rhv oixovo/j^ov rjjs aSixlas, the steward of 
injustice [i.e. Hebraic^, the unjust steward]) The steward is called 
unjust, not merely on account of the original squandering away of 
his master's goods, but also on account of his newly-adopted plan, 
whereby he intercepted fifty baths (measures) of oil and twenty cori,' 
and bestowed them on the debtors, though' the property did not be- 
long to him but to another, viz. his master, in order that he might 
provide for himself. Compare with one another verses 4 and 9, in 

1 That is, to his own free agency, the rich master not interfering with him : 
just as God seems, as it were, not to interfere with man, and only to hear of 
man's doings, though He really sees and controls all things. E. and T. 

^ The Apodosis to the parable is in ver. 9 ; and oV«* IxJkVjj, when ye fail, 
there, corresponds to axxTnuii oix h^iin, Ivaneiii,viiof^a.i.i I cannot dig, 
to leg I am ashamed, in this ver., implying utter ' failure ' of resources. B. and T. 

5 Also translated in Engl. Vers, measures. But the Cor, Ezek. xlv. 14 which 
the Hellenists write nopo;, is the same as the ancient homer ifan (a heap), the 
largest measure of dry goods. The Ephah is the tenth of this : and the bath in 
liquids answers' to the ephah in dry goods. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVI. 8. 145 

both of which Im, orav, in order that, when, occur [and mutuallv 
correspond]. Furthermore, from this injustice of the steward the 
mammon of injustice (unrighteousness) himself takes his denomina- 
tion, ver. 9 ; in the same way as a Httle after the term unjust is first 
said of the man, and from him subsequently the term is applied to 
the mammon, ver. 10 ["He that is unjust," cidixog], 11 ["in the un- 
just" or " unrighteous mammon"]. Moreover, the steward was un- 
just, not towards the debtors of his master, but towards his master 
himself : therefore man is regarded as " unjust," who does not use 
mammon precisely for the advantage of God, so to speak, but for 
that of his own self. That injustice is either of a kind, coarse, 
nefarious, and calculated to accumulate punishment on him : such 
as is described in the verses after this parable, 10, 11 ; or else, soft- 
ening the expression injustice by the parable [to accord with its 
qualified meaning in the parable], it is of a kind refined, noble, and 
inoffensive. For as the term just is used according to the aspect of 
it presented in Is. xlix. 24 [" Shall the lawful captive delivered" 
or " the captivity of the just — be taken from the mighty"], so is 
injustice here used.' To wit, those goods, which are denoted by the 
term mammon are the goods of another (" another man's," sv rS) 
aWoTpiai, ver. 12), in the same sense as spiritual and eternal goods on 
the other hand (on the opposite side) are our own (rh {///-inpov, ver. 
12, " that which is your own"). Moreover, whosoever seeks and 
derives his own advantage from the goods of another is so far un- 
just. Therefore, it is admirable indulgence, and as it were an ex- 
ceeding degree of connivance, that God concedes to us, nay even 
advises us, that we should acquire friends for oursBlves by means of 
His goods. He would have the just right of demanding, that we 
who are His stewards should dispense His goods precisely and exclu- 
sively to His advantage, so to speak, so as not to derive any benefit 
from them ourselves ; whereas, as it is. He wishes that we should, 
with a noble exercise of the discretion given us, blend with the con- 
sideration of His interest, or substitute for it, a regard to our own 
interest. So God waives His just right, exhibiting thereby great 
condescension, to which the case is similar of which Rom. iii. 4 

' That is, not in the sense of what is positively unjust, but in the nega- 
tive sense of God not insisting on that which is His rightful claim, viz. supreme 
Lordship over earthly goods, so that His interest solely, and man's not at all, 
should be looked to : as in 2 Cor. xii. 13, Paul, when he did not avail himself of 
his rightful claim of maintenance from the Corinthians, says to them, " Forgive 
me this wrong," eliixlxn, the non-exercise of my right. — E. and T. 


140 ST LUKE XVJ. 8. 

treats ; where see the note. When we, right or wrong, i.e. iiidefatig- 
ably^ receive and embrace the right so waived by God, we incur the 
charge of injustice, but an injustice of such a kind as is not only not 
censured itself, but is even regarded as combined with praiseworthy 
prudence. O how much more unjust as also more imprudent are 
they, who in the case of the goo'ds of God seek solely their own self- 
indulgence. All injustice is no doubt a sin against God ; and so 
the injustice, which is ascribed to mammon, might be taken in the 
bad sense which is the ordinary one : as Lightfoot, who compares 
the case of Zaccheus [who restored the goods which he had wrong- 
fully taken and in this sense made friends of the mammon of un- 
righteousness], shows the phraseology ipE' poo, to be most common. 
But at the same time in this passage the injustice lay in the very act 
itself of the steward, whereby he acquired friends for himself; and 
that act drives us to adopt the recondite meaning of injustice given 
above.^ Moreover it is a frequent catachresis [not strictly proper 
use of a word] often combining at once sweetness and grandeur, 
whereby a term for a thing which is not good is, notwithstanding, 
used in a good sense, there being extant no other more appropriate 
term. For instance we have akoyov (stpictly absurd, unreasonable) 
in the catachrestic sense, that which is not calculated upon : ay^dpie- 
rov (ungrateful) catachrestically, that for which no sufficiently great 
thanks can be returned : So also, e^igTri/j-m ("we are beside ourselves" 
with Christian zeal and love) xarccmpxav, and ssuXtisa, 2 Cor. v. 13, 
xi. 8 [" I robbed other churches, taking wages of them," etc., 
" When I was in want I was chargeable (burdensome) to no man"]; 
and what comes nearer in point to the present case, Sia pcfv^s. Job. 
ii. 3, ix. 17 [without cause] ; 2 Kings ii. 10, hxXripmas alrneae^ai 
[" Thou hast asked a hard thing ;" strictly, axXriphm would imply a 
hardening of the heart]: Jer. xlix. 12 or 11, oO vo/iof :' ^laerai [in a 
good sense] apTa^oum in Matt. xi. 21 : amibtia, (importunity in a 
good cause) in Luke xi. 8. If this interpretation be thought too 
far-fetched, the ' Mammon' may be supposed to be called unjust, be- 
cause it does not justly admit of the appellation 'goods.' — on, since) 

' ' Improbe ;' Beng. refers to the double sense of improbum, that which is not 
our strict right, and that which is bold and excessively persevering. The same 
double sense holds good of the uliKioi here. — E. and T. 

2 And this sense alone gets over the difficulty, which there is in any other 
view, viz. that God commended the injustice of the steward. — E. and T. 

' " They whose judgment was not to drink." See Bid's Thesaurus, vofuts 
being there t:sB».— E. and T. 

ST ],nKE XA'I. !). 147 

Jesus adds to the parable the reason for which the steward obtained 
such high commendation for prudence. — o; u'lol) The sons of this 
world [" the children of th^s world"] (ch. xx. 34), are those who 
make this world, covered over as it is with thick darkness, and the 
world's goods their chief aim : the children [sons] of light (1 Tliess. 
V. 5 ; Eph. V. 8), are they who though living in this world yet seek 
those goods of the light which the Father of lights bestows, James 
i. 17. This is a sublime sentiment, most worthy to come from the 
Divine lips of Jesus Christ.— jSfow/iwrs/Jo/, more prudent^ The com- 
parative is here used, and that in a not strict and a diminishing 
sense : For the prudence of the world does not deserve to be called 
prudence in the positive. The force of the comparative is already in 
the i'Ttip [rous uioxig roij pwro's] Ineif) Above. The sons of the light do 
not exceedingly care for this world. On this account the sons of 
this world easily excel them, and carry off from them the commenda^ 
tion Q'TTrjiieaiv) of superiority in this respect ; nor do the sons of the 
light always in' very deed (in their actual conduct) evince as much 
prudence and vigilance even in spiritual matters [as the sons of the 
world evince in temporal matters]. See Matt. xxv. 5. They hardly 
have as much carefulness as is needed ; the worldly have more than 
is necessary. [Hardly any son of the light would expend either 
fifty baths of oil or twenty cori of wheat, in order that he might gain 
for himself the favour of a certain (any particular) saint ; but the 
men of this world at times acq^uire for themselves a friend or a patron 
at an enormous cost. — V. g.] — ilg rjjv yiveav, in respect to their gene- 
ration) elg, in respect to, is a qualifying limitation. [In truth, even 
the smallest spark of the more sublime prudence is more excellent 
than the highest degree of worldly prudence. For the latter, 
whether you have regard to the affairs of poHtics, or of war, or mer 
chandise, or literature, or works of art, etc., sets before it an object 
which is continually fleeting and transitory : Whereas, the formei 
aims at reaching the farthest goal, which alone is of the greatest 
moment, however ordinarily treated as secondary and utterly ne 
glected it be by the men of the world. — V. g.] The fruit of worldly 
prudence is brought to its termination in not many years. The an- 
tithesis to SIS r))ii yeveav is alcavioug in ver. 9, everlasting habitations. 

9. lloiriffaTi — iVa oTav — Bi^rnvrai, make — that when — they may be 
about to receive you) All these words are repeated from ver. 4 
[mirisca — ivtx. orav — h's^tavrai]. — p/Xous, friends) Not merely are you to 
make single friends, each making one friend, but each should make 
more friends than one. See note on ver, 5. [A result which you 

148 ST LUKE XVI. 9. 

will not truly be able to effect with gifts of mere pence or farthings. 
—V. g. I In this case, a thing which seldom happens, the debtor 
[the ' friends'] loves the creditor [' you']. But, alas ! what shall we 
say of the, case of those, who not only are destitute of such friends, 
but who, by rapine and frauds, etc., make for themselves enemies, 
who sigh and cry to heaven against their oppressors. — sx ro3 fia/j,m&, 
out of [by means of] the mammon) not merely by the restoration of 
what has been [unjustly] taken away, but also by acts of beneficence, 
almsgiving, kindliness, indulgence, as Job did, ch. xxxi. 20. — ha, 
that) Liberality alone is not sufficient: but yet this removes a great 
impediment in the way of entrance into the everlasting habitations 
[tabernacles]. — IxXmnn, ye shall have failed) viz. at death, when our 
stewardship is required of us [Eccles. ix. 10]. V'\i LXX. render by 
IxXi'mia, even in the case of the just. But in this passage He im- 
implies by the word, according to the force of the parable, such an 
ending of one's office (as steward) and of one's life, as would be 
wretched, if there were not friends already made, who should be ready 
to receive lis. — d'e^uvral, they may be ready to receive) viz. the friends 
[may be ready to receive], either in this life, or in that which is to 
come.^ The heirs of heavenly good things will say. The Father 
hath ordered that these good things should be ours (ver. 12, to 
ii/jbiripov, " that which is your own") ; we wish that these should 
belong to you also, seeing that ye have benefited us. The Divine 
judgment hath both many interceders for averting punishment, and 
many approvers of the sentence of condemnation passed (et depreca- 
tores et subscriptores). See 1 Cor. vi. 2. [No doubt, it is not 
those only upon whom one may have conferred a benefit, that are 
indicated here, but all, without exception, who, before one dies, have 
already passed to everlasting habitations, or else who (though not 
having yet entered them) have their own appointed place there. 
For the cause of all these is a common cause. And benefits are 
laid out to the best account when bestowed on the sons and servants 
of God. — V. g.] If the friends had no part to play in this instance 
[viz. in receiving their benefactors to everlasting habitations], what 
need would there be to make friends ? — aimloug, everlasting) This 
is put in antithesis to the failure implied in otuv exXmrin. — gxrimg, 
tabernacles, or habitations) They are so called qn account of their 

1 Some of the friends you have made may be still in this life when your 
stewardship shall come to its close, others may be in the world above. Both 
alike shall wish your eternal salvation. — E. and T, 

ST LUKE XVI. 10-12. ]49 

seciirity, pleasantness, and the convenience of dwelling together, as it 
were, in one common mansion. There is not added their own [viz. 
habitations], as in ver. 4 [5-01)5 o'/xoug a-jruv], their own houses, because 
the axrivai, habitations, belong to God. 

10. ' O iTisThi, he who is faithful) The mention of mammon being re- 
peated (ver. 9, and ver. 11), indicates that this has a close connection 
with what goes before. And yet it is not prudence now, as hereto- 
fore, hnt fidelity, which the Lord commends. 'For fidelity generates 
and directs prudence. YliSThi, aXriSnh (tOKi), and irisrrjsii, are con- 
jugates. — h h7MyJaTui, in that which is least) Theology concerns itself 
with the greatest and with the least things. For it is in this view 
that the antithetic word rnXXa, " in much," acquires also the force of 
a superlative, as T\. — admos, unjust) In antithesis to viarhc, faithful. 

11. 'Ev, in the case of) i.e. when so small a matter is at stake. — 
abiKtf], the unjust [unrighteous] The unjust mammon is opposed to 
the true [good] : and by a metonymy of the consequent [unjust] for 
the antecedent [worthless at least], it is used for that which is least 
and worthless ; inasmuch as by reason of its worthlessness, it is 
committed and given even to unjust and faithless men ; nay, to these 
especially, because they, with their whole soul and body, seize upon 
it and devote themselves to it, and esteem it as their one and only 
good, ver. 25. [Abraham says to Dives, " Thy good things"]. 
Every great thing has, through men's instrumentality either lately 
or formerly, contracted some stain of injustice. What an amount oi 
injustice must the transference of ownerships throughout so many 
ages have been liable to impart to the tenures of property, even 
though at the present time the possessors may hold their property 
in all good faith ? — •aieToi, faithful) External goods are given by way 
of a test to prove them. — om syinak, ye have not become [Engl. Ver. 
not so well, " ye have not been "]) having laid aside the faithlessness 
which was in you. This is the signification of the verb y'miLai [as 
distinguished from e;>/]. — t-J aXr\hilt, the true) Jesus speaks according 
to the heavenly sense [perception of the relative value of things]. 
T^e true good is that which is spiritual and eternal.' Its preciousness 
is not equally liable to be exposed to the risk ot faithless stewardship 
(management). No loss is sustained in the case of [this] mammon. 

■ — t!;, who) i.e. not I, nor my Father will. — mgTiuan, will commit) in 
this life, where the danger is of faithlessness. 

12. ' A-XkoTpiM, that which is another's) In the case of the external 
goods of the world, in the food needed for the belly. See 1 Cor. vi. 
13 ; 1 Tim. vi. 7. In a different point of view it is carnal things. 

150 ST LITKE XVI. li, IS. 

not spiritual, which are called our own. 1 Cor. ix. 11 [If we have 
sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap 
your carnal things ?]. Nay, indeed, all the good things of God are 
ahen to a man, before that he becomes a believer, even those which 
are inferior and prior to the rest : but when a man has become a 
believer, all things become his own, even the greatest and the highest 
goods. — rb vfiiripov, that which is your own) that which belongs to the 
sons and heirs of God : ch. vi. 20 [" Yours is the Kingdom of God"] 
1 Cor. iii. 22 [" All things are yours," etc.]. It virtually and in 
fact refers to the same thing as ri aXrjdiuhv, the true good, ver. 11. — 
ifiTi, unto you) This implies that he who fails to obtain salvation, 
might nevertheless have obtained it. — Swan, will give) The verb 
•jTidTiugii, will commit, corresponds to the noun rh aXriSivh, ver. 11, and 
refers solely to this life, during which is the time of probation ; the 
verb duffii, will give, corresponds to the pronoun ri i/MiTipov, that which 
is your own, and refers especially to the future life, in which there is 
no risk of faithlessness. Wherefore inasmuch as in the case of the 
one world faithlessness has place, but has not in the other, the cause 
why the true goods are not to be committed to those who have not 
evinced fidelity in the case of the unjust mammon, is the truth and 
exalted worth of the things which must not be exposed to any risk ; 
and the cause why the goods which are their own, are not to be given 
to those who have not evinced faithfulness in the case of the goods 
which belong to another, is the unworthiness of those who had been 
intended to receive them as their own, — that unworthiness incapaci- 
tating them for so great an inheritance. No man can with the one 
and the same earnestness administer both things that are ' un- 
righteous' and things that are 'true:' or enjoy with one and the same 
soul both the things " that belong to another," and the things that 
are "his own." 

14. Ka/ 0/ ^apigaToi, the Pharisees also) His words were addressed 
to the disciples in the hearing of the Pharisees. — fnXapyvpoi, covetous) 
A class of persons who are the most ready of all to take offence. — 
s^e/jt,\;-/iTr}pi^ov, they began to deride Him) who was the teacher of single- 
ness of heart. [Whereas they fancied themselves to be accomplished 
in (furnished with) such prudence as to be able admirably to com- 
bine the service of God and that of mammon. — V. g.] 

15. 0/ dmaiouvTig — MpuTav) Ye do some things that are just, and 
thence ye suppose yourselves to be just, ye feign that ye are so, and 
are regarded as such. The antithesis is yivojami, knotoeth. — xapSiai, 
hearts) The heart is the seat of justice and of injustice. [This axiom 

ST LUKE XVI. 16-18. ISl 

is most powerfully effectual both in convicting tlie bad and confiiTn- 
ing the sincere. — V. g.] — to h adputmg u-^nXh, that which is lofty 
\highly-esteemed'\ among men) What seems to men among their 
fellow-men the very height of justice (righteousness). Comp. ch. 
xviii. 14 [tkc 6 \i-^uv eat/riv], " everyone that exalteth himself." This 
is the connection of the subsequent words, Justification of one's self 
before men, and loftiness of heart, nourish covetonsness, and deride 
heavenly simplicity and singleness of heart, ver. 15, and despise the 
Gospel ["the Kingdom of God is preached," tuayysX/^sra;], ver. 16, 
and disregard the law, ver. 17, a fact (their disregard of the law) 
which is shown by an instance of the violation of the law most neces- 
sary to be spoken to the Pharisees [who were given to adultery], ver. 
18. The narrative concerning the rich man and Lazarus comprises 
all these points. 

16. 'O vofLos, the law) Supply the predicate have prophesied (pro- 
phetizaverunt), [answering to th-e antithetic expression, evayyiXlt^irai, 
the Gospel kingdom of God is preached. — xal ffSj, and every one) 
Comp. ch. XV. [Then drew near all the publicans and sinners, etc.] 
— ^id^irai) with pious violence presses into it (assails it). Re- 
solve the sentence thus, ttSs (^;a^O|«evos,) sis aurfiv dia T>jg /3/a; 

17. As, but) Although I, the Christ, am here, with the Gospel ; 
yet I do not set aside the law ; Matt. v. 17, 18. He refutes the 
antinomian Pharisees. For there is no trace here or mention of any 
transition from the Pharisees to the Sadducees. In ver. 1 6—18 the 
Pharisees' contempt and abuse of the law, and at the same time the 
everlasting obligation of the law are noticed ; and it is to this that 
the scope of the whole narrative as to the rich man and his brothers 
appertains : comp. ver. 29 [" They have Moses and the prophets," 
etc.]. — ■jriSiTv) Sia'xivTm PSJ, Josh. xxi. 45 " Tlieve failed not ought of 
any good thing which the Lord had spoken." LXX. (43) ou hivioit]. 

18. nSff airo'khuv, every one who putteth away) The cause also of 
divorce either on the part of him who put away his wife, or on the 
part of the Pharisees and Judges, may have been " covetonsness," 
ver. 14, for the salie of the gain derived from the writing of divorce- 
ment. This abuse at that time prevailed to a great degree. [The 
express exception^ (Matt. v. 32, xix. 9) in the case of one put away 
on account of adultery did not belong to this place : for in that case 

' The Edi Tert. Tubing. 1835, has ' deserta,' evidently a misprint loi 
'digerta,' as the Germ. Vers, has ausdruclUche. — E. and T. 

152 ST LUKE XVI. 19-21. 

it is not the husband but the unfaithful party (wife) who oy the very 
act separates her own self from him. — V. g.] 

19. "Av6pu'?rog, a man) This parable (for it is a parable, though a 
true narrative may lie underneath it) not only condemns the abuse 
of external goods by covetousness and pride, but also condemns a 
proud contempt of the law and the prophets : comp. ver. 14 et seqq. 
The rich man is the exact representative of the Pharisees : Lazarus 
is an example of the poor in spirit : The state of both respectively 
in this life and in that which is to come is shown. — mpipxipav -mI 
iSueaov, purple and fine linen) forming a beautifully blending of 

20. 'Ovofiari, by name) Lazarus was known by his own name in 
heaven ; whereas the rich man is not designated by any name (is 
not accounted worthy of any name or reputation marked by a name), 
ver. 25 [' Son'], but has merely a genealogy in the world, ver. 27, 
28. [This is not due to the parabolic nature of the narrative, fori 
Even in a parable a proper name has place : Ezek. xxiii. 4 [Aholah 
and Aholibah]. However that there was really at Jerusalem at that 
time such a person, named Lazarus, is recorded by Theophylact 
from the tradition of the Hebrews. — £/3s/3X;]ro, was lyingY disabled in 
his limbs. His hunger and nakedness is opposed to the sumptuous 
fare and fine clothing of the rich man. The character which marked 
the soul of Lazarus is to be gathered in part from his own external 
condition, and in part from the opposite character of the rich man. 
—vuXum, gate) that of a great house : the poor man was removed to 
a distance from the rich man, at such a distance however, as that the 
rich man might have been moved to compassion, and Lazarus at the 
same time might see his table. The antithesis is " Abraham's 
bosom," [xoXmv, ver. 22]. Comp. note Acts xii. 13 [-ttuXiJiv is more 
spacious than 'jvXri, and may include the adjoining hall or uncovered 

21. 'EOTdu/iwK, desiring) So far was he from having in his spirit 
aught that was lofty [ri h avipii'iroi; i'^riXov], ver. 15. — [a'!rh rut 
■^iX'iitv, of the crumbs) The freedom (immunity) which Lazarus en- 
joyed from every worldly desire is hereby indicated. — V. g.J — aXka. 
xai) nay (but) even. This particle, the words, not only so, having -to 
be supphed in the former member, usually intensifies the force of the 
words which follow. — o/' xvns) the dogs, strictly so called [not figura- 

' Rather, lie had been laid by others, not being able to move himself. — 
E. and T. 

ST LUKE XTI. 22, 23. ua 

lively]. The utter desertion of the naked and outcast Lazarus is 
herein denoted. The words, the angels, in ver. 22, form a powerful 
antithesis to the dogs here. — ip^o/ji'ivoj, coming) not for Lazarus' sake, 
but for their own ; as if he were a corpse [a carcase for them to prey 
upon]. — anr'iXti-xpv, began to lick off) The structure of the dog's tongue 
and its saliva impart relief to a body that is not much diseased ; but 
these exasperate the pain of a body covered over with ulcers 
('sores'). — fXx))) sores, full of matter. 

22. ' ki:in-)((invai) He was carried away, from the place that was 
strange to him (in which he was an alien) to his true country. — 
a\iTh, that he) i.e. his soul : inasmuch as Abraham also is designated 
in reference to the soul [not the l)ody\, although his hosom, and the 
finger of Lazarus, as also the tongue of the rich man, are mentioned. 
— e/s rhv xoKirot, into the bosom) as his own genuine son, the coheir 
and sharer of the same table with Abraham, who "sits down" to 
the banquet in the kingdom of the heavens [Matt. viii. 11]. An 
abbreviated mode of expression : For the bosom presupposes the 
banquet ; the banquet presupposes the kingdom of the heavens. 
Lazarus attained to the kingdom of the heavens ; nay more, to the 
banquet : nay even to the bosom of Abraham. Lazarus afterwards 
having become more intimately united to Abraham, is said to be h 
ToTs xoXmig ahroZ, ver. 23, in the plural.^ The Jews used to call the 
good state of the dead the bosom of Abraham, and the garden of Eden, 
with which comp. ch. xxxii. 43. See Lightfoot on this passage. — 
xa,l, also) Often two men die at the one time, who during life were 
next neighbours. — hd<i)n, was buried) with great pomp. This formed 
the conclusion of those " good things," which the rich man received : 
see ver. 25. 

23. " Airi, hell) [' inferno']. Neither Abraham nor Lazarus were 
it Tfi ^&ri, although the death and descent of Christ [to hell] had not 
yet taken place. 

" Ahiji and Gehenna differ, 

As a whole, and a part differ ; 

As a thing present-, and a thing about to be, viz. after the 

day of Judgment ; 
As a receptacle of individuals, and a receptacle of all the 
bad vnthout exception. 
'Ahrti is much wider in its meaning, than Gehenna. Comp. Gen, 

' An allusion to the folds of the garment on the bosom, or in the lap.— 
E. and T. 

1S4 ST LUKE XVI. 24, 25. 

xxxvii. 35 [" I will go down into the grave (e/'s "Adou, to Hades) unto 
my son mourning"], where certainly Jacob is not expressing despair 
as to [the salvation of] his soul or that of Joseph [but merely his 
desire to follow Joseph to the unseen world of Hades]. In the first 
distinction which we have given between the words, "Adrjg itself and 
Gehenna itself are had regard to ; in the third, it is the dwellers in 
each that are regarded. Abraham was h tSj "Adri in the widest sense 
of the term, as'A^jjs is used in the passage above quoted from Gen. 
But in Luke "ASti; and the bosom of Abraham are opposed to one 
another. — eTapag, having lifted up) A lamentable spectacle, present- 
ing itself from the abyss.^[lv jSaadvoig, in torments) And this, at a 
long interval before the last day ; nay even preceding the death of 
Christ. — ^V. g.] — rhv ' AjSpaa/ji,, Abraham) but not God Himself. 
For which reason also he cannot cry unto God, Have mercy on me. 
— xoXmg) The plural expressing the space from the breast to the knees. 

24. Airfs, himself). No longer now does he enjoy the attendaiice 
of slaves, but is a beggar himself. — varep, father) Implying his 
"glorying in the flesh" [boasting of mere outward privileges of 
descent from the father of the faithful] : ' Son ' in ver. 25 corres- 
ponds to ' Father ' here. — •s-s/i-vpoi', send) Even as yet the self-indulger 
holds in little esteem Lazarus, even as yet in little esteem Moses : 
ver. 30. — ha Bd-^p, that he may dip) This verb does not always im- 
ply a great abundance of water : from it is derived /Sa^rr/^w. Not 
even the slightest mitigation is vouchsafed. This truly is " the wine 
of the wrath of God poured out, anparov, without mixture." Rev. 
xiv. 10, Chrysostom observes, ^ 5-^5 IXsjj/ioffuvjjs grayuv dfiiKrag 'i-Xii 

•Trphg Trit a-rriviiav, A drop of the Divine compassion is not mixed with 
the unfeeling hard-heartedness of this rich feaster. — ■yXSieaavy tongue) 
His tongue it was that had especially sinned. 

25. T'sxvov, ' Son') The correlative is introduced from the relative, 
Father Abraham. The proper name is not here added. For Abra- 
ham did not know him as his son any longer. Joshua also called 
the wretched Achan Son [after his guilt] in ch. vii. 19. — /juv^sSrin, 
remember) The dead retain the recollection of former events : see 
ver. 27. — dveXa^ig) hast carried off according to thy desire [hast re- 
ceived as the portion which thou didst desire]. The rich man had 
not thought so during life. The price is large both of prosperity 
and adversity respectively : ' for the sowing time is in this life. — rd 

» t.e. The former, when bought at the expense of eternal misery, is dearly 
purchased : the latter, when endured in faith for the sake of the better portion, 
IB a good purchase. — E. and T. 

LT LUKE XVI. 2(5-29. I55 

ayaSa, thy good things) Dp?n, Ps. xvii. 14. — b rjj ^a/jj tfoi/. So tlio 
LXX., £11 Tr\ t,(.ri ahrSiv in the same passage. — t&, xaxa, evil things) 
There is not added here his [as thy was added in the case of the 
good things of the rich man].— vDv Ss, but now) An argument based 
on the principle of fair compensation, to explain why each should be 
so treated as he is. — ■jTccpaxXirrai, he is comforted) in respect to his 
former miseries: 2 Thess. ii. 16. He has no leisure [non vacat, no 
time or opportunity] now for departing [to cool thy tongue].— Mura- 
eoii, thou art tormented) in pure and unmixed pain. 

26. Kal, and) An argument drawn from the impossibility of the 
case. — ivi) This accumulates fresh reasons for rejecting his request. 
Comp. It;, ch. iii. 20 [" Herod added this yet to (Engl. Ver. above) 
all" sirl T&giv, a,nd ch. xxiv. 21, euv nrasi rovroig, beside all this. — u/^Zv, 
you) [not thee] Therefore there are many in hell. — x""^"? "■ 9^¥) 
viz. the distance that there is between the bosom of Abraham and 
hell. — igrrjpixrai, there is firmly fixed) By this word the prayer of 
the self-indulger is cut off hopelessly. — at ^iXovng, they who wish) if 
they could. — bia^rivai) dia^ahu is said of one passing unrestrictedly 
and of one's self: SiavrepSi is said of one who crosses^ by being carried. 
— 01 sxeidiv) Expressed in abbreviated form for 0/ sxeT, ineTSsv. 

28. Tisvrs,five) Perhaps there were five Pharisees, who had espe- 
cially ' derided' their Lord, ver. 14, and who did not hear the law 
and the prophets, ver. 16, 29 ; and who were like the rich feaster, 
if not externally, at least internally. Certainly the Lord knew the 
inmost character and also the number of such persons. See ver. 
15. The sixth brother was he who was now crying aloud in hell : 
in contrast to those six, one individual, a seventh, viz. Lazarus, who 
also was of the posterity of Abraham, reached the bosom of Abra- 
ham. — adiXpoiig, brethren) who are living securely and without con- 
cern about their state. — im fin, that they may not) In hell the clas- 
sical adage, " Companions the solace of the wretched" [_Solamen 
miseris socios"], etc., gives no comfort to the rich feaster. See, 
however, Ezek. xxxii. 31. The self-indulger, who previously had 
shown no compassion, now puts forth into exercise a kind of com- 
'passion, but one which does not correspond to the Divine compas- 
sion. He was worse when amidst his pleasures, than now, when 
amidst the tortures of hell. 

29. Aiyii, saith) Abraham gives no answer on the point, whether 
Lazarus could be sent by him to the brothers of the rich man. 

^ Over a river or lake. — E. and T. 

15C ST LUKE XVI. 29 

There is not, certainly, such a wide gulf separating from the earth 
either heaven or hell, as separates the two latter from one another. 
— Mwffia, Moses) A personification for the Law, appropriately used 
here as being in antithesis to Lazarus. It is just the same as if 
they had Moses face to face. [Besides these means of conviction, 
we are supphed amply with the words of Christ and the writings of 
His witnesses, by whom also the resurrection froni the dead is 
solemnly affirmed.— V. g.] The scope of this narrative is to com- 
mend Scripture, which the Pharisees despised, being 'covetous,' 
ver. 14, 'justifying' and " exalting themselves," ver. 15, and despis- 
ing the law, ver. 17, all which feelings of the Pharisees are utterly 
swept away by Scripture. Moses and the prophets are here consi- 
dered especially, inasmuch (in so far) as they testify concerning 
Christ Jesus, ver. 16, whom the Pharisees were deriding, ver. 14.— 
aKousaTusav, let them hear) This is said sternly. No man is com- 
pelled. It is in the believing hearing of the word that we are saved, 
not by means of apparitions. Herod, as being one not desirous to 
hear, is not permitted to see a miracle. The question as to men's 
state after death is less openly and less at large treated of in the 
Old Testament [than in the New] ; and yet that which is revealed 
on the subject must suffice for leading men (the Jews) to repent. 
They are mistaken who suppose that it is only by the revelation of 
those mysteries that the ungodly are to be gained, over to religion. 

30. Ov^t, nay) Therefore the rich man during his life did not 
know the plan of salvation ; and the wretched man, after having 
left behind his luxury, brought with him into hell his low estima- 
tion for Scripture. Hence he gave a counsel (proposed a plan) by 
no means in accordance with true theology. He supposed that, as 
he himself was now affected, so the survivors will presently be sure 
to be affected. Do thou [reader] rather look upon Lazarus whilst 
still living ; so there will be no need of Lazarus' appearing after 
death. Ungodly men demand that in one moment the reality of 
things invisible should be shown to themselves, first of all, in a 
manner altogether palpable, and such as to exclude the possibility 
of faith :^ they shrink back from laborious investigation, faith, and 
patience. — r/s, one) Lazarus, or some one else. — a-jrh vixpuv, from (he 
dead) Therefore the rich man had not believed, neither did his 
brothers then believe, that there is a hell or a state of blessedness. 

' For where siffht is, there is no scope for faith, which is trust or belief in 
things unseen.— E and T. 

ST LUKE XYI. 31. XTII. 1-3. 157 

It is not professed Sadduceeism, as the tenet of a sect, which is to be 
inferred from this [as the condemning characteristic of the rich maij], 
but practical atheism, wherewith even not merely the Sadducees, 
but the Pharisees also were tainted, with (i.e. notwithstanding) all 
their hypocrisy. They were really deriding mockers, ver. 14. And 
it is probable that Jive Pharisees are stigmatized in ver. 28 above 
the rest. — i/jiravo^souaiv, they will repent) That there is need of re- 
pentance, all are aware, even without apparitions : for even the self- 
indulger knew this in hell ; although he could not comprehend that 
Moses and prophets aim at enforcing this same truth. 

31. Oij3s Eai/ — avaffrp, 'TriigSijeovTai, not even if — shall have risen 
from the dead, will they be persuaded) The rich man had said, lav— 
xopivSri /iiravoriBovffiv, if one shall have gone to them from the dead, 
they will repent : now the hypotljetical antecedent increases in force 
[viz. avaHTrj taking the place o£ ■jropiuSri] ; whereas, however, the conse- 
quent decreases in force ['TrusSrjaovTa.i taking the place o£ //^iravorisougiv.] 
There are many proofs afforded from the unseen world (Matt, xxvii. 
53) ; but those proofs are not intended chiefly for this end, in order 
that mortals may repent. Another and a different Lazarus was raised 
to life, and yet they did not believe ; John xi. 44, 53. Tiilhe6ai, as also 
dTiihTii, is at one time to be referred, for the sense in which it is 
to be taken, to the understanding, at another time to the will : often 
to both. 


1. Ma6rir&g, disciples) as in ch. xvi. 1. — avhSixTot een) So oux 
hSe^srai, it is not a thing usual to happen [f/>o(pi}Triv a.'ffoXseSai sf a 
' UpoueaX^/i], ch. xiii. 33 [lit. a thing not admissible in the common 
course of things]. — iXhh, come) especially through the instrumen- 
tality of the Pharisees. [And their deriding cavils, ch. xvi. 14. — 

2. TouTuv, of these) By this pronoun, Luke shows evidently that 
" the little ones" were present in the midst of them. 

3. npoaixi" sauToT;, take heed to yourselves) Not only do not give 
offence to others, ver. 1, 2, or take offence from others who sin 
against you, ver. 3, but also take heed lest ye be an offence or 

158 ST LUKE XVII. 4-0. 

stambling-block to yourselves ; Matt, xviii. 8. Comp. Gal. vi. 1, at 
the end of the verse. — apg, forgive) So God deals with us. 

4. TJjs hfJ-ipoLc, in the day) This passage many misapply, by er- 
roneously connecting the idea with that in Prov. xxiv. 16 [A 
just man falleth se\:en times and riseth up again"] as if the just 
man fell seven times a day, and that, too, into sins. — i-jeieTpi-i^l, turn 
himself again) In antithesis to afiaprrigri, if he shall have trespassed. 
— /MTavoui, I repent) To say so openly and ingenuously, is not only 
not disgraceful, but is even salutary [tends towards one's salvation] : 
the mind of the offender and that of the offended party are thereby 
admirably healed. [In a similar way, also, it is expedient that we 
entreat pardon before God, not merely in general terms, but in re- 
spect to the particular lapses into sin of which we are conscious. — 
V. g.]' 

5. E/Vov, said) Being moved with the sweetness of His words, 
ver. 4, they 1 were wishing to have a more abundant enjoyment of 
the Divine benignity. — o/ a.'TrosroXoi, the apostles) who had in an 
especial degree need of great faith. — rw Kupiifi, the Lord) This ap- 
pellation being put here implies, that this petition was a very solemn 
one. — ■xpodkg, add) They hereby recognise the Divine power of 
Jesus. Jesus deals with their petition in ver. 6, and ver. 7-10. — 
T/ffr/K, faith) which surmounts stumbling-blocks, and freely forgives 

6. E;) if) This ir itself sharpens the energies of minds striving 
after faith, and enlarges their powers so as to reach it. [By the 
very fact of setting forth the efficacy of faith, faith itself is in- 
creased. — V. g ] — gvxa/j.lvijj) D''»pE', which the LXX. render euxa/j-im. 
The morus or mulberry tree, a tree often met in Palestine. See 
1 Kings X. 27. Sometimes the auxo/j^ofia. is distinguished from it. 
See ch. xix. 4. See the lexicographers, and Bexa, on this passage. 
The wild fig-tree is a tree most deeply rooted.'^ — (pureuSrjTi, be thou 
planted) with thy roots, so as to remain in the sea. It is a similar 
effect to this which is produced on believers themselves. — h Tr\ 
eaXdgsri, in the sea) They were at the time near the sea ; comp. 
Matt. xvii. 20, 27. — w^jcouffev av, it would obey you) Metaphysicians 
term it the obediential power. The recognition of the Divine om- 
nipotence, which faith apprehends, increases faith. 

1 The avxafiiuo; is the mulberry tree, Lat. morus, black and white, Theophr. 
Caus. PI. vi. 6, 4. tvx.ofiopo; or awcofiofiiet is the fig-mulberry, Th. nvxou fiopou ; 
an Egyptian kind that bears its fruit on the branches, and has leaves like the 
white mulberry. Ficus sycomorus, Linnteus. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVII. 7-10. 159 

7. Tig, who) viz. is there ? — di, but) There is apprehended by- 
faith the Divine omnipotence, ver. ,6, but what is still more blessed, the 
Divine compassion and grace, and that pure unmixed grace ; ver. 
7, et seqq. ; comp. eh. x. 20. [The fact of the disciples' " names 
being written heaven," is to their faith a greater cause for joy than 
" the spirits being subject" to them]. — f^ v//,S)v) of you, men, or 
disciples. Bartholomew is said to have been a nobleman. — boZ'Kov, 
a servant) Christ, whilst He increases their faith, seems to lessen 
(disparage or impair) it [by putting them on the footing of a ser- 
vant or slavel. The groundwork that lies underneath great faith 
and prayer is lowly poverty of spirit, and a profound sense of our 
a'^puoTTii, unprofitableness, and of the debt of duty we owe IJim. 
Ps. cxlvii. 11 ; cxxiii. 2, [" Behold as the eyes of servants look unto 
the hands of their masters, etc., so our eyes wait upon the Lord 
our God, until He have mercy upon us."] — aporpiuvra,, plowing) 
during the whole day : whence there follows, deimrjgto, " wherewith 
I may have supper" [the meal at the close of the day]. — ivfioii, forth- 
with, quickly) In antithesis to /urci. ra-ura, afterwards, in ver. 8. 
Therefore, we should construe siiias with avd'Tnai, forthwith sit down 
to meat. Others [as the Engl. Ver., " will say unto him by and 
by,"] join iMicas with ipiT, will forthwith say, which gives a rather 

ax sense. For whether the master says this or that to the servant, 
he says it ' forthwith,' as soon as ever the servant hath come in from 
the field. But those persons wish forthwith or quickly to sit down 
to meat, who after they have laid aside all their other duties, fancy 
that the highest degree of faith should be ascribed to them, [" Qui 
missis cseteris ofSciis fidem sibi summam conferri oportere putant."] 
Whereas they please God, who walk modestly, and demand nothing 
in a spirit of arrogance. — vapiXSiiv, go forward and) See note, ch. 
xii. 37. — ava-jries) Others read avaitisai. But both Aorists of this 
are of frequent occurrence in the Active, not in the middle.^ 

8. Eftis) until, even up to the time that, and as long. 

9. ''Emindi, he did) viz. in "plowing, or feeding cattle," ver. 7. 
— oJ doxSi) [" I trow not," I rather think not] Msluai;.^ 

10. 'Otuv iroifienTi, when ye shall have done) The consideration of 

' BD read dvaiartai. AA, and probably L, read with Rec. Text avavsaiti. 
Luke has undoubtedly liuiirattiJ in ch. xi. 37, xxii. 14. Therefore it is not likely 
that in this case alone he would adopt the form found in John, Matthew, and 
Mark, dviitmi.firiu, from which dvciireaeti comes. — E. and T. 

^ The figure by which more is to be understood than what is expressed. — 
E. and T. 

100 ST LUKE XVII. 10. 

the apostles was at the time fixed too intently upon the obedience 
which they had heretofore rendered, especially as they saw the 
scandalous perversity [or the perversity which took offence (axdv- 
daXov) at the Saviour] on the part of others. See ch. xvi. 14. The 
Lord calls them back from the remembrance of such things [which 
tended to lead them to exalt themself by the comparison]. — [Xeyin, 
say ye) We are to understand and supply the following, So your 
faith will become great. When the obstacles to faith have been 
taken out of the way, among which rashness and self-confidence 
easily hold the first place, faith of its own accord increases. For 
then the pure and unmixed grace of the Lord has unrestricted 
room for its exercise. — V. g.] — or;) on seems twice to have the same 
force by Anaphora.' — hovf-.oi ayjinToi, unprofitable [dispensable] ser- 
vants)^ The emphasis lies on the word servants (slaves), and every 
servant ought -to confess himself unprofitable from the- very fact 
that he is a servant who owes all things [to his heavenly Master], 
who, if he is guilty of a delinquency, deserves stripes ; if he does 
all things required of him, he deserves nothing as a matter of debt ; 
he ought to feel as if he had done nothing ; no thanks are to be 
considered due to him, whose part it is not to demand aught of 
importance to be assigned to him as regards either trouble or 
reward. God can do without our usefulness (services), being Him- 
self alone ' good.' Rom. xi. 35. [Who hath first given to Him, 
and it shall be recompensed unto him again]. Matt. xix. 17. David 
saith, idoiho.! ay^piTog [Engl. Ver., vilel, h 6ip6a\/ioTg gov xai /arit, rav 
-iTaidiaxuv, uv sJ'jra.f //,$ fin hot^aaSrivai, 2 Sam. vi. 22, where the anti- 
thesis So^agiTJvai follows, not without mentioii of servants lyraidiexSiv]. 
He is wretched whom the Lord calls an unprofitable servant, Matt. 
XXV. 30 : Happy is he who calls himself so. As to the word ayjuioi, 

' The figure by which the same word is repeated in the beginnings of sen- 
tences, clauses, etc. But mi is omitted before SoSXo/, and before o wcpiAo^ti/ by 
Lachm. AX Syr. Vulg. abc Cypr. omit the 'in before "iouXot. But BD 
Orig. have it. ABDLoic Vulg. Memph. Orig. 3,565c Cypr. omit the on before 
0. Rec. Text has it without any of the oldest authorities.— E. and T. 

* 'Axpeh; is not worthless or of no value ; for that servant is not useless who 
does all that his master orders him. " Axpyiaros is not one who does not what is 
commanded — one who yields no benefit — one useless. But d-icpuo; is one o5 oux 
hri xpha or xph;, of whom there is no need, a person we can dispense with, dis- 
pensable, one to whom God the Master owes no thanks or favour. Human pride 
is liable to fancy that it has done God a favour by doing well, and that God 
could do without men's services. See my note Matt. xxv. 30, and Tittm. Synom. 
— E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVll. 11-15. IGl 

see Eustathius.' There is a Metonymy of the consequent for the 
antecedent. Say ye, We are unprofitable servants ; that is to say, 
there is no greater return of thanks due to us, than if we had done 
nothing • Job ix. 21, x. 15.^ Even the angels may call themselves 
unprofitable (dispensable) servants of God. And also the servant 
of a man may call himself an unprofitable servant, although he be 
profitable (serviceable) to his master. The reason is, I. The con- 
dition itself of a slave or servant [which makes service a matter of 
course, not something that can claim a reward]. II. In respect to 
God, there is to be added His own perfect blessedness. Acts xvii. 
25 [Neither is worshipped with men's hands, as though He needed 
anything, seeing He giveth to all life, and breath, and all things]. 
' A-)(fi7os is either used transitively, of one -who is not profitable to 
another : or intransitively, of one who is of no profit to himself : and 
this again either of one's own accord, as David says that he will 
be [in the passage quoted above, 2 Sam. vi. 22], (not in the Hebrew, 
but in the Greek), or else involimtarily, as a servant or slave.— 
ii<pslXo//,sv, we were bound by our duty) as servants. The emphasis rests 
on this word, rather than upon the word, ■rsm/iixa/isi', we have done. 

11. A/a yU-Effou, through the midst) On the confines of both Samaria 
arid Galilee. [The remembrance of the Saviour in His journey from 
Galilee through Samaria to Judea, was deeply engraven on men's 
minds by the following miracle. — Harm., p. 416.] 

13. ''Jfpav ipciivriv, they lifted up their voices) An efibrt which their 
disease was scarcely admitting of. The one grateful Samaritan 
directed his voice to a pious use again in ver. 15. 
~ 14. ' Is psudi, unto the priests) To more than one priest, because 
there were more than one leper. This would have to take place 
at Jerusalem, a long journey. It is thus that the Samaritan is 
brought over to the faith of Israel. [For which reason he is said in 
ver. 15 to have returned, iimarpi-^iv. — V. g.] By this command the 
previous healing is by implication indicated. 

[15. ^mri5 fiiydXrig, with a loud voice) which was in itself a testi- 
mony to the fact of the cure having been performed, to the glory 

' Matt. XXV. 30, the servant is condemned for being clxpsio; : whereas here 
the servant is commanded to call himself dxptiag. The reason is, because the 
former had been also axpnerog, one who did not work and yielded no benefit, and 
in this sense was not wanted {axpiiog). But here he is dxp^io; in the sense, not 
indispensable to his Lord. — E. and T. 

' Comp. Job XXXV. 7, 8, " If thou be righteous, what givest thou Him ? or 
what receiveth He of thine hand ? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou 
art ; and thy righteousness may profit the son of man." — E. and T. 


162 ST LUKE XVII. 16-21. 

and praise of God. For it seems that the voice of lepers is ordinarily 
hoarse. — V. g.] 

16. •Za/^apilrn?, a Samaritan) ver. 11 [Belonging to Samaria, 
through the borders of which Jesus was ' passing']. 

17. 0/ iha, the ten) A specimen of His omniscience. 

18. Obx iipi^nfciv, there have not been found) i.e. the nine have not 
been found. — moarpi-^avres, who returned to give) A part of the Pre- 
dicate. [In returning home from Jerusalem, it would have been but 
a slight deviation from their route to have repaired to Jesus ; and 
yet they thought it too much trouble to go to Him. — ^V. g.] — Soijvai, 
to. give) They ought to have done so of their own accord. — aKKoyivrii, 
alien) who might seem to have been likely to have been benefited 
by the society of the rest, they being persons who were more bound to 
give thanks than he. 

19. Hopivou, go thy way) It was not befitting at that time, that the 
Samaritan should remain long with Him. 

20. TJoTi, when) They ask rather concerning the time, than con- 
cerning the place, which without dispute (or distinction) they sup- 
posed would be Jerusalem. The Lord answers both concerning the 
time and concerning the place, but in a way widely different from 
what they were supposing. Comp. ver. 37, ch. xix. 11, et seqq. 
[All along from Luke xvii. 20 to ch. xviii. 14 there is one continued 
reply to that question of theirs ; and those particulars which we have 
in ch. xvii. 22-37, were repeated by the Saviour on the occasion re- 
corded in Matt, xxiv., etc. — Harm., p. 419. It is a course fall of 
danger, to neglect present duties, and then to extend the exercise of 
our prudence forward to what is future. — V. g.] — /isrdi •jrapartip^eiu;, 
with observation) with such pageant as that one can gradually and 
successively observe the mn and the iLdi, the time and the place. The 
correlatives are : the messengers, whom these who are observing [i.e. 
who are on the look out, as if the kingdom of God came with observa- 
tionl would wish to say, here or there: and these oSsenjers themselves, 
who require to know the here or there. 

21. OiSs Ipovan, neither shall they say) viz. they who point out the 
kingdom. The verb put without the noun is consonant with this 
view. For the world does not recognise the messengers of the king- 
dom. — [wSe — kxi7, here — there) Here includes under it the notion of 
the present time; there, that of the future. — V. g.'] — /5oi) yap, for 

1 The note of the Gnomon on ver. 20, and the reference to ver. 37, implies 
that place, not time, is the hading idea of the answer as to the here and the 
there. Time is only a subordinate notion in it. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE rvil. 22. 163 

behold) Ye ought to turn your earnest attention to the fact : Then 
you will see that the kingdom of God is already within your reach. 
This true (well-grounded) Behold, is put in antithesis to the Behold 
[" Lo, here or there"'] which is looked for without good ground.^ 
For behold {Idoi y&f) does not belong to (stand under) epoven, they 
shall say. — JurJ;, within) Ye ought not to look to times that are 
future, or places that are remote : for the kingdom of God is with- 
in you ; even as the Bang Messiah is in the midst of you : John i. 
26 [" There standeth one among you (/^Iffos l/j^uv) whom ye know 
not"], xii. 35. Within is here used, not in respect of the heart of 
individual Pharisees (although in very deed Christ dwells in the heart 
of His people: Eph. iii. 17), but in respect to the whole Jewish people. 
The King, Messiah, and therefore the kingdom, is present : ye see 
and ye hear [Him]. The LXX. use hrhg answering to aip of those 
things which are in a man ; but in this passage He is speaking of 
more than one. So the LXX. ed Hervag.,^ Deut. v. 14, o hrhg ruv 
nXuv gov, Kaphelius compares the words found in Xenophon, Ssa 
hrhg aiirwi' xal ^rif/^ara xal &]i^pt>i'!roi eysnvTO, " whatever both property 
and men were inside (within), with them, in the camp." — 'ism, is) The 
Present, appositely, and with emphasis. It cannot be said, the 
kingdom cometh, but it is now present : see John iii. 8. 

22. Mos^jjrAff, the disciples) who were likely to comprehend that 
saying, rather than the Pharisees. — iKsigoi/Tai, shall come) Jesus inti- 
mates hereby that the present time of the kingdom of God [the time 
of its being present] vnll have passed away [wUl become past], whilst 
the Pharisees are seeking and inquiring when it is to come. His 
reply embraces events further off, ver. 24, et seqq.,, as well as nearer 
events, ver. 31, et seqq. — ImSv/uitiasre, ye shall desire) A hypothetical 
statement ;' for afterwards the Paraclete allayed that desire, but 
only in the case of the Christians : see ch. xxiv. 49, 52. [Avail 
yourself of present privileges. — V. g.] — /i,io!.ii) one of such days, as 
ye have now in great numbers,* Matt. ix. 15 : inasmuch as ye now 

' ADabc Oiig. 1,238c, 4,294c, Hil. Vulg. have ij ihif ixi7, as Rec. Text and 
Lachm. read. But BL omit ihov ; and so Tisch. — E. and T. 

' This edition was brought out at Basle, Tsj? Seises 'yp«.0iii, •jrahaias 5ii?i«S« 
x«i »£»f a-^rai/rx, by John Hervagius, 1545. The preface was by Melancthon. 
The text of Lonicerus is chiefly followed : there are in it some valuable various 
readings. — E. and T. 

' i.e. If ye were to desire, or when ye shall desire, to see a day of the Son of 
Man, ye could not see it. The Pharisees had no such desire. The disciples 
would have it, when Jesus left them : Matt. ix. 15 ; John xvi. 6. — E. and T. 

* See Amos viii. 11.— E. and T. 

164 ST LUKE XVII. 23-26. 

see Me with your eyes (See on the appellation, " Son of man," the 
note. Matt. xvi. 13) : and the " heaven open," John i. 52. After 
His ascension, but one such day, and that the greatest of aU days, 
still remains, namely, the last day : see ver. 30. 

23. 'Epovdiv) they shall say \_See, or Lo, here, or Lo there'], the re- 
verse of what happens in the case of the kingdom of God, ver. 21 
[in the case of which " they shall not say, Lo here, or Lo there"]. 
But it is thus that they speak in the papacy, which affixes peculiar 
grace to particular places. The text is especially treating of the 
Apostolic age. — Idoij, Lo \_See]) Here He is: viz. the Son of man, i.e. 
Jesus Christ. It is not the false Christs and their followers who are 
meant ; but those who do not with truth point out the true Messiah. 
— firi aitiXiriTi, do not go away') in the simple sense. — finbi biiis^riTi, do 
not follow) with ardour. Often undue eagerness impels one towards 
an object, to which true reason does not guide. 

24. ' 13. aerpaiTTOijea., that fiashetK) i.e. whilst it is in the act of 
flashing. It cannot be pointed out. — rni '^tt olpavhv) Often the ex- 
pression, the earth n vv oupavh, which is beneath heaven, occurs in the 
LXX. Version, in Job and elsewhere. — ourug, so) most rapidly, and 
most widely. — Tr\ ri//,ipcf,, in His day) viz. the last day : Matt. xxvi. 64, 

25. XlpSiTov, first) before that He enters upon that glory, in which 
He is about to come. — amioy-iiiaeSrivai, he rejected) in such a way as 
if He were not Eang. After the mention of His glory, immediately 
again comes the mention of His passion. — raurrig, on the pait oithis 
generation) living in this age. It is hereby implied that the day 
of the Son of man would not be in that age. 

26. KaSug, even as) The last times of all correspond with the 
deluge, in respect to the universality of the catastrophe ; and with 
the destruction of Sodom, in respect to the fact of fire being the 
agency employed. — xal h raTg rj/iipaig, also in the days) In the first 
instance, the actual day of the revelation of the Son of man in ver. 
30 is called " the Day of the Son of man ;" then afterwards also 
those days, which precede it, receive that appellation : the last days 
of [His] expectation : Heb. x. 13 [From henceforth expecting till 
His enemies be made His footstool]. Comp. the phrase, Ps. cxix. 
(cxviii.) 84, vosai I'lsh al rifi'ipai roO doxiXou ffou, " How many are the 
days of thy servant ?" So also, before His coronation or nuptials, 
some time is assigned to the King or Bridegroom. A similar plural 
occurs, ch. ix. 51 \_h rp euf/.'jXripcvffSa.i rag tj/iepag rrjg aiiaX^%)/£W5 
avrou], where see the note. [Though the day of His assumption 
01- ascension was one day, yet the forty days before it and aftor 

ST LUKE XVII. 27-32. 16", 

ffis resurrection were equivalent to a irapagx-iun, or Preparation 
ibr it.] 

[27. Comp. with this, ver. 33. How great, in truth, is the diiFer- 
mce between those who are wholly immersed in temporal concerns, 
md those who give themselves up wholly to this one aim, that they 
may be enabled to stand accepted before the Son of man in the day 
ai His appearing ! — V. g.] i 

28. 'Ek ra/j iifj^spaig Aiir, in the days of Lot) Gen. xix. 14. — nyopa- 
X,m, they were huying) Already the world had become more motley in 
its employments in the time of Lot, than in that of Noah; how much 
more so in our times, when the arts of merchandise, navigation, 
war, the bar [or the market], the schoql, the senate, etc., have been 
advanced to the highest perfection ! 

30. ' Ai:o7ux,X\)<!iTiTai) The Present, is revealed, suddenly and visibly. 

31. 'Ek exe/w, in that day) that day, on which the kingdom of God 
shall come. The day of Jerusalem being besieged is meant : comp. 
ver. 34, note : a day which has many points (aspects under which 
it may be viewed) in common with the last day. Comp. ver. 22. 
After Jerusalem had been destroyed, Christianity was most freely 
propagated. See ch. xxi. 28. 

32. Tfii yvmixog Awr, the loife of Lot) who did not do what is en- 
joined in ver. 31. If you weigh well the strict meaning of the 
words. Gen. xix. 26, and the variety of the interpretations, which 
are carefully enumerated by Wolf on this passage, the substance of 
the facts will amount to this : Lot's wife looked back, and fled more 
slowly than her husband ; and so, not reaching Zoar, she involved 
herself in that calamity of which the angels had warned her, and 
perished by a death nearly the same as befell the people of Sodom : 
tor the extreme outskirts of the miraculous and fearful shower that 
rained on Sodom seized on the wretched woman, and deprived her 
jf life, and suddenly scorched, covered over, discoloured, smote, anc? 
utterly. changed [the state and look of] her body; so that she, who 
iiad not run as she. ought, stopped altogether still. For her corpse, 
in that state, standing upright, and preserved from decomposition, is 
sailed a statue [pillar] : and that statue [pillar] was one, not of 
sulphur, but of that which is milder and yet akin to sulphur, viz. 
salt. Comp. Deut. xxix. 22 ; Mark ix. 49. The Asphaltic Lake, 
being a sea of salt, was similar. Had she fallen into the midst of 
the shower, she would have been at once wholly consumed ; but 
whilst the fire was lightly playing about her, she became stiffened. 
However, there is no doubt but that either her dead body was buried 

166 ST LUKE XYII. 33-3G. 

a short while after (as is usually the case with bodies which have 
been both overwhelmed with, and afterwards drawn out from, snows, 
waters, and sands, or which have been kiUed by Divine interposi- 
tion. Lev. -s. 5 [as was done in the case of Nadab and Abihu, 
Aaron's sons]), or else, when the salt melted, the body passed into 
decomposition. At all events, neither in the time of Moses nor in 
that of Christ, is that statue (pillar) said to have been in existence : 
and accordingly here He says, Remember, not, Looh upon, Fix your - 
eyes on. 

33. z»)7-)jff?j, shall have sought) [i.e. by delaying to flee to the Refage]. 
See ver. 31, 32. — -^vx'^v, life) We must understand this of the 
whole man, as distinguished from the natural or spiritual life, which 
are respectively determined and defined by whatever is added in the 
language of the passages where they are intended to be understood. — 
^taoyovriaii) [shall preserve alive : a word of the LXX.] See note. Acts 
vii. 19. 

34. Taurn rri vuxrl, in this night [not as Engl. Vers. " in that night"]) 
He does not say, h hilvri rji niJ-ipa, " in that day," comp. ver. 31 : Matt, 
xxvi. 31 [h m\ wxt! raurri, " All ye shall be offended because of Me 
this night"]. There are in our own day, saith He, persons who shall 
reach those times so widely different. Comp. the here in ch. ix. 27 
f" There be some standing here," etc., speaking of an event about to 
happen presently]. The event followed in the same generation : 
Matt. xxiv. 34 [" This generation shall not pass, till all these things 
be fulfilled"]. — els) [the one]. So very many MSS. : and the expres- 
sion, sTi — sTipo;, is used just as bhi — roZ kripou [the one — the other], 
ch. xvi. 13 ; and •ttivti — xat a,} 'jhrs in Matt. xxv. 2.^ Presently 
after, in ver. 35, Mill has omitted to notice, that in ver. 35 ij has 
also been omitted before /mIo., and that too in the text of Stephens' 

36. a6o 'igovrai h rjs uypCi, x.r.x.) Very ancient authorities ex- 
hibit this versicle in Luke also, as well as in Matt. (xxiv. 40). 
Moreover, that it was not transferred here from Matthew, is evident 
from the difference of the words in Luke, as compared with those in 
Matthew, as also from the different order of the versicles in each 
Evangelist. [This is the reason for the change of the opinion 

1 " Whe me set of&ve — and the other set of five." So Schok reads, a! vitn ; 
but Lachm. and Tisch. omit al. — B. and T. 

2 In ver. 34 AD read eig. B (judging from the silence of the collations) and 
Rec. Text, o ei;. In ver. 35 ALXA read ftla : and so Tisch. BD and Rec. 
Text (Elzev.), ij fti'a. : and so Lachm.— E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVII. 37.-XVm. 1. 1C7 

which is found in the larger Ed. For both the margin of the Ed. 
2 and of the Vers. Germ., following the example of the Gnomon, 
receive that clause concerning the two men in the field. — E. B."l 
Matthew has two paragraphs, viz. the one concerning ih& field, and 
that concerning the grinding at the mill : Luke adds a third, con- 
cerning the two men in oaQbed: just as on another occasion 
Matthew has two paragraphs concerning ' following' Jesus Clu-ist, 
ch. viii. 19, 20 ; to which Luke adds a third, ch. ix. 61, 62 [« Let 
me first go bid them farewell which are at home — ^No man having 
put his hand to the plough," etc.J. So likewise the former Evan- 
gelist has two paragraphs or clauses, viz. concerning ' bread,' and 
concerning " a fish," ch. vii. 9, 10 : the latter EvangeHst adds a 
third, viz. that concerning an ' egg,' ch. xi. 12.^ 

37. noD, where) Where shall that occur, which is described in 
ver. 34, 35 ? — hirov, where) The Lord indicates, by a periphrasis, 
the where, when He is now interrogated as to the calamities about 
to come, just as in ver. 21 He had answered on the question as to 
" the kingdom." — [rl aSii/^a, the body) The whole Jewish nation, as- 
sepibled at Jerusalem on the feast of Passover. — o/' ami, the eagles) 
The Romans. — V. g.] 


1. As xa!, moreover also) as regards the preparation for those 
things about to come to pass. Comp. ver. 8. — ir^Js rh) that is to 
say, as concerns that all-important subject, prayer. — iravTon, always) 
night and day ; ver. 7. — «poei\i-xi(s6ai, to pray) Two parables treat 
of prayer : the one here, in ver. 1, et seqq. ; and the second in ver. 
9, et seqq. The first teaches us to unlearn (overcome, lay aside) 
indolent faintness ; the second, to unlearn confidence in ourselves : 
two extremes deserving to be noted. For the words, kyxaxuv, to be 
Jaint or indolent, and ntimiMrag Jp' laMroTg, i.e. self-confidence, in a 
bad sense, are mutually opposed, ver. 1, 9 ; even as confidence or 
trust, in a good sense, 2 Cor. iii. 4 (wiiroUnciv 'ix"!''^'' ^"^ '""" ^P'"^'" 
■jTfhs rhv @s6v), and to faint, 2 Cor. iv. 1 (oOx lyxaxoij/ji^iv), Eph. iii. 

' Da6o Vulg. Syr. support ver. 36 here in Luke xvii. But ABQ, and most 
Uncial MSS. and Memph. Version, omit it. — E. and T. 

ir,S ST LUKE XVIIl. 2-7. 

12, 13, are mutually opposed.— /i)i syxaxih, not to faint) The crjf 
of the elect (tuv ^owvtuv), ver. 7, is in consonance with this not- 
fainting. An example in point occurs, ver. 39 [the blind man near 

2. @ih — avSpoi'Trov, God — man) 'Eegard' to one or other of these 
two, God or else man, is certainly wont to influence most men, and 
to restrain judges from injustice (ver 6, "the Mw^Msi judge," lit. "the 
judge of injustice," o -/.pirns rng aBixiai). — //,ri <pol3oufiivog) We are 
wont pBiTadai, to fear, the power of others ; and hrpivis6ai, to have 
regard to, or reverence for, the estimation of others.^ 

3. X.i)pa, a widow) one who is easily exposed to injury, and can- 
not readily find protection among men. Such doth the Church ap- 
pear to the world. — hhlxriaov) Hence the expression used in ver. 7 
is ixbUnan. 'Avt!Six.os and a5;x/a are conjugates. — avndixou, adversary) 
1 Pet. V. 8. 

4. 'Ev iavTSi, within himself) of his own accord. — rh, x.r.X.) The 
creed of an Atheist in power. 

5. 'EnSixfisai aiirriv, I will avenge her) for My own sake. — i^w- 
ma^j), lest she beat me black and blue^) An hyperbole suitable to 
the character of the unjust and impatient judge. Refer to this verb 
the words iig reXog. For Ip^o/j-evr} is as it were vapiKxov (redundant), 
which might be omitted, and yet the idea of the sentence remain 
intact and entire ; the employment of it, however, imparts to the 
language sweetness and characteristic feeling, etc. [See Append, 
on " Moratus Sermo."] The importunity of the widow in seeking 
help waxed greater and greater. 

6. eJVe, said) after having interposed a proper (requisite) pause, 
for the purpose of sharpening the attention of His hearers. 

7. Qehg, God) Who is a most righteous Judge. — -Trotriari djv IxSixrieiv, 
effect the avenging of) These words are presently after repeated with 
the greatest force. — rSv sxXexrSiv avrcv, of His own elect) He is speak- 
ing of those elect in particular [besides the general truth taught by 
the parable] who were living at that time, and who were about to 
escape safe through the destruction of the city. — ISouvrm, who cry) 

1 ABDLA so write the word ; and not (, as Rec. Text. — E. 

2 In the earlier age of pure Greek, hrpimfiai was construed with the Genitive 
of the person ; but from the age of Plutarch downwards, with the Accusative of 
the person. — E. and T. 

' "Lest she weary me." ' T'Trama.^eiu, Th. vtuvix, the part beneath the eye: 
hence to give a black eye ; as Latin, sugillo from sub cilia. Metaphorically, to 
tease or weary. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVni. 8. 169 

as being in great straits, to ask for their being avenged. [As beinw 
destitute of every other aid. This was the sacred anchor of David 
Ps. Iv. 17, 18. — V. g.] — [ii/i'spas ■'iat i/uxros, day and night) They 
severally cry night and day ; but the cry of all, taken collectively, is 
undoubtedly altogether continuous, and never ceaseth. — V. g.]-^ 
/j.a,xpoh/iiT) A striking reading [which, though the margin of the 
larger Edition judged it to be the inferior reading, is notwithstanding 
preferred to the other reading by the Germ. Version, which follows 
the margin of the Second Ed. — E. B.^] Any one may readily per- 
ceive the force of the construction (involved) in it : The elect cry to 
God, but God /j,ax,po8v/MT, bears long (delays the answer long), in 
their case (respecting them). The verb of the former member of the 
sentence in the text passes into the participle ISotivTm, who cry ; whilst 
the verb of the other member, f/,a,xpo8u//-iT, bears long (delays His pur- 
pose long), remains unmoved. I haVe brought together several 
examples of this construction, which has been assailed by many in all 
quarters, in my note on Mark iii. 27. Moreover in this passage 
there is commended that long-suffering [long tarrying in executing 
His purpose] on the part of God, whereby He regards both the 
wrongs done by the wicked and the sufferings of the saints in such a 
way (comp. Is. Ixiv. 11, 12) [Ps. Ixxxiii. 1, 2] as that He does not 
immediately make an end of both, although men think that His 
wrath against the wicked and His compassion towards the saints 
require a most speedy end to be made. At length there is accom- 
plished that which is said of the just, Sir. xxxv. 22 (Al. xxxii. 18), 
o\ibi /ifj /laxpoSv/Ztfiesi ii^ aurois Kparaiog. 

8. 'El/ Tdx,si) He will both "effect the avenging of His elect," and 
effect it speedily. — tXiji/ 6 T'lhg rotj avSpuiVou iX6i)ii apa ivp'/jgei rrin itisriv 
iirl Trig yrn ; nevertheless when the Son of man shall come, whether 
shall ITe find faith on the earth ?) ■jrXfiv, nevertheless, it is not so mucli 
the prayers of the pious (inasmuch as their faith, which evinces itself 
in their ' crying,' shall be reduced to a marvellous paucity and small- 
ness) as the goodness and justice of God, which wiU accelerate the 
consummation. The -TrXriv, nevertheless, and the apa, num [an interro- 
gative which expects an answer in the negative], have great nkg 
(characteristic feeling and graphic power) ; the negative assertion 
being modified and tempered by the interrogative form of the sen- 
tence. For He shall come, before that the faith of the godly utterly 

' ABDQLX read //.eexpohfui ; Vulg. "patientiam habebit;'" Rec. Text, 
uxupoSvftau, with abc. — E. and T. 

170 ST LUKE XVIII. 9. 

fails. He does not declare that faith shall be universal ; nor does He 
say that faith shall have been utterly at an end on the earth, replete 
as it shall be with iniquities and calamities, inasmuch as faith had 
not utterly ceased upon it even at the time of the flood, Heb. xi. 7. 
It was deemed [by God] right that there should be persons who 
should receive the Messiah, at His first coming, with faith : Luke i. 
17 [It was John the Baptist's office accordingly " to make ready a 
people prepared for the Lord"] ; much more therefore will it be 
deemed right that there should be believers, to whom He is hereafter 
to come, having been long expected by them [Ps. Ixxii. 5, 6, 7, 17] ; 
Matt. xxiv. 31, xxiii. 39, xxv. 1, et seqq. ["Five wise" were found 
when He came] ; 2 Thess. i. 10 ; 1 Thess. iv. 17 ; 1 Cor. xv. 51 ; 
Heb. ix. 28 ; Rev. xxii. 20. — o T'lhg mu avSpd'Trou, the Son of man) to 
Whom the judgment has been assigned, John v. 22, 27. — iXSiis, 
when the Son of man shall come) from heaven. For the antithesis, 
on the earth, follows. From the verb ivp^gn, shall He find, the par- 
ticiple iX6i)\i has the force of a future : and He is speaking of His 
coming to avenge His saints : 2 Thess. i. 8 : that is to say, He is 
speaking of His coming visibly for the last judgment ; as the appel 
lation, " Son of man," leads us to infer. Comp. ch. xvii. 24, 20.- 
ihpfian, shall He find) Comp. ch. vii. 9 [Jesus as to the centurion, 
" I have not found so great faith," viz. though looking for it], — 
rriv m'arn) the faith, whereby the godly trust in the Lord, and cry to 
Him. The hope of better times is neither confirmed nor discouraged 
(weakened) by this declaration. The worst of all times, and that 
most full of careless security, shall succeed to the better times,— a 
time most widely removed from (most alien to) faith, a time running 
on to the very coming of the Son of man. 

9. Kal itfdi Tivas, also to certain persons) Previously He had 
spoken to the disciples, exhorting them to perseverance in prayer: 
now He deters certain persons from rashness and perverse self-con- 
fidence. — vinroiUrag i(p iavToTg,who trusted in themselves) in themselves, 
not in the grace of God, when praying ; ver. 10. The antithesis is 
TiHTiv, faith, which has respect to God, ver. 8. So 'rsmhv siri rfi 
dlxa-ioamri aurou, Ezek. xxxiii. 13, Lxx. — on, that) For the very ques- 
tion at issue turns upon that, who in prayer is to be counted 
righteous [the self-justiciary, or he who stands righteous by faith'].— 
dixaioi) righteous, needing no justification, ver. 14. The antithesis is 
7-ffl a/4oefTwXt», " me, the sinner," ver. 13. — s^ouhvoZvTag, who made no- 
thing of, despised) accounting them unrighteous [as compared with 
themselves]. — rovg Xoiioii, the rest of men) all and each : ver. 11. 

ST LUKE XVIII. 10-12. 171 

10. 'Aii^risav, went up) from their own houses, ver. 14. The 
temple was upon an elevation. Comp. the xari^ri, went down, ver. 
14. [Truly one single going (to the house of God) is very frequently 
of^;he greatest moment. — V. g.] — vpogeu^aeSai, to pray) In prayer, 
which has been the subject heretofore discussed from ver. 1, the 
whole state of the soul is brought out in exercise. — ^apisaTog, riXmrn, 
a Pharisee., a Publican) A striking sample of both classes. 

11. ^rahlg, standing^) confidently, in his wonted place. This re- 
ciprocal form [having taken his stand, having stationed himself^ 
denotes more than the neuter igroig, used of the publican presently 
after, in ver. 13. — vphg iavrov) praying as one dependent on himself 
(" penes se ipsum," at his own disposal), giving ear to himself, as 
though he could bear no man to be next him. Comp. in ver. 9, 
TimiSoTag Ip' sauroig, "who trusted in themselves." — lu^apierSi, I give 
thee thanks) By using this formula the Pharisee seems indeed to 
praise God [For it is with good reason, and deservedly, that thanks 
are rendered to God for deliverance from natural (temporal) de- 
struction, if indeed that be done with truth and humility. — V. g.], 
but in reality he congratulates (prides) himself alone on his felicity : 
it is of himself alone that he speaks. — o'l Xoim!, the rest of men) The 
Pharisee divides mankind into two classes : in the one class he 
groups together the whole human race ; the second, that is the better 
class, he seems to himself alone to constitute. — ap'jrayig, rapacious 
[extortioners]) He takes it as an established certainty, that the first 
and foremost class of sinners is that one under which he thinks the 
publican is included ; in order that he may stigmatize him both in 
general with the rest of the class and also individually. The saying 
of the old poet accords with this : icdnsg reXSimi, itamg ileh apwayig, 
all publicans (tax-gatherers) are all extortioners. See Gataker, Misc. 
posth. c. X. — ouros, this) Such language is indeed " the putting forth 
of the finger " [to point at in supercilious contempt and self-right- 
eousness] : Is. Iviii. 9. 

12. Snenhoi, I fast) The Pharisee boastingly shows that he is 
righteous towards God by his present prayers ; and in relation to 
himself, by fasting: and towards other men, by paying tithes, etc. — 
dig, twice) on the second and fifth days of the week (Monday and 
Thursday). — tou 2a/3/3arou, the Sabbath, literally) i.e. the week. 
Synecdoche [a part of the week put for the whole]. — tuvto, Sea, all 
things whatsoever) He boasts of his possessions. 

^ Comp. Isa. liv. 5, "Who say, Stand by thyself, come not near to mej for 
I am holier than thou." — E. and T. 

172 ST LUKE XVIII. 13, U. 

13. Udxpokv, from a distance, afar off) not presuming to draw near. 
—isriig) Neither erakk (ver. 11), taking his stand (confidently), nor 
falling on his knees, lest he should be looked at in praying. — oifavh, 
heaven) In the case of repentance, either fear is the predominant feel- 
ing, or else shame. Shame is a more ingenuous feeling than fear : ch. 
XV. 18, 21 (the prodigal son) ; Ezek. xvi. 52.^ Better it is when the 
heart is melted and softened, than when it is merely bruised and 
broken with terror and the fear of punishment. The particles, 
after the rock has been bruised into sand, retain their previous hard- 
ness ; whereas the heart of flesh, which has been made out of a heart 
of stone, pleases God, as being His own work, and in a greater 
degree gives glory to Him. — 'inim]!, was smiting) [continued smit- 
ing] through grief of mind. Where there is grief, there is a hand [to 
smite one's self in self-reproach, as Ephraim when repentant, " After 
that I was instructed, I smote upon my thigh"], Jer. xxxi. 19. — 
arn^og, breast) The seat of the conscience. — iXdeSriTi /io/, he propitious 
to me [propitiated towards me]) He does not dare to make mention 
of God and of himself in immediate connection. His trust was in 
the Divine mercy. [This same form of expression is used both by 
true penitents and by hypocrites. In fact, these latter steal from 
Scripture the services of words ; and when they fall upon formulas 
much noted in Scripture, they seek " refages of lies" in them, how- 
ever utterly alien they may be to the very power and spirit of them. 
It is thus that they make their plea the dying thief (robber) seeking 
grace at the last hour ; as also Paul " glorying in his infirmity." — 
V. g.] — rffl ai/tapraXifj) to me, who am the sinner? He thinks of no 
other man save himself. 

14. E/'s rh oTxov, to his house [home]) whether in the parable his 
house be supposed to have been at Jerusalem, or in that locality 
where the parable was uttered. Comp. as to returning to one's own 
house [Mary], ch. i. 56. — ^wip Iximg) Otherwise it is read ri inemg? 

■I And 63, " That thou mayest remember and be confounded, and never open 
thy mouth any more because of thy shame, when I am pacified toward thee for all 
that thou hast done, saith the Lord God." — E. and T. 

2 So Beng. translates it unequivocally in the Vers. Germ. : " Gott, sey 
versuhnet mir dam sunder." Alford is rather too rashly dogmatic in denying 
this force of r$. So as to i'ha.aSnri, as if " no doctrinal meaning could be " in it. 
Had the Jews no idea of propitiation in their sacrifices ? — E. and T. 

" Tisch. reads jj yxp exslvos, with APQXA and later Syr. Cyprian and be 
have " magis (omitted by b) quam ille Pharisseus." Lachm. has ■Trap' ixehon, 
with BL Memph, Origen. D has fioKKav icap ecUuuov too ^mpiaecioi/ : and so the 
Syr. Version : a, " prae ilium Pharisseum :" Vulg. " ab illo." — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XVUI. 16-31. 173 

In either case f^aXXov is to be understood, as in ch. xv. 7 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 
19. The Pharisee was not justified at all ; for he srairum^T], was 

15. Kal ra fipi<pn) also infants. Therefore they hereby recognised 
(acknowledged) the humanity of Jesus. [These things occurred 
beyond Jordan, on His journey towards Jerusalem : Matt. xix. 1, 

16. UpoffxaXegd/jiivog, having called to Him) the more on that 
account [because the disciples had ' rebuked' them], and with a gra- 
cious tone of voice and expression of countenance. — a!)T&, them) 
Great condescension : comp. ver. 19. With good reason [as best 
exemplifying it Himself] He recommends ' humility' to us in ver. 

17. Uaidiov, a little child) A iraibiov, or little child, has already 
somewhat of the use of his reason, so as to be able to receive, bi^ae^ai 
(" the kingdom of God") ; but the /3f epos, an infant, expresses even 
a lower degree, which is suited to the touch of the Saviour, ver. 15, 
16. [The fellowship of the kingdom of heaven consists for the most 
part of little children. — V. g.] 

18. " hpx'^h c-f^ler) and that ruler a youth. Matt. 19, 20. [It 
was not so much the dignity of his rank, as his personal wealth, that 
influenced him, a young man though he was (whose besetting sin 
is not usually love of money), to draw te,ck from the Saviour. — V. g.] 

20. T//ia, honour) even though thou art a ruler : ver. 18. 

22. AidSog) distribute, thyself. To do so is wont to impart great 
joy to the godly. 

[23. XlipiX-o-Troi ly'evsTo, he was much saddened [very sorrowfdl]) The 
rich Zaccheus obtained what was much better in his joy {i.e. by his 
joyfully receiving Christ, than the rich ruler did by going away from 
Him in sorrow), ch. xix. 6. — V. g.] 

27. Awara, possible) An example of the possibility is afforded in 
the case of Zaccheus, ch. xix. 2, 9. 

30. ' AmXdISri, who shall not receive). — TunipS), time, season) This 
expresses something more near at hand, than if He had said aluvi, 
world, age, as in the succeeding member of the sentence. 

31. napaXa^oiiv, having taken to Him) in private : Matt. xx. 17. — 
wdvTu ra yiypaf/./iiva, all things that are written) Jesus made of the 
utmost consequence those things which had been written. The 
Word of God, which is in Scripture, is the rule of all the things 
which shall come to pass, even of the things which shaU come to 
pass in the life eternal. — rifj) The Dative expresses the force of '? 

174 ST LUKE XVIII. 32-43.-XIX. 1, 3. 

prefixed, i.e. " as concerns the Son of man :" and there is included 
the notion of the Dativus commodi. See the end of ver. 33.* 

32. ''Kij.'Kwx^neirai, He shall be mocked) in jeering sport (being 
made game of). — i^pieS^siTai, He shall be loaded with insults) in 
deliberate earnest. 

34. Ka^, xa), xal, and, and, and) An ascending climax. — H prj/aa, 
TovTo, this saying) put forth by the Lord. — oix iyimaxov) they did not 
perceive the meaning of (recognise and acknowledge) ; they shrunk 
back in horror from it, as something strange and unheard of : so in 
Eom. vii. 15, " For that which I do, ou yivdJaxoi, I do not recognise," 
as good (" I allow not," Engl. Vers.) They felt conscious that some- 
thing disagreeable was being spoken. Matt. xvi. 22 ; but they did 
not in that consciousness go forward to the point, to which they 
ought to have gone. 

[35. TupXo's Tig, a certain blind man) concerning whose companion 
see the note on Matt. xx. 30. — V. g.J 

36. ToZto, this) viz. this great crowd. 

38. Til Aaul8, Son of David) The faith of the blind man is not 
ofiended, because the Saviour was called " Jesus of JVazareth." 

[39. noXXp /ji,&XXov, so much the more) It is good to repel, in this 
way, interruptions of every kind (in our coming to Jesus). — ^V. g.] 

43. 'l&iiv, having seen) the miracle wrought by Jesus ; as also having 
seen the holy joy of the man, on whom sight had been bestowed. 


1. Airipx^'^") was passing through) Therefore Zaccheus must have 
lived in the farther part of the town, and that tree was in the town 

2. ' Ap^ireXuvng, a chief among the publicans) A person very high 
in position among people of his own class ; and one whose example, 
in being converted, it is probable that many followed. — wXoigios, rich) 
Through this rich man's example the eviP is remedied, which an- 
other rich man had caused by his example : ch. xviii. 23. 

' "He shall rise again." This was written for the Son of man— for His 
glory.— E. and T. 

2 The confusion of ideas, whereby many might think riches presented an insu- 
perable barrier to entrance into, heaven : see ch. xviii. 26, 27. Therefore Beng. 
uses the expression turbdrat in the following clause : « Quod exemplum suo tur- 
barat dives alius." — B. and T. 

ST LUKE XIX. 3-9. I75 

3. Et,riTei, he was seeking) Therefore he had known Jesus before by- 

4. npodpa/ji,iiv, having run on before) with great eagerness. — (ii/£/3jj, 
he climbed up) External etiquette and manners would not allow a 
man of rank to climb up into a tree ; but faith conquers every other 
consideration. — suno/jiopiav, a sycamore) The sycamore, a tree of a 
nature standing midway between a fig-tree and a mulberry tree ; a 
tree which grows to a great height. Com'p. ch. xvii. 6, note. — 
Uehni) viz. o3oD, x"?"s. There is an ellipsis of 81a, as in ch. v. 19, 
where see the note. Some have supplied the did? 

5. Za%-)(a.7i, Zaccheus) Zaccheus could not but both have wondered 
and rejoiced at his being thus addressed by name. — sij/iipov, to-day) 
See ver. 9. — o/'xw, at thy house) See again ver. 9. — diT/^e, I must) for 
the sake of thy salvation. See ver. 10. 

7. ndtireg SisyoyyvZov, they all began murmuring) rather from a 
doubt [as to the propriety of His proceeding] as concerns the greater 
portion of them [i.e. as distinguished from " the Pharisees and the 
Scribes"], than with a feeling of indignation. [Comp. ch. xv. 2. — 
V. g.J — eiSTjXh, He went in) and that, too, of His own accord, engag- 
ing Himself to be the guest of a publican, a thing which on other 
occasions He was not wont to do. [This act is going even yet fiu:- 
ther than the act of eating with sinners in the way which is men- 
tioned in ch. XV. 2, 5, 30. — V. g.] 

8. Srahk, taking his stand, standing forth) [See note on ch. xviii. 
11] with deliberate and ready mind. — rA nt^ien) The Plural. So the 
iiXX., Josh. xiii. 31 [ro/j ri/x,iei(sn >jio7f\. — Jcuxopaiirjjtfa, Ihave defrauded 
[" by false accusation"]) An ingenuous confession, accompanied with 
voluntary restitution. — [firpa.'jrXouv, fourfold) according to the law. 
For Zaccheus was an Israelite, as appears from ver. 9. His Hebrew 
name is in accordance with this view. — V. g.] 

9. Uphs) to him : and yet not directly [" in reference to him"]. 
Comp. the use of irphg in Rom. x. 21 [^pog de t6v 'lepaifk Xsyei, " but 
(in reference) to Israel He saith"].— ff^iUSfOK, this day) There may 
be hereby denoted the day on which a man, who was heretofore 
lost, begins to be one of Christ's own people. See Phil. i. 5 [" Your 
fellowship in the Gospel from the first day until now"] ; Acts ii. 41, 
xvi. 34. Comp. John iv, 52. — mr/ipla, salvation) So in ver. 10, 
sZdai, to save. The word accords with the meaning of the name 
Jesus, [God-Saviour']. — o7;<w, to this house) which had been lately in 

' Rec. Text has 5/ Uiii>ns : a has " per ilia parte." But ABQ have imiunt 
only : be " iM parte :" Vulg. and d, ' inde.' — E. and T. 

176 ST LUKE XIX. 10-13. 

bad repute. For the most part, the faith of the'head of a family is 
followed by the members of the household. — oilrog) himself, the chief 
person of the house.— u/'^s 'AjSpa^fi,, a son of Abraham) as even the 
Hebrew name of Zaccheus shows. 

10. Ti a-zoXcaXbg, that which was lost) Viz. which had been lost 
(undone), both in the way of a loss negatively (' amissionem,' a 
losing by carelessness or inadvertence) and in the way of positive 
destruction (•' interituin,' death, ruin). For the participle aitoXwXig 
[that which was both lost and destroyed] corresponds to the two 
verbs, ^tirrjsai %ai eugai, to seek and to save. It was for this purpose 
that the Saviour came to the sinner, to his house. 

11. Upoekli she, He added and spake) Therefore the parabJe 
which follows has a most close connection with the preceding in- 
cidents ; as also with what follows, ver. 28. — doxsTii, on account of 
their thinking) The Hebrews think that the Messiah will collect 
together in Galilee the brethren scattered in the world, and wiU 
lead them to the city of Jerusalem, as the seat of His kingdom 
that He will thus commence His reign, and will much frequent the 
Mount of OKves. The aspect of things at that time was not unUke 
this. [Nor was their opinion erroneous in itself; but they formed 
their conception of the event rather out of the due season for it. — 
V. g.] The Lord teaches them the true judgment which they 
ought to form. See ver. 27, 41. — avapalvigSai, to make its appear- 
ance) in a manifest and visible manner on earth and in the city, 
and this without the agency of human power. 

12. Eiyivrig, noble) Truly the nobility of Jesus was the highest 
nobility of all. Whereas they at the time did not suppose that He 
had as much ' authority' as He gave even to BUs servants. See 
ver. 17. [We may conclude, from the close connection of the dis- 
course in Luke with what immediately precedes, that this parable 
is distinct from that which is recorded in Matt. xxiv. 14 ; Mark 
xiii. 34. — Harm,, p. 437.] — /iax^di/, a, far off) viz. in heaven. — XajSf/V, 
that He might take [receive]) as if an Itahan nobleman should seek, 
in the Emperor's court in Germany, the sovereignty over his fellow- 
countrymen. — laMTSi) for (to) Himself, by His own power. — fiasiXsiav, 
a kingdom) To this refer the fSaeiXiudai, reign, in ver. 14 : see also 
ver. 15, 27. — umeTpi-J^ai, that he might return) viz. from heaven, to 
His servants. See ver. 15. 

1 3. Asxa, ten) To the several servants a pound' a-piece. — •r^ay- 

1 Mina, strictly L.4, Is, 3d. in Attic coinage. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XIX. 14-27. 177 

/iareugagSe, trade with this [Engl. Ver. occupy]) This commandment 
accords in sense with that noted one, yhesk xaXol T^amX^Tai, he 
good bankers (Make the most of your money). — 'ifx"!^".!, I come^ 
" I come," He says ; not, " I return." The second Advent is much 
the more solemn [more attended with outward state and majesty] 
of the two. [Therefore the first Advent is so eclipsed by the second, 
that the latter is not called His return, but His coming.'] 

14. lloX/j-a/, citizens) as the people of Jerusalem were. — l/t/ffoDv, 
conceived a hatred towards Him) See ver. 47. — airseriiXav; sent) after 
His departure. — roDron, tJds fellow) They speak contemptuously. 

15. 'E'TTccviXhTv, when He was returned) This has reference to the 
advent of Christ in glory. — jSagiXilat, the kingdom) the actual go- 
vernment. — <p<iivri6rivai, to be called) by His angels. 

16. 'H /iva eov, thy pound [mina]) The servant ascribes the power 
not to himself, but to the goodness of his Lord. 

17. Aixa, ten) It is not for the one pound (mina) given, but for 
the ten which he had gained, that the reward is given. This im- 
pUes degrees of rewards. Comp. ver. 19. — ttokim, cities) A city is 
the reward for each pound (mina) gained: and yet not even a 
cottage [much less a city] could be purchased for a pound [mina]. 
Great is the grandeur and variety of things in the kingdom of God, 
although they are not yet known to us. 

20. "Eripog, another^) who is contrasted with the two former servants. 
— -Iv) in a napkin, which afibrds no means of reproduction or increase. 

22. 'Ex row erofiaTos eov, out of thine own mouth) To the ungodly, 
the inner principles on which the Divine judgments are based, are 
not disclosed ; but they are convicted in a way merely proportioned 
to their own capabilities of comprehension. 

23. Tpa<!rs^oiv, the counting-table) in our days, the Bank. 

24. JJapedTagiv, unto them that stood by) i.e. the Angels. 

25. Elmv, they said) out of a feehng of admiring astonishment, 
free from envy. 

26. Tap, for) The interruption expressed in ver. 25 is passed by. 

27. 'Ex^povg, enemies) now no longer citizens ; for they had hated 
Him, ver. 14. — ixehovg, those) Join this word with Ix^povg : comp. 
note 1. For iximu;, those, has reference to ver. 14, and from it the 
appellation, enemies, is here inferred.* — It' auroug) The reciprocal 

' And a different character, as enpiis implies. — E. and T. 

' Therefore Utium; is the better reading, supported as it is by Aaic Vulg. 
and D (before rov? fx^poifg). Orig. 3,634c, Lucif. BL Memph. read Toi/Toi/f. 
Lachm. and Rec. Text adopt ixilpov; ; Tisch. tovtovs. — E. and T. 


178 ST LUKE XIX. 28-41. , 

pronoun (" over themselves"). — xaratrp aga«, slay) Implying degrees 
of punishments. Comp. [the case of these enemies with that of the 
unprofitable servant, ver. 24] ver. 26.— £>*fo<r^£i' t^-oM, before me, in 
my presence) A just spectacle. 

28. 'Ava^ahm, ascending up) Going to meet the fulfilment of the 

29. 'ai, as) [when]. The several points of time in His journey are 
accurately noted. So in ver. 36, 37, 41, 45.— 'EXa/25v, of Olives) See 
ver. 37. • 

32. Eufoi', they found) to their joy and the great augmentation ot 
their faith. [They could not have been disappointed in obeying the 
command of Him, their Lord. — Y. g.] 

[33. Auo'vriav, as they were loosing) in public, without having ac- 
costed or asked leave of any man. — V. g.] 

34. 'EJmv, they said) using the same words as they had been com- 
manded to use. 

37. 'Eyyit.ovTog, as He was coming nigh) to the city. — ;^a;>o»ns 
aiviii, with rejoicing to praise) There were joined together hymns 
and rejoicings. 

38. \_AiyovTig, saying) The very prophecy which the Saviour had 
uttered in Gahlee, ch. xiii. 35, was in this place fulfilled. — Harm., 
p. 445.*] — jSaeiXeug, King) It was a noble movement on the part of 
the people [although His external appearance was not kingly. — 
V. g.] ; but yet they did not understand in its deep significance what 
they were saying. Comp. ver. 11, and John xii. 16. — ilpm k 
ohpavif/, peace in heaven) See note, ch. ii. 14.^ 

39. ^apiealav, of the Pharisees) Unseasonable interrupters. [What- 
ever is not common, and of an every-day kind, seems an excess to 
inflated and envious hypocrisy ; but the Divine power knows of no 
opponent that can check it. — Harm., p. 445.] 

40. o; Xi6oi, the stones) When power hath once gone forth fi:om 
God, it does not return without accomplishing its purpose. It is 
wont to find something which it may rouse to act, whatever be 
the objects which come in its way. There were stones in that place. 
— xexpd^ovra,i) The Lxx. translators use this tense of the verb. 

41. 'iSiiv, having beheld) A new step in His approach to the city. 

' But see my note, xiii. 35, which shows that the' full accomplishment of the 
prophecy must be yet future : see below ver. 44, 46. — E. and T. 

* See also note, at the latter end, on Col. i. 20. Angels looked on men with 
displeasure, because of the sin of the latter. Jesus hath ' reconciled ' the former 
to the latter by the atonement, and so there is " peace in heaven." — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XIX. 42-44. I79 

The sight of it moved Him. It was on that very spot afterwards 

that the Eoman siege of the city began. See on Matt. xxiv. 15. 

[inXcnigiv, He wept) Behold before thee the compassionate King, 
amidst the very shouts of joy raised by His disciples ! Jesus weeps 
over Jerusalem, and yet compels no man by force. — (V. g.) But who 
shall endure the sword which proceedeth out of His mouth, when 
He shall appear, borne on the white horse? Kev. xix. 11, etc. — 
Harm., p. 446.] — In' aurjj, [over or] concerning it) not [over or] con 
ceming Himself. Comp. ch. xxiii. 28. 

42. E/) Would that ! ^, which the i^xx. render s/', Josh. vii. 7.— • 
eyvai, thou hadst known) the things which make for (belong unto) 
thy peace. Comp. ver. 44 [where, knowing the time of thy visitation, 
answers to, knowing the things which make for thy peace, here]. — 
xa/ ffu) even thou, thou also, after the example of the disciples, ver. 37. 
— %ai yi) even truly (" at least," Engl. Vers.), as yet [even still], after 
so many acceptable days. — niJ-ipi^ eov, in this thy day) A day altogether 
peculiar and extraordinary. See the end of ver. 44 ; Ps. cxviii. 24 
[" This is the day which the Lord hath made : we will rejoice," etc.] 
— raurj), in this) after so many other days, when thou mightest have 
taken riieasures to ensure thy salvation. — rA) This word depends 
upon eyvtag. — iipijvriv, peace) In antithesis to 01 Ix^poi, enemies, in the 
following verse. [There is included in the idea heavenly peace ; ^ 
comp. ver. 38. — ^V. g.] — sxpv^ri, they have been hidden) also* by the 
just judgment of God. 

43. 'Hfi'ipai) days, which shall be many : because thou dost not 
regard the one day. See ver. 42. — xat, xal, xat, and, and, and) 
Three degrees of the straits to which they would be reduced. — 
gmi^ouei, keep thee in, press hard upon) Titus built a wall round the 
city, and thereby precluded the possibility of egress. 

44. T& Tsxva, eov, thy children) The then existing age is denoted 
by this expression, extending to forty years subsequent, as in ch. 
xxiii. 28 ; Matt. xxiv. 34. — Iv aol, in thee) The people had been col- 
lected together at the time of the Passover, when the city was encom- 
passed. — [xihv I'jrl XiSifi, a stone upon a stone [" one stone upon ano- 
ther"]) even in the very temple of the city. — ^V. g.] — M' uv, because) 
The Jews, as Lightfoot observes, have assigned various causes, 
drawn from various sins, for their city being overthrown ; the true 
cause is in this passage indicated. — [oux 'iymi, thou hast not known) 

' i.e. Peace with heaven. — E. and T. 

• Even as thou knewest not when thou mightest have known, so now, when 
thou wouldest wish, thou canst not know. — E. and T. 

180 ST LUKE XIX. 45-48.-XX. 1-10. 

Kom. X. 19 (" Did not Israel know V) ; nor hast thou even wished 
to know, ch. xiii. 34 (How often would I have gathered thy children, 
etc., and ye would not !). — V. g.] 

45. [Ka/, and) Noble zeal follows close upon His tears.— V. g.]— 
hpb, the temple) the stronghold of religion, where, upon seeing His 
zeal, they ought to have known and acknowledged the things which 
belonged to their peace. 

46. T'eypa'rra.i, it is written) See Matt. xxi. 13, note. 

[47. Aiddexc^v, teaching) This was in the greatest degree becoming 
in the King.— V. g.—xa,^' ^fi'spav, day by day) Wbat a gracious 'visi- 
tation!' [ver. 44.] — V. g.]— ver. 48. i^expi/jfaro) ri di •v}/u%^ avTou 
ixxplfiarai ix r?s roirou -^vx^i, "For his life is hung upon— suspended 
on [Engl. Vers, bound up in]- the life of this" lad. Gen. xliv. 30. 
The assiduity of the people obstructed the approach of His enemies 
to Him. 


1. [AiMexovTog, as He taught) He walked about, taught, and 
preached the Gospel in the temple, as in what was altogether His 
own house. — V. g.] — euv roTg -rrpiaBuTepoic, with the elders) These do 
not recur in ver. 19. 

3. E/Vars, tell ye Me) Answering to eJWok ii/juTv, tell us, in ver. 2. 

6. KaTaXiddeii, will stone) It was not the province of the people 
to stone the priests and scribes when rejecting a prophet, however 
true a one he might be : but often even the perverse zeal of the 
multitude is by accident subservient to a good cause. 

9, "Up^aro, He began) After that the scribes had given Him new 
cause for speaking. — Xahv, the people) who needed to be fortified 
against the cavilling objections of the chief priests ; [as also who 
needed to be fortified against the impending ofPence of His cross. — 
V. g.] — %poDou5 ixavoug, during long periods of time) after the 
people's entrance into the land of Canaan ; [from which event down 
to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans was a period of more 
than 1500 years. — ^V. g.J 

10. 'El/ xaipip, at the proper season) viz. of the fruits. — ddpawigj 
having beaten) An ascending climax : having beaten, here ; having 
beaten and insulted [" entreated shamefully"], in ver. 11 ; and having 

ST LUKE XX. 11-20, 181 

iBOunded, in ver. 12. Such as is exhibited also in i^amgmXav, they 
sent away, in both ver. 10 and 11, and Jff/3aXov, they cast out, in 
ver. 12. 

11. Tlpoeshro •jTE/i-vf/a;) A Hebraism often found in the lxx. 

13. "Itfws) "lacog occurs once in the New Testament, and once in 
the LXX. for IS, 1 Sam. xxv. 21. It denotes, humanly speaking, 
an opinion, conjecture, or hope, which might reasonably be enter- 
tained (as also profane authors employ "eug for per chance, it may be 
that) ; in the present case there is signified the altogether wise fi-ank 
ness (sincerity) of the Divine goodness. 

14. AiyovTic, saying) The Scripture in weighty and true language 
expresses (portrays) the actual and real mind of men, which they 
themselves often do not think to be so bad as it is. Comp. ver. 16 
[They said, " God forbid"]. God, who estimates things by the 
truth, and men, who habitually flatter themselves, wei^ sins in 
very different scales. — amxTilmfi^ev, let us kill) Ch. xix. 47. 

16. Mri yivoiTo) So the LXX. render the Hebrew npvn. They 
mean to say this. Far be it from us, God forbid, that we should kill 
the heir. Comp. the following verse, and John xii. 34.' [Fre- 
quently it happens that men refuse to acknowledge as in them that 
degree of wickedness which God upbraids them with. — ^V. g.J 

17. 'E^/3Xs4/as, having looked stedfastly upon them) in order to 
whet (stimulate) the attention of their minds respecting their own 
selves. The accent or tone, the gesture, and the expression of 
countenance, often render the force of the words more expressive. — 
yiyfafifitivov, which is written) See Matt. xxi. 42, note. 

18. ''Exuvov) that great stone, of which the prediction had been 
given long ago in the Psalm. 

19. 'Ev axirfi Tr\ upcf, in the same hour) The hatred against Him 
increasing in violence. Comp. ch. xix. 47. — xal spo^^Srigav) xa,l, but 
[and yei\, they feared. — yap, for) Refer this, for, to iZfirnaav, " they 
sought to lay hands on Him." — -irpog auroi)s, in reference to themselves) 
against themselves. 

20. [Aixaioui iTmi, to he just men) As if they were asking the 
question under distress of mind on a point of conscience. He who 
has a concern for conscience on the point, in actual fact carries away 
with him a clear reply. — V. g.J — Xoyov) The same case follows 

1 Comp. John vii. 20 : " Who goeth about to kill thee," with the, « God for- 
bid" here.— E. andT. 

182 , ST LUKE XX. 21-36. 

the verb in ver. 26, p^/iaro;.' — r?) apx^) to the power of the Jewish 
rulers, and afterwards to Pilate. 

21, 'Op6u;, rightly) rigidly, with any bending of the truth [to suit 
a purpose]. 

[27. ' AvTi-k'syovrec, who deny) The truth is the most ancient : error 
is a new and upstart contradiction raised against it ; although from 
time to time those in error esteem their own opinion to be even the 
' more ancient. — V. g.] 

[28. The reading s^avaer^gsi is to be preferred. Very often after 
a Subjunctive comes an Indicative. See the LXX., Deut. xx. 5, /n] 
tt'TroSdvf] h tSj •TToXs/Lui xal erspos iyxaiviii' auTfiv, — Not. Crit. j 

31. Kai 01 Wra, the seven also) that is to say, the rest of the 

34. O; \iki rou- aiZvog Tourou, the children of t/iis world) who are 
subject to the law of mortality ; not even all the pious being ex- 
cepted, [who are not now as yet such as they shall be. — ^V. g.] The 
antithesis is, the children of God (viol — ©sou), in ver. 36. 

35. Ka,Ta^iu6ivrsg, who are accounted worthy) Truly a great dignity 
conferred. So ch. xxi. 36 [/Va xaTa^iuSriri, " that ye may he accounted 
worthy to escape all these things — and to stand before the Son of 
man"]. — roD aiSivog Jxe/vou, xa/ rrig avocerafftcagj that world, and the 
resurrection) Therefore even before the resurrection an entrance is 
given into that world. — Ix vsyipuv, out from the dead) All shall rise 
again ; but the godly shall rise again out from among the ungodly.' 
As to these latter, there is not preached and declared the resurrection, 
but a more profound death of the soul conjoined with the body. So 
Acts iv. 2.^ 

36. 0\m, neither) They have a body so perfect, that they are 
subject neither to the law of marriage nor to death, which gave 
occasion to the succession of brothers in thehaving to wife the one 

' 'ExA«^./3asO|£4«; governs the Genit. always, expressing the part of the thing 
laid hold of. So ei'jrToft.a.i, and other such verbs expressing touch or hold.—R. 

2 A reads l^asaefTijffE;. But the other best Uncial MSS. and Vulg., etc., read 
il.xucttrrm^. The former may have come through the Harmonies from Matt. 
xxii. 24, dvomriiau. Indie. In the parallel in Mark the authorities are divided 
between the Indie, and Subj. as here. — E. and T. 

' In reference to which fact, the term ii,avaaTiMis is used by Paul (not merely 
d.i/a.<noi.ais), Phil. iii. 11, to express his great hope. E. and T. 

■• Tj)* ivaaraaiD rriii ex, iitxpau. However the word resurrection, duauTaaiv, is 
applied to the unjust as well as to the just, Acts xxiv 16, though not with the 
addition, ex i/supuu, out from the dead. — B. and T 

ST LUKE XX. 37-41. IRS 

woman. That shall be a state more firm and lasting than the 
Adamic state. — ledyycXoi yap, for they are like [equal to] the angels) 
An jiEtiology (see Append, on this figure), assigning the reason 
why there shall then be no marriages. — vlot rou &eo\J, sons of God) 
Equally as aore the angels. — r^s avoi,STa.aiai) of the resurrection, 
which comprehends tmder it immortality. An antithesis to die 
{amiavini), and an instance of the figure Ploce.-' — on-sg) Eesolve this 
into, inasmuch as they are. 

37. Kal Mcaffris) Not merely the rest of the prophets, but even 
Moses. — Xsyei, calleth) In writing out the words of God, speaking 
concerning Himself. 

38. TldvTis, all) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all of whom 
God is the God, but who are dead to men. To men they are dead ; 
whereas to Him, aur^, viz. God, they live. — yap, for) This is the 
very kind of conclusion in which the particle therefore (inferential) 
might have been expected. But instead of it, for is put down, as 
in Eom. iii, 28.^ The for is used in this sense : Argumentation has 
been employed [proof has been adduced] : ' for' this was the point 
of the truth which needed to be demonstrated. — aurffl, to Him) To 
God, not to mortals. Moreover, they so live to God, as to enjoy 
God [1 Pet. iv. Q]. — ZSim) all live, viz. with the soul : and so they 
shall live with soul and body. The whole time of the soid being 
separated firom the body is, as it were, a moment in relation to the 
union which was originally intended, and which is destined to last 
for ever : also in relation to God, to whom things future are not 
in the least remote, nay, are most present and immediate : tRom. 
iv. 17 [" God — calleth those things which be not as though they 

39. KaXws isvag, Thou hast well said) On this ground also, as well 
as on others, the truth should be freely spoken, because, though 
(when) it ofiends some, 'it however is approved of by others. 

[41. Tlaig Xiyovei, how (in what sense) say they) viz. Commentators, 
Doctors. — ^V. g.] 

' See Append. A word employed twice, once to express the simple meaning, 
and afterwards an attribute of it. ' AumrTcttris first simply, then including im- 
mortality in it. — E. and T. 

* This seems to me a misprint, though it is found both in the Quarto 
Edition of 1759, and the modern Ed. of Steudef. For in Rom. iii. 28, the in- 
ferential particle ovu is employed, not yap, which Bengel's argument requires, 
trobably it should be Rom. ii. 28, ou yeip h r^ Cpamp^ 'lovhaio; imiii, etc., "For 
he is not a Jew who is one outwardly," etc. ; where ou», therefore, might have 
been expected. — E. and T. 

1K4 ST LUKE XX. 42-16.-XXI. 1-7. 

42. 'Ev ^lj3x<fi 4aX/iSv, in the book of the Psalms) Therefore at 
that time already, and long before, the Psalms were read in a col- 
lected form, constituting one complete body or work. 

[45. navris i-ou XaoD, all the people) To give public warning 
against dangerous men, is a duty in the highest degree necessary 
to be discharged. — V. g.J 

[46. eaovTuv, who wish) Often a thing, not bad in itself, is vitiated 
by the wish and intent with which it is done. — V. g.J 


1. ' Ava^Xi-^as, having looked up) from His hearers to others. 
[Whatever thou mayest do, Jesus looks at thee also, and at thy 
action, and the intention with which thou doest it. — ^V. g.J 

2. T;v(i xa! %^/'aK) He saw a certain woman, and her too a widow. 

[3. 'AXriduig, of a truth, in real fact) Luke very frequently coin- 
cides with Mark; but Mark loves Hebrew modes of expression 
more than Luke does. Luke employs the Greek aXri^Sig more 
frequently than the Hebrew afi^v. So the rest of the Evangehsts 
are liberal in their employment of the term Rabbi, which Luke 
never uses. As Paul was the Apostle of the Gentiles ; so Luke, 
the companion of Paul, had especial regard to the Gentiles in his 
writings. — Harm., p. 474.J 

5. ' Ava6ri/ia,Bi, dedicatory offerings) .There were various precious 
memorials dedicated to it for ever. See Josephus. [Such are in 
our day, for instance, banners, monumental slabs, and other things 
of the kind, which are wont to be hung up and erected in temples 
(churches). — ^V. g.J 

6. TaCra, these things) The Subject. The Predicate follows, 
which is subdivided into Subject and Predicate. These things are 
of such a kind, that the days are coming when, etc. So the LXX., 
2 Kings i. 4 : ^ xX/nj l<p rig kve/Sjis h%iT, oD xarafSrigp anf aur^s, the bed 
upon which thou hast ascended there (the Nominative pendent form- 
ing the subject), thou shalt not go down from it [the predicate ; 
subdivided into subject and predicatej. 

7. Olv, therefore) A particle expressing astonishment, combined 
with assent. — cri/tiToy, sign) Both parts of the answer meet the 
question concerning the sign ; ver. 11, 25. 

ST LUKE XXI. 8-12. 185 

8. 'O xaiphs ^yyixc, the time draweth near [hath drawn near]) viz. 
the time of the Messiah. The thing itself in the thesis (the general 
proposition) is true. Mark i. 15 [" The time is fulfilled, and the 
kingdom of God is at hand"]. The true Messiah has many charac- 
teristic marks, one of which is, the true time, to wit of both Advents. 
But false Messiahs and impostors boastingly alleged a false time 
for Jerusalem being ennobled by the setting up of the kingdom 
of Grod, at the very time when destruction was about immediately 
to assail it : ver. 24. 

9. noXe^ous, wars) amongst equals. — axa,Ta<STOialag, [Engl. Vers. 
' commotions'] seditions) of inferiors against superiors, and intestine 
divisions, whereby the xardgTccais, established constitution, of states is 
swept away. These are the preludes of further wars. It is in this 
chapter especially that Luke presents to us the words of the Lord 
in language varied from that in which Matthew and Mark record 
them: ver. 15 ["I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all 
your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay ;" comp. with Mark 
xiii. 11, " Take no thought before-hand what ye shall speak, neither 
do ye premeditate ; but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, 
speak ye : for it is not ye that speak, hut the Holy Ghost." Comp. 
also, Matt. x. 19], 20, etc.^ So also, instead of wars and rumours 
of wars in Matthew [xxiv. 6] and Mark [xiii. 7], Luke says here, 
wars and seditions. 

10. Ton sXe/sd a\iTo7g, then said He to them) It is indicated by the 
introduction of this formula, that a short pause intervened before 
He spake. So in ver. 29. 

11. ^oBnTpd ri xat etjfiiiix,, both fearful sights and signs) A Hen- 
diadys.^ These seem to have been in the lower region of the sky. 
Comp. with this, ver. 25, where greater signs are represented as 
about to follow. Not all prodigies are to be despised. See 
Josephus again. 

12. Upb, before) JJph does not here so much denote time (comp. 
Matt. xxiv. 9, " Then [roVs] shall they dehver you up to be afflicted," 
etc. ; following after the " pestilences, earthquakes," etc., in ver. 7), 

^ " When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the 
desolation thereof is nigh." Comp. with Mark xiii. 14, " When ye shall see the 
abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel, standing where it ought not" 
(in Matt. xxiv. 15, " stand in the holy place ") ; the phrases in Mark being al- 
tered from their Jewish form by Luke, into one more intelligible to the Gentiles 
for whom he wrote. — E. and T. ■> 

2 i.e. One idea expressed by two words ; meaning fearful signs.— H. and T. 

186 ST LUKE XXI. 13-19. 

as the chief weight of events [what is to be weighed in the mind 
above all else], as in 1 Pet. iv. S.^ 

13. ' Aml3^(iiTai, it shall turn out) with salvation as its issue : Phil. 
i. 19 [" This shall turn to my salvation"].— 6/i/~v, to you) In Mark, 
ch. xiii. 9, it is auroTg, " a testimony to p against'] them." The 
apostles were about to discharge the function of a testimony in 
relation to them. 

14. e'esSi, lay it down as settled) Make this your one labour, that 
ye give yourselves no labour. [It is, in truth, the best kind of 
study, to commit one's self to God. — V. g.] 

15. ''Eyii, 1) In Matt. x. 20, this is attributed to "the Spirit of 
the Father;" whereas now Jesus speaks in accordance with His 
state in His exaltation. — hdgiii, 1 will give) being always most im- 
mediately present with you. — eT6iJ,a, a mouth) liefer to this presently 
after the word ayrimni, to gainsay. Often speech was given to the 
martyrs, even after their tongue had been cut out, in Africa, 
Belgium, etc. See Wits. Misc. T. 2, p. 901, et seqq. [Also comp. 
Casp. Sagittarii de martyrum cruciatibus, Ed. ii., 1696, p. 285, 
seqq. Add the observations made on Mark xvi. 17. — E. B.]^ 
(toiplaii, a wisdom) To this refer presently after the word dvTigT^vai, 
to resist. Wisdom is power. — avnxeifiivoi, the adversaries) It is easy 
to act as adversaries of beUevers ; it is not easy to gainsay or resist 

16. Ka;' v'Trh) even [Engl. Vers, not so well, ' both'] by parents, 
not merely by strangers not related to you. [It is less appropriate 
to understand the declaration in this passage of the parents of Peter 
or of John (Mark xiii. 3), than of the parents of the remaining 
apostles or disciples. — V. g.] — davaTuaoiKtiv, they shall put to death) 
some : as James the brother of John. 

18. ©/"'§, an hair) A proverbial expression. — oh fiij a-iroXriTai, shall 
not perish) namely, without the special providence of God, — without 
its reward, — before its time. Most of the apostles, or at least some 
of them, lived beyond the destruction of Jerusalem. 

19. ' Tvo/^ovfi u/iuv) in your patience, to which ye have been called. 
A Paradox. The world tries to obtain the safety of its followers' 
souls by repelling force with force. Not so the saints : Eev. xiii. 10 
[" He that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword." 
But, " Here is the faith and patience of the saints"].— jcr^tfsff^f) ye 

1 Ilfio iriivrm, " Above all things have fervent charity ;" after having said, 
" The end of all things is at hand." The %p6 ■jva.nav, " hefore all things," does 
not mean time, in reference to the previous ' end.' — E. and T. 

. ST LUKE XXI. 20-23. 187 

shall obtain (ensure) the safety of (Matt. xxiv. 13 [He that shall en- 
dure tinto the end, the same shall be saved]), with enjoyment and 
lasting advantage to yourselves.^— v)/u;(^(J;s, your souls) Even though ye 
should lose all other things. [Patient endurance is the most conducive 
of all things. By struggling and kicking back against (the pricks) 
we consult worst for our true interest. — V. g.] 

20. 'SrpaTo'jrsdcaii) with armies, legions. — yvSire, know ye) The siege 
will not be relaxed (raised) until the city be destroyed. The Jews, 
in their obstinacy, when the siege had already reached its height, 
supposed notwithstanding that the siege would be raised, 

21. [Tore, then) Where all human prudence fails, there Christians 
who bear the name with truth are helped by the word and guidance 
of their Master and their Lord. — V. g.] — atirjjf, of it) viz. the city: 
in which in the meantime they are directed to ' tarry :' ch. xxiv. 47, 
49. — 0/ s\i ra,Tg ^lipaig, who are in the country-regions) who live in the 
towns and villages: see on Matt. xxiv. 16 ["Let them flee into 
the mountains"]. 

22. 'ExSixTidiag) of full exacting [the force of Jx] of vengeance : 
Matt, xxiii. 35 [" That on you may come all the righteous blood 
shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of 
Zacharias"]. The vengeance seizes upon those who do not flee; 
see ver. 23 ; Ex. ix. 19, 20. Whoever does not flee, after having 
been thus warned, and is thereby involved in the coming vengeance, 
let him take the consequences. This word has great emphasis, 2 
Mace. vi. 14. — ysypa/if/^sva, which are written) For instance in Daniel. 

23. 'Ev! Trig y'ii, on the earth [but Engl. Vers, in the land]) even 
outside of Judea. The same phrase occurs in ver. 25 ; but with 
greater force, ver. 35.^ [The omission of the particle tv is favoured 
as. well by the margin of both Editions, as also by the Germ. Yers. — 
E. B.'] — h rffi XacS rour^, in the case of ['upon'] this people) who 
have despised so great grace vouchsafed from heaven. [The intro- 
duction of the appellation ' Israel' is avoided in this case. — V. g.] 

1 Krina^i is the reading of AB Origen l,295d : ' possidebitis ' in a and Vulg. : 
'acquiretis' in c. Kr'iiaairh (' adquirite,' ^ajn or ensure the safety of ; not pos- 
sess, as Engl. Vers., which would be xextw^e) is the reading of Drf and Ilec. 
Text. Bengel's words are "cum usufruct! vestri," liteTaWy, tvith the usufruct 
of yourselves. — E. and T. 

' "Upon the earth"— "On the face of the whole earth." This makes 
Bengel's interpretation of the words, yer. 23, more probable than that of Engl. 
Vers — E. and T. 

3 ABCDac Vulg. omit h. Rec. Text has it, without any of the oldest 
authorities. — E. and T. 

188 ST LUKE XXI. 2-1. 

24. "EtfTa; vaToviJ.h'i) This conveys the idea of something more than 
•jraTn^nairai, sliall be trodden down ; it shall be (and continue) in a 
trodden down state, as also in a desecrated state : comp. note on 1 
Tim. i. 9. The Derivation and sense of the old name of the city, 
Jehus, is in consonance with this.' So in Eev. xi. 2, et seqq., " They 
shall tread under foot the holy city forty and two months ;" although 
there the angel is speaking of a certain one time of its being trodden 
under foot, and that a very remarkable one ; whereas in Luke the 
Lord is speaking of all the times of its being so trodden. In fact, in 
whatever way you explain the " forty and two months," Jerusalem 
has been already, for a longer period than that, trodden down by 
the Eomans, the Persians, the Saracens, the Franks, the Turks ; 
and it shall continue hereafter to be trodden down until the times of 
the Gentiles be fulfilled. Moreover " the times of the Gentiles" are 
the times appointed to the Gentiles wherein they are to be permitted 
to tread down the city : and these times shall be terminated upon 
the conversion of the Gentiles being most fully consummated : Eom. 
xi. 25 ["Blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of 
the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved"] ; Eev. 
XV. 4 [" All nations shall come and worship before Thee"] ; for cer- 
tainly the Gentiles, whilst treading down Jerusalem, are themselves 
meanwhile unbelievers. The expression, " the times of the Gen- 
tiles," is used as " the time of figs," and " the time of the dead :" 
Mark xi. 13 ; Eev. xi. 18. It is not to be inferred from this that 
the temple and its worship of shadowy types is going to be restored ;> 
but yet there will be many at that time there, as indeed even at the 
present time there are some to be found, who are worshippers bear- 
ing the Christian name, and there shall be many too of these be- 
longing to the people of Israel : and it is in the same last time that 
Gog and Magog shall make this assault : Eev. xx. 9. "Axpi, until, 
forms a tacit hmitation in the verses. From this verse to ver. 27, 
are summarily comprehended all the times which are about to follow 
the destruction of the city down to the termination of all things.— 
xaipo) eSvuv) the times of the Gentiles, i.e. which are peculiarly their 
own. AurSv is not the expression used, but the term IhZv, of the 
Gentiles, is repeated, in order to show the correspondence of the 
event with the prediction. The article is not added. The times of 
Israel, which would have continued uninterruptedly, if Israel had 
been obedient, Ps. Ixxxi. 13-16, are interrupted by times of Gen- 
tiles. These latter times had their own intervals of suspension, as in 
' Judges xix. 10, Jebiu ~ one who treads under foot. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXI. 23. 189 

the Fourth and Twelfth centuries. The plural, xaipol, is therefore 
used. A certain time of the Gentiles was fiilfiUed when Constantine 
was emperor ; and then the treading down of Jerusalem abated ; but 
not lastingly. The times during which the Christians held Jerusa- 
lem were brief intervals, if you compare them with the times in 
which the [unconverted] Gentiles held the city. 

25. Sji/iE^a, signs) different from those of which ver. 11 speaks. — 
£1/ )jX;w, in the sun) The language is to be taken literally (not figu- 
ratively) : because the earth, sea, and heaven (sky), are distinctly 
enumerated. [Those things (objects in nature) which are made 
mention of in the first days of Creation, are here set down in an in 
verted order: 1. The sun and the moon with the stars; 2. The 
earth and the sea ; 3. The heaven. — V. g.] — [I*/ rri; ytjg, upon the 
earth) See ver. 26, 35. — V. g.] — ffuiioj^ij, aicopia, ai:o-\'\j-)(6vTm) distress, 
perplexity, fainting, form an ascending climax. — UvSiv) o/all nations: 
to which are opposed individual men, including also Jews. See fol- 
lowing verse. — ^'xous) The common reading is ^j/ouffjjs.^ But the idea 
expressed is not that the sea and the agitated water or waves roar ; 
but there is an ?%os, roaring, of the sea, and a eakoi (salum), agita- 
tion of the water, whereby the ear and also the eye are struck. Comp. 
Ps. xlvi. 4 (3), ^^'y\(Saii srapd^Srieav rii uSaTo, aurSiv, their waters 
roared and were troubled. '^H^o; is neuter also, as well as masculine, 
as we have shown in the Appar. Crit., p. 546 [Ed. ii., p. 208]. 
There are four clauses, all alike having the idea of terror connected 
with them : xal 'iirai 2HMEIA ev fiKitfi xal eiXrjVti xa,! aarpoig- xai it! 
rrjg yris 2TNOXH Umr ev AIIOPIA nyj'Mc iaXdesrig xal ffaXou- AIIO- 
■^rxONTUN avipu'ffoiv, x.t.K. The words h d^of/ot are more closely 
connected with the words immediately following, than with those 
which go before, whether ^'j^ous xal gdXou be the Genitive of the ob- 
ject, or the Genitive of time [with perplexity by reason of the roar 
and agitation of the sea ; or else, with perplexity during the time that 
(whilst) the sea is roaring, and is agitated]. The Genitive of the 
object may seem, no doubt, in this passage to give an unusual and 
forced (strained) construction, because airopia, if it denotes want [as 
here, want of means of escape, and of knowledge what to do'\, is wont 
to have the Genitive of the subject-matter [the object of the want], 
as ampla elrov, ^pri/idraiv, x.r.X. ; but there is no deficiency of analo- 
gous phrases, such as, ^ s^ouela i/Jiuv, " power over you" 1 Cor. ix. 

' D supports, as Rec. Text, iixomti;. But ABCLX read Hx""? • "> ' ^onis ;' 
c, ' sonitus,' and so the Vulg. " prse confusione sonitus [et (in some copies)] marii 
et fluctuum."— E. and T. 

190 ST LUKE XXI. 26-28. 

12 ; TO v/i'sTipov iXeos, the mercy shown towards you, Rom. xi. 31 ; t 
po/3of rm 'lovSci!uv,fear arising from the Jeios, John vii. 13 ; rapaxat 
exiag Samrou, Job xxiv. 17, in which passage the word TO^a;^a; [ra^a- 
Xoi in the Vatican MS.] answers to ninb, as n!)ni is rendered by 
uTopla in Lev. xxvi. 16. If this be not deemed a satisfactory ex- 
planation, ^x""^^"'^ ""■^"^ ought to be taken as expressing the Genitive 
of time, as x^'f^^'osj ""'"'os, ga^^dnu, are used. — [SaXaearii, of the sea) 
by reason of joy. Ps. xcvi. 11-13 [" Let the sea roar,, and the ful- 
ness thereof— Before the Lord, for He cometh"],^ xcviii. 7-9. — ^V. g.J 

26. <l>o'/3ou -Aal vpoadoxiag, fear and expectation [" looking after"]) 
fear, viz. of things present ; expectation, viz. of things future. Not 
even the saints shall be altogether exempt from some degree of 
terror : comp. ch. xxiv. 37, 38 [The disciples, after the resurrection, 
were on the sudden appearance of Jesus at first " terrified and 
afirighted." ' Joy ' suceeds in ver. 41] : but soon they will recover 
themselves. — a'l yap dvvd//,iic, for the powers) This is now no longer 
a mere sign, but one of those things which are coming on the earth. 

[27. 'E^;)(^o/ifvo)', coming) viz. to judgment. See ver. 36. — h vnpiXri, 
in a cloud) The Singular. Comp. the note on Matt. xxiv. 30 
(Whilst He shall have in His train many chariots ; Plural ; He shall 
ride in one chariot in particular : Singular). — ^V. g.] 

28. 'A^;^o/;t£i'wi', when these things are beginning) Comp. the expres- 
sion, " the beginning," in Matt. xxiv. 8. For this reason refer these 
things to ver. 8, 9, 10, et seqq. : and in this passage He is treating of 
the preparation for nearer events ; hut {di) in ver. 34, 35, He is 
treating of the preparation for the last events of all, — dvaxu'4/ars nal 
impaTi, look up, and lift up your heads) in order that as soon as 
possible ye may perceive the event answering to yoiu* expectation, 
and may with joy embrace it (welcome it). Comp. ch. xxiv. 5 [Not 
as the disciples after the resurrection, who, with " faces bowed down 
to the earth," " sought the living among the dead"] ; Job x. 15 [If 
I be righteous, yet will I not lift up my head]. In the LXX. Ver- 
sion dvaxif'l'ai is used to express, " to lift up the head;" also apai 
xiipot.'kriv, Judg. viii. 28. — a-jrokbrpadig, deliverance [redemptionj) from 
many miseries, ver. 12, 16, 17. . Deliverance from the miseries 
which befell the Jews. [So long, to wit, as the shadows of the Leviti- 
cal law, along with the City and Temple, were standing, the king- 
dom of God, or the free exercise of the Christian religion, did not 
as yet enjoy unrestricted scope. This is compared to the loveliness 
of the summer, ver. 30, 31 : but old things must first be taken away. 
-V. g.l 

ST LUKE XXI. 29-35 ]91 

29. Sux^v, the jig-tree) A tree frequently met with, and early in 
shooting forth. — vavra) all the trees, good and bad. 

30. 'Ap iauruv, of your own selves) even though no one should in- 
form you of the fact. This is also to be understood in the Apodosis 
[" When ye see these things, etc., know that the kingdom of God is 
nigh, though no one should inform you of the faot"'\. — yivuejiiri) ye 

31. 'H jSciuiXiia., the kingdom) to which the old city must give place. 
[See ch. ix. 27. After the wicked vine-dressers (husbandmen to 
whom the vineyard was let) having been slain, the vineyard was 
let out to others : Matt. xxi. 41, 43. — V. g.J 

32. ['H ys/ia a'tjTri, this generation) A period of forty years elapsed 
between this discourse and the destruction of Jerusalem. — V. g.] — 
vavTo, yivriTai, all things be fulfilled) He is speaking of those things 
which formed the subject of the question in ver. 7, and which are 
discussed from ver. 8 to ver. 24 ; although not even is the appendix 
added, ver. 25—27, altogether excluded; for once that the beginning 
has been made, all the other events successively go forward without 
intermission, and are continually coming to pass, and roll onward 
towards the end. 

34. M^mri ^apri^usiv, lest at any time your hearts be weighed down 
[" be overcharged"]) ^dpo'g expresses drowsy torpor: Matt, xxvi 
43. — h xpamaXr) xal //-iSri, with surfeiting and drunkenness) xpai'xdXri 
is the headache and sickness which the previous day's drunkenness 
enta,ils}^/j,ipl/ivaig SiurmaT;, the cares of life) in planting, purchasing 
costly garments, gardens, houses, etc. : ch. xvii. 27, 28 [As in the 
days of Noah, and those of Lot]. — aipv'ibios) sudden, unexpected, un- 
foreseen. The same epithet occurs in 1 Thess. v. 3 [" When they 
shall say. Peace and safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon 
them, as travail upon a woman with child"]. Refer to this the, for, in 
ver. 35. — l(p' h/jMi, upon you) To these are opposed all the rest of the 
world, who are mere dwellers on the earth [roDs xairminvg ItI ■jrpoecarot 
-jraam rrn yjjs]. The character of the latter is expressed in ch. xvii. 
27, 28. — hihri, that) the last day. In antithesis to al/T-jj, this gener- 
ation, ver. 32. The universaUty of its visitation is in consonance 
with this view. See ver. 35. 

35. 'Eirl vavrai rous xa^Ji/iewus hjl trpcKKaVov -jraffrig Trig yt^g) LXX. in 
Jer. XXV. 29, has ev! irdvrag roDs xaSrifisvoug eirl rrig yrig. Comp. h/jjag, 
you, the antithesis to this, in ver. 34, where see the note. 

1 Latin crapula, Th. ap'K-tU^u, carpo, rapio ; which would form a/j^aXii, 
»«T«7ii), and so x.pantu'Kvi. — ^E. and T. 

192 ST LUKE XXI. 36-38.-XXII. 1-8, 

36. ' AypwrriiiTTi, watch) Mark xiii. 33. — in •n-air/ xaipa di6f/,evoi [pray- 
ing always'], praying at every season) ch. xviii. 1. At every season 
or time, whether these things [ver. 28, 31], which are about to he 
immediately, are had regard to [viz. raura icavra (ver. 31, 32), these 
nearer events, which are about to befall the city. — Not. Crit.], or that 
(more remote) day, the day of the Son of Man : ver. 28, 34. This 
brief sentence comprises the whole discourse concerning the city and 
the universal world. — szpuys/V, to escape) suddenly. — eraSrimi) As to 
the force of this word, see on Matt. xii. 25. [" iraSrimi, to be made 
to stand by another, to stand by the help of another ; arnmi, by one's 
own strength." — Ammonius.] 

[37. Tas rtfiepag, [" in the day time"] during the days) This refers 
to the days immediately preceding : comp. ch. xix. 47 [" He taught 
daily in the temple"]. For the Saviour, Matt, xxiii. 39, xxiv. 1, left 
the temple : a fact which Luke sets down later, inasmuch as being 
connected closely (cohering) with ch. xxii. 1, 2 (The chief priests 
sought how they might kill Him, as in ch. xix. 47) ; although in 
Matthew and Mark somewhat of the discourse of Jesus is inserted 
between (His leaving the temple and His celebration of the Pass- 
over). — Harm., p. 482.] 

38. Ti&c Xahi SipSpit^i, all the people used to come early in the 
morning) Very different was their conduct a little after, ch. xxiii. 18 
[" Away with this man," etc.] 


1. 'h Xsyo.tteiu), which is called) Therefore Luke takes it for granted, 
that the persons to whom he writes do not all know what the Jewish 
Passover was. So John ii. 13. Add John xix. 40, 42. 

2. [Kal l^ijrouv, and the chief priests sov^t) Judas 'sought' the 
same thing, ver. 6. A most wicked pursuit. — V. g.J — yap, for) 
This assigns the cause why they had to ' seek' suitable means and a 
favourable opportunity {-jrui a/iXugiv auT-ov, 7jow they might kill Him). 
[Most wretched (pitiful) fear, succeeded by atrocious joy, ver. 5. — 


3. E^?X^£, entered) The time of the fact^ is indicated in John xiii. 

' i.e. Not the first entrance of Satan, but his taking /«W possession of Judas. 
Comp. ver* 3, 6.— E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXII. 4-15.. 193 

27 [" Ailer receiving the sop."] [It was before the day of 
unleavened bread that the thing (the entrance of Satan into 
Judas) so fearful to speak of occurred: ver. 7, John xiii. 1. — 
V. g.] 

4. To/j ap^ispivsi xa! roTs dTparnyoTs, with the chief priests and cap- 
tains) Different classes of men conspired together ; erparriyo} roS ilpoZ 
were the leaders or officers of the Jews, in command of the soldiers 
who were on watch at the temple. See ver. 52. See Acts iv. 1, 
v.'ith which comp. 1 Mace. iv. 60, 61. 

5. 'E;^afi)](raK, they were glad) as at a thing which they had desired, 
though not expected. — awikwo) they covenanted. 

7. '''HXk, came) Sosinus Perastianus of Cephalonia explains this of 
the near approach, not of the actual advent of the day of unleavened 
bread, and for this object, in order that he may push forward the 
Passover to the Sabbath. See CI. Hermann's Hist, of the Controv. 
concerning the Passover (de Azymo), p. 489. But this ?i\k, came, 
is much more strict in its force than the nyy^f'h draw nigh, in ver. 1. 
Therefore Luke must clearly mean to mark the actual arrival of the 
day of unleavened bread, just in the same way as Matthew and Mark 
do. \jhi, it was necessary) according to the direction of the law. — 


8. xiiTpov xa! 'luannv, Peter and John) Peter took precedency in 
point of dignity (' amplitudine') ; and yet John was, of the two, the 
more intimate with the Lord. [Whilst both of these were executing 
His commands, Jesus was stiU able, now that the traitor was put 
away from their company, the more to confirm the remaining nine 
in the faith. — ^V. g.] 

13. V-lpov, they found) With the rejoicing of faith. 

[14. 'h Sipa, the hour) The evening hour, appointed for the eating 
of the Passover Lamb. — ^V. g.J 

15. Ka;, and) There is described in the verses 15-18, a kind of 
prelude, as it were, to the Holy Supper. Comp. Matt. xxvi. 29. — 
e-rM/irisa, I have desired) He had desired for the sake of the dis- 
ciples, to whom He wished now at last to manifest Himself more 
openly in His very act of bidding them farewell ; He had desired it 
for His own sake also, because He was about forthwith after it to 
enter into His glory. — rouro) this, which is a Passover peculiarly 
memorable. — vph, before) By this word, explanation is given of the 
rovTo, this. [His enemies were hardly leaving Him this much time 
(viz. sufficient to celebrate the Passover) : but yet they were forced 
to dejay the accomplishment of their pui'pose, even until both the 


19i ST LUKE XXII. 16-19. 

Passover banquet and several remaining incidents had passed by.— 


16. "Eftis orou, ever until) Then shall the heavenly banquet be 
celebrated. See ver. 30. — -^rXripuefi, it be fulfilled) i.e. until the 
Paschal Lamb, the type of the heavenly kingdom, be superseded by 
the Antitype, which ftilfils it. — b rr, 0a,ei\iicf,, in the kingdom) ver. 
18, 30. 

17. Asf a/iEKos) Aiyoi^"'! is said of that which is p,fforded or pre- 
sented to another. Jesus acted, as the Head of the family : He causpd 
the cup to be presented (held out) to Him. — iavroT;, yourselves) 
He seems to have Himself drunk first. Comp. the preceding verses, 
but not also, ver. 20. Comp. Matt. xxvi. 26, note. [" Jesus, when 
giving the bread and -wine, is not said to have Himself eaten and 
drunk, for it was not for Himself that His body and blood were to 
be oflPered."] 

18. Tap, for) That is to say. Do not wait, until I drink any more 
here. — btJ tou vuv) This the reading of a considerable number of 
the MSS. It corresponds to the ovxirt, not any more, in ver. 16. 
— A'T apri is the expression in Matti xxvi. 29. 

19. Touro, this) The form of expression is, this cup, in ver. 20 ; 
but, in the present instance, there is not addedi 5rea^ to the this ; be- 
cause bread does not so aptly accord with the complex term [which 
forms the predicate rh eujMa. S/So/aetov] as the cup [accords with its 
predicate, ri x.aivri Sia,67jx,7i — Ix^uvo/jiiivovj. — rh wip, which is given for 
you) As in the Old Testament, part of one of the same victim was 
presented to God, whilst part was eaten by the Israelites : so that 
one body, which Jesus Christ offered to the Father, is received' 
by Christians in the Holy Supper : we^, for, i.e. avri, [a vicarious 
substitute for. "A ransom for many."] Matt. xx. 28. — hiboium, 
which is being given) to death. — iroiUrt, do) perform. Do has not 
in this passage the sacrificial notion. It is a wrong committed 
against the one and only Priest of the New Testament, to attribute 
priestly power and dignity before God to the ministers of the Holy 
Supper. — avaiivrim, remembrance) See 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26, note.^ [In 
that first act of institution of the Lord's Supper, they had Jesus 

1 True, if received be understood of a spiritual receiving. — E. and T. 

• " As often as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye do show forth the 
Lord's death till He come." The Lord's Supper, according to Bengel, is a kind 
of compensating equivalent for our not having the Lord's corporal presence with 
us. " What was visible in the Redeemer has passed into the sacraments." Leo 
M. Serm. 2 de ascens. This is the Lutheran view. — E. and T. 

ST IXIKE XXII. 20, 21. I95 

Still present with them, and therefore there was no occasion, strictly 
speaking, for remembrance of Him, It is therefore the future 
which is looked forward to by the use of the term " remembrance." 

-V. g.J 

20. 'iieaiiTtag, in like manner) Therefore we ought not either to 
separate or to confound the two parts of the Holy Supper ; as if the 
bread were sufficient without the cup, or as if the blood were 
already received with [that is, in the receiving of] the body.^ The 
ancients esteemed it unmannerly to cat bread as if one were drink- 
ing it (" panem bibere," to swallow it, as a thirsty person would, a 
drink) : and it is not our part either, to eat the drink of the Lord (the 
cup of the Lord given us to drink). — rh iroTripm, the cup) viz. He 
took and gave. The rh has the force of a relative referring back to 
ver. 17, where the cup is mentioned along with the wine ("the 
fruit of the vine," ver. 18). For a noun, when employed twice, 
very often on its first introduction has no article [Ssfa^svos vor^pm, 

' ver. 17] ; whereas, when next it occurs, it has the article. Matt. ii. 
1, 7 [Mayo; — rov; fiayoug] ; 1 Cor. viii. 1 ; Heb. ii. 8. — //-iroi. to 
dimrjdai) after the supper, not the Sacramental Supper : thus making 
a'transition to greater subjects, and those about to be the last events. 
— fl xaitri diadrjxr] h tSi aif/^ari /iou, the New Testament in My blood) 
This is equivalent to that phrase, ilfy blood, which is of the New 
Testament. [Matt. xxvi. 28] Comp. note on 1 Cor. x. 16.^ So we 
find the expression, the promise of the Spirit, i.e. the Spirit that was 
promised, Gal. iii. 14. — ri vTep v/iSiv fxxi">ofi,£vov, which is being 
poured out [shed] for you. This forms part of the Predicate (for 
the full cup is not " poured out," but is drunk off), and is joined 
with the clause, h rj» nl/Lari fitv, in My blood, by apposition ; cases 
similar to this occur, 2 Cor. viii. 23 [Apposition of the Genitive 
and Nominative, s/Vs ivip Tlnu, xoimvhs s//,6g, etc.], xi. 28, where see 
the note ; Rev. i. 5 ; Lxx. Lev. vi. 8, Al. 15 ; Gen. xxi. 33 [ri i'm/ia 
Kupiou, 0iig aiiiviog]; Deut. xxxiii. 16. 

21. UXriv, but nevertheless) The antithesis is between ro — diSofum, 
which is given (for you) in ver. 19, and -jrapadidovrog, who betrayeth 
(Me) in this passage. TiXri]/ is used to intimate, that the very de- 

' i.e. In receiving the bread; which, according to the Romish doctrine 
of ' concomitance,' not only contains the very body, but also the blood. — E. 

2 He who partakes of this ctip partakes of the New Testament sealed with the 
blood of Christ, and is a spiritual partaker of the body and blood of Christ Him- 
self.-i-E. and T. 

196 ST LUKE XXII 22-23. 

liglitful converse of Jesus with His disciples [ver. 15-20] is going to 
be presently brought to an abrupt close. [And, at the same time, He 
tacitly implies, that, as He is about immediately to be withdrawn 
from them, through the agency of a betrayer, for this reason the 
remembrance (avd/ivrisiii) of Himself should be for the future celebrated 
by His disciples— V. g.J This particle serves as an argument that 
Judas was present, and took part in the Lord's Supper. Comp. 
ver. 14 (" The twelve apostles sat with Him"). That this discourse 
■ is one continued one, is evident from this, that Luke has not even 
employed here that formula which he often uses, And He saith. — 
ri x^k) t^e hand, which has taken the Holy Supper, and which has 
yet pledged its treacherous faith to the Lord's enemies. [After 
having taken the thirty pieces of silver. — V. g.J So Ambrose (Bishop 
of Milan) said to Theodosius (repelling him from the Communion), 
" Wilt thou extend those hands of thine, which are yet reeking with 
the blood of unrighteously-perpetrated murder, and wilt thou with 
them take the most holy body of the Lord V [/isr l/ioC, with me) 
He does not say, with you. Therefore He separates the traitor as 
one to be distinguished from the rest of the disciples, and shows 
that now He Himself alone has to do with that wretched man, as 
with one who is an equivocal enemy. — V. g.] 

22. Kara rh upiSfihovj according to what was determined) What 
was determined or appointed, we may know from Scripture. 
See ver. 37 (" This that is written must yet be accomplished") ; 
Mark xiv. 21 (" The Son of Man goeth, as it is written of 
Him").— V. g.J 

24. As xal) Not merely the traitor, but also the Eleven, caused 
uneasiness (exhibited a spirit displeasing) to the Lord. — p/Xovi/x/a, 
a strife) which was fraught with danger. Comp. ver. 31. [This 
contention must certainly have occurred within the city : and to 
the words which Jesus spake in order to allay it, Luke adds, be- 
sides other topics, the prediction concerning Petej-'s subsequent 
denial of his Lord, which Matthew and Mark mention after His 
departure from the citj.—Harm., p. 516] — rig doxiT, which of them 
appears, or is to be accounted) Who is (the greater) according to 
the suffrages of all. — |U.£;^wv) the greater, as (the one to be accounted) 
the first, the second, the third, etc. The question was not merely 
concerning the greatest. 

25. ^uipysTai) Aristotle, Eth. i. 8, ch. 13, jSamXeT wphs roig Saoi- 
7.euo/j,svoug tpiXia, h i'Jtpoyj euipyeuiag. Comp. note on Chrysost., -jripl 
I'lpui, p. 452 So in 2 Mace. iv. 2, Onias is said to be o eiepyirng rfit 

ST LUKE XXII. 2C-29. 197 

*oX£W5 — xaXovvTui) The Middle Toice (call themselves, or would have 
themselves called). They, claim this title to themselves. 

26. ['T/i£?s 8i, but ye) Having lowered (humbled) them by this 
address to them, He exalts them by that other in ver. 28. — V. g.l 
— ndiTipog, younger) in age or in discipleship. 

27. Tap, for) He proves His proposition by His own example. — 
lya, I) Jesus speaks in the first person, where He is speaking of 
ministering to others ; previously He had said, in the third person, 
For who is greater'^. — h fisauj ifiSiv) in the midst of you, on a 
footing of equality. He appeals to what was present, and what, was 
the existing state of things. 

28. Af, but) More shall be vouchsafed to you than you even hope ■ 
for ; not a mere precedency (primacy) of some kind or other among 
yourselves, but a kingdom to each of you individually. [The Lord 
knows truly how to advance His people to signal distinction. He 
revealed to them this very privilege, which was awaiting them, at 
that precise time when there was less danger impending of their 
being elated with pride by it. — V. g.] — wiipag//,oTs, temptations) The 
disciples were called after His temptation in the wilderness. There- 
fore the whole life of Jesus Christ was full of temptations [to which 
He was exposed from Satan, the world, the Scribes, etc. — V. g.], 
through which (temptations) He entered into glory. And such is 
the case with believers also. Christ also tempted (i.e. tried the faith 
of) the disciples. [They stood well at all points (in all respects). 
John vi. 68 (" Jesus said, Will ye also go away — ^Lord to whom 
shall we go, thou?" etc.). — ^V. g.] 

29. Kayu) and in turn [in return for your fidelity] /. The sense 
is: I also vnll warrant that you shall be unhurt amidst your 
dangerous temptations (comp. Kev. iii. 10, " Because thou hast kept 
the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temp- 
tation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them," etc.), even 
until ye enter into the kingdom. But this is expressed in an abbre- 
viated form of phraseology ; for the entrance into the kingdom takes 
for granted preservation amidst temptations. [Comp. John vi. 39, 
" This is the Father's will — that of all which He hath given Me I 
should lose nothing."] — 8iarihfi,ai) now, by these very words. The 
promise is put before the warning. See ver. 31. Flacius and Beza 
translate the word, ' paciscor,' I covenant to give. E. Schmidius, 
" testamento dispono," / assign by will. A word appropriate to one 
dying. Heb. ix. 15, 16 [He is the mediator of the New Testament, 
that by means of death for, etc. — they that are called might receive 

198 ST LUKE XXII. 30, 31. 

the promise of eternal inheritance. For where a testament is, there 
must also of necessity be the death of the testator "]. [However the 
word presently after must be taken in a wider sense when it is ap- 
plied to the Father {biikro [t,oi o mrnf).—^- g-]— /^"'j ""*" '"^) ™^^ 
much as I have continued stedfast.^— /Satf/Xf/ai-, a kingdom) In a king- 
dom there is wont to be a princely and splendid style of living and 
diet, as also royal power and the exercise of it. Both are promised 
in the following verse. [Then indeed the question, who is to be ac- 
counted the greater, will have easily passed away from the memory of 
all. He who duly considers these so great blessings which are pro- 
mised will find no difSculty in making the world a secondary con- 
sideration in his aims. — V. g.] 

30. "Im zsi'inn, that ye may eat) Not as those that serve. See ver. 
27. — s'ttI rni Tpa.vit,^ fJ-ov, at My table) This is put in antithesis to the 
table of " the goodman of the house." See ver. 12. — xa^nrtah, ye 
may sit) in My kingdom. See Matt. xix. 28 ["In the regeneration, 
when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also," 
etc.]. — puXag, tribes) Does this mean, that they shall judge each one 
tribe [there being an apostle apiece for each of the Twelve tribes]. 

31. ^l/iuv, 'Sifioiv, Simon, Simon) A most weighty Epizeuxis.'' 
Peter also had joined in the strife, mentioned in ver. 24, which was 
inimical to faith, John v. 44 [" How can ye believe, who receive 
honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from 
God only"]. — ISou, behold) That is to say, the fact is in this case 
manifest from its palpable efFect ; which effect, however, Peter did 
not suppose to have come from the Tempter, as it really had. — o 
'Sa.Tamg, Satan) not content with having entered into Judas. See 
ver. 3. — i^rtTrjcaTo, [" hath desired"] hath sought to get you out) viz. 
out from your safe-guard. Satan demanded, that Peter should be 
given up to him, as Job was : but the Saviour repulsed him. The 
antithesis is, iditiiviv, I have prayed. — vfjuag- inpi aov, you [the apostles]; 
for thee) Satan had perceived that there was great faith in Peter, 
and yet also a great proneness to fall, and he supposed that, if Peter 
should be overcome, all of them would be overcome. But Jesus by 
preserving Peter, the ruin of whom would have carried with it the 
ruin of the rest, preserved them all. In fact this whole discourse of 
our Lord takes for granted, that Peter is the first of the apostles, by 

' I have persevered ; referring to the disciples having persepenmp^ continued, 
liicfitfteiiyiiUTi;, ver. 28. — E. and T. 

' The forcible repetition of the same word in the same sentence. Append. 
— E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXII. 32. 199 

whose standing (maintenance of his ground as a believer), or else 
fall, the rest of them would either escape the risk, or else be the 
more endangered. But it was in respect of faith that he was the 
first, not in respect of authority and power. Whereas the pretended 
successor of Peter, after that he revolted from the pure simplicity of 
the faith, and yet claimed to himself alone the primacy in the faith 
and in authority, fell wholly and miserably into the 'sieve' [of 
Satan]. Those in the foremost van are generally followed by the 
rest of their fellow-soldiers : the foremost soldiers are imperilled 
more than the rest : the foremost need especially to be fortified with 
the care and prayers of themselves and of the * watchmen.' — emdeai) 
almv, a sieve. Hesychius explains amdaai, i.e. eiTeai, xogxmueai (to 
shake as in a sieve) : corn is shaken and tossed about in a sieve : 
and men do so for the sake of cleansing it of chaff and refase. But 
Satan's sifting was for the sake of utterly destroying the fd,ith of the 
apostles, whilst making them come into collision with one another, 
by means of raising agitations from without and from within, in 
things high and low alike. — iis, as) with as much ease [as one would, 

32. 'ESsriSriv) A striking word. I have prayed, although thou, 
Peter, wert not aware of what was being done. Jesus prayed for 
His disciples : therefore Satan was not able hy his seeking to get Him 
to deliver them up (i^nrfjgaeSai, ver. 31, to get Jesus to deliver them 
up from their spiritual place of safety). — ha /i,fi ixXil'jrp, that thy faith 
might not fail) He does not say, that thou mightest not he sifted. 
Even though Satan sifted Peter, yet he did not altogether wrest 
from him his faith. Satan sought to cause an 'eclipse'^ of faith in 
Peter : but the light of faith immediately shone out again in him 
after the strife [ver. 24] and after the subsequent denial. Peter, 
during that instabihty on his part, was, notwithstanding, in secret 
' Peter' [" A rock"] truly stiU : just as James and John, although 
they had externally a nice and refined manner of speech, were 
notwithstanding truly "the sons of thimder" still. — [)) «'<rns, thy 
faith) which pride is assailing, and which Satan is bringing 
into jeopardy. — V. g.] ffi) itote) Hots (John ix. 13, ■a-ors, "a while 
before was blind") is even used of a short interval of time, as 
Eustathius shows us. In this passage it conveys an indefinite 
idea ["when (soever) thou art converted," Engl. Ver.], at some 
time or other, whenever it may be, at a long or short interval hence. 
— smSTfi'^ag er^fi^ov, in thy turn strengthen [confirm]) To make 
' ComD UMi'tti], from which ' eclipse ' is derived.— E. and T. 

200 ST LUKE XXII. S3, 34. 

up for the fact that [according as] thy brethren are How put 
in peril through thee : the verb B-iriarpstpta is to be resolved into an 
adverb [' vicissim," in thy turn. But Engl. Ver. "When thou art 
converted"], as the Heb. 3W. Comp. 'ierpi-^i, Acts vii. 42.'— 
erripi^ov, confirm, strengthen) What I now do to thee, that do thou to 
those like thee [those liable to fall as thou art], whom thou hast pre- 
viously weakened (by the fall). Peter did so not long after. Acts 
ii., iii., iv., and in both of his Epistles, where this very word is often 
repeated ; 1 Pet. v. 10 ; 2 Pet. i. 12 ; iii. 17, 16 ; ii. 14. And often 
one may thus observe the words of Jesus subsequently employed by 
the apostles. — roug a,di'k(poug eov) thy brethren, saith Jesus, not our 
brethren. For the footing on (the manner in) which Peter has his 
' brethren' is one thing, that on (in) which the Lord has His bre- 
thren is quite another thing. The rest of the apostles were, brethren 
of Peter, Matt, xxiii. 8 [" One is your Master, even Christ, and all 
ye are brethren"] : but inasmuch as these afterwards did not need 
the confirmation (strengthening) of Peter, it is to be understood of 
other believers of a feebler sort, 

33. MirSi eou, with thee) These words, especially as being put in 
the beginning of the sentence, are emphatic. Comp. Ps. xviii. 30.' 
'iroifiog, ready) Peter has much trust in himself. [There had been 
need of full willingness and of no common power. It is not without 
good reason one may conjecture that Peter, in his so overweening 
self-confidence, had respect to those things which had been men- 
tioned just a while before concerning the perseverance of the disciples 
and the intercession of the Lord (ver. 28, 32). And no doubt both 
had their efficacy, but not that kind of eificacy which he at the time 
imagined they had. — V. g.] — ik, into) The most grievous of all trials 
are imprisonment and death [But it was not becoming that Jesus 
should be kept confined in a prison. From the time that He once 
began. He continued on, even until He breathed His last, without 
hindrance amidst the very bands (or " in the very hands ") of His 
enemies, and on the cross, to do and teach all that was good. — 


34. "^niJiipov, this day) although thou mayest seem to thyself, Peter, 
to be ready. 

1 "Then God turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven." Engl. 
Vers. Rather, "God in His turn, in righteous retribution, gave them up," etc. 
— E. and T. 

" Rather 29, " By thee (lxx. In an]) I have run through a troop, and by my 
God have I leaped over a wall." — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXII. 35-37. 201 

35. Kal eTjrsv avroT;, and He said to them) This is intended to stir up 
the disciples to watchfulness, that they may not rely on their own 
strength. — Sts) when, not, as often soever. For we read of the 
Seventy having been so sent but once, ch. x. 4 ; and the Twelve 
also but once, ch. ix. 3 [Comp. the note on Matt. x. 1]. — a'TrigTuXa, 
I sent) The Lord fed and supplied them whilst they were present 
with Him. — jSaKuvrlou xa.1 wnpobc, purse and wallet [' scrip']) On the 
difference between these words, see the note on Matt. x. 9, 10.^ 

36. ["AXXa vZv, hut now) When Jesus (the Master) committed 
Himself as an evil-doer to the hands of men, it was not suitable 
(seasonable) to supply the disciples with an extraordinary safeguard 
against the world. For that very reason He permits them to avail 
themselves of the ordinary helps which minister to the supply of food 
and to self-defence ; and accordingly He informs them of the fact at 
this time, which was exactly the right time for doing so. — V. g.J — 
itripav, wallet) viz. He that hath a wallet, let him take it. That is to 
say, no one will be a friend to you, many will be enemies. — 6 firi 
iX'^v) He who hath not, viz. money [not as Engl. Vers. " He who 
hath no sword'"~\., wherewith to buy. — rh iiiarm, garment) which is 
more necessary than a purse. — ayopdssi, shall buy) See Appar. Crit. 
Ed. ii. on this passage.^ The Consequent is put for the Antecedent. 
That is to say. Ye shall find men at the present time, not only not 
inclined to confer benefits on you, but altogether hostile in their be- 
haviour towards you. It was for this reason that the Apostles, from 
this time even up to the day of Pentecost, kept themselves not only 
as private indivduals, but sometimes shut up in their respective 
homes : John xvi. 32 [" Ye shall be scattered every one to his oww"]; 
xix. 27 ; XX. 10, 19 [" The doors were shut, where the disciples were 
assembled, for fear of the Jews"]. — [jLayaipav, a sword) not that they 
might kill any one, but that they might restrain the sword of others. 

37. "Er/ Touro) even yet this last [crowning accomplishment of pro- 
phecy], after so many others. — rJ) Mark xv. 28, note.* — xal, and) 

1 The former was for money ; the latter, for bread and other provisions. — 
E. and T. 

* D reads apsi — ■Ku'kmai — dyopaait (so d) ; but ABQ Orig. and Rec. Text, 
dpara — ■jriaTviiffseTffl — tiyopctiriira : ahe, " tollat, vendat, emat." — EJ. and T. 

' fiiToi xuofiuu, more forcible than the lxx. Isa. liii. 12, h toij dj/oftoi;: 
" He suffered Himself to be numbered icith transgressors," as if He were one of 
them, through the imputation of their sins to Him, not merely "omonj' trans- 
gressors." — E. and T. 

902 ST LUKK XXII. 38-42. 

This last step presupposes all the others. — to. vif) Iij,ov, the things 
which have been written concerning Me) viz. the things which have 
been written concerning the Messiah, as about to suffer : comp. ch. 
xxiv. 27, at the end. — riXos £%£/, have their consummation or end) have 
obtained their consummation. Just before we have «Xs(r^^ra/, must 
be accomplished or consummated. The latter, the act (TiXieSniai), has 
reference to men, among whom it is done ; the former, the consum- 
mation (teXos), has reference to the matter of fact. See Eom. x. 4 
[" Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that 
believeth ;" riXog vo/jbov]. 

38. ''aSi, here) They had found in the room where they had 
supped, or else had brought with them, the two swords : see ver. 49. 
[For previously they had not been girt with swords ; otherwise the 
Lord would have interdicted the use of them, when the disciples 
were being prepared for their embassy, ver. 35. — ^V. g.] — duo, two) 
Comp. John vi. Q? — !x.a.v6v Isn, it is enough) i.e. There is no need of 
more than two swords. Jesus uttered so brief a reply as this, in 
order that the disciples might be able sufficiently to understand His 
mind (intention and meaning in what He said) as to buying a sword, 
ver. 36. Comp. John xiv. 30.^ A not dissimilar phrase occurs, 1 
Mace. ii. 33, 'ioig roZ nv ixavor s^eXkre ; Deut. iii. 26, ix.avo\ie0ai eoi, 

39. Kara rh ikg, according to His custom) So the disciples were 
less struck by any immediate (present) sense of strangeness. — I'lg rh 
opog Tuv 'EXaioJv, to the mount of Olives) It was to this mountain a red 
cow used to be led forth to be immolated. See S. K. Zeller on 
Maimon. as to the. red cow, pp. 360, 501. — nxoXodSnaccv, followed) of 
their own accord. 

40. 'Et/ rou ro'jrou, at the place) The aspect (sight) of the very place 
excited emotions in Jesus. — [jj,^, that ye enter not) Prayers are not 
merely recommended in general terms as a remedy against tempta- 
tion ; but the material and subject for prayer is indicated by this 
expression. — V. g.] 

41. 'Affeo-Traff^jj, He was severed ['withdrawn'] from them) with 
earnest intention [with serious feeling, " serio affectu"]. 

42. e; jBoiXii ':rupi\isyxsTv, if thou be willing, remove) The Infinitive 
put for the Imperative is a fi-equent usage of the Greeks. See note 

1 The "two small fishes;" expressing the same disproportion, as here, be- 
tween the means, and the effects produced, when God's blessing is vouchsafed.— 
E. and T. 

' " Hereafter I mil not talk mwh with you, for the prince of this world 
Cometh," etc. This accounts for the brevity of His reply. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXU. 43, 44. 203 

on Eev. x. 9.* And in this passage, indeed, such an Enallage (or 
change of mood and tense) expresses the reverential modesiy of 
Jesus towards the Father. But in this passage, if we suppose an 
aposiopesis of the verb Tapheyxi [and make vapivfyxin the Infin. after 
SoiXii], this feeHng of reverential modesty will be still more ex- 
pressively conveyed. 

43. As, but now [and at this moment]) The Very appearance of 
the angel was a sign of His actually then drinking the cup, and of 
His prayer being granted [Heb. v. 7]. So utterly incapable is 
human reason of comprehending the profound depths of His agony 
in the garden, that some have in former times omitted this whole 
paragraph. See the Apparat.^ When His baptism is mentioned 
along with the cup, the cup means His internal passion [suffering], 
as, for instance. His desertion by the Father on the cross; the baptism 
means His external suffering : comp. Mark x. 38, note. Where the 
' cup' is mentioned alone, His whole passion generally is understood, 
at least in such a way as that, under the internal, there is also in- 
cluded the external suffering. — lwa%u(wi', strengthening) not by exhor- 
tation, but by invigoration. The same verb occurs. Acts ix. 19 
[Paul, " when he had received meat, was strengthened"']. 

44. 'Ev ayuvlcf) 'Ayiiivia, the height of grief and distress (comp. note 
on Matt. xxvi. 37, where the expressions are XvweTaSai xal aSri/Lovin, 
for which Mark has IxSafi^iTsiai xat ai.), arose from the presentation to 
Him of that cup. The same word occurs in 2 Mace. iii. 14, 16, 21, 
XV. 19. It properly denotes the distress and agitation of mind which 
is attendant on entering upon a contest \_aydiv\, and an arduous 
undertaking, even though unattended with any doubt as to the 

^ The Infinitive expressing the absolute idea of the verb, irrespective of the 
particular relations of mood and tense, tends to impart the feeling of majesty to 
the language when used for the Imperative ; especially when God speaks. It 
was often used archaically for the Imperative, and also for the Imperfect Indica- 
tive, in both Latin and Greek. — E. and T. 

2 AB 1 MS. of Memph. Theb. omit from Zqidn to y^j, ver. 43, 44. Hilary 
1062, writes, " Nee sane ignorandum a nobis est, et in Grsecis et in Latinis codi- 
cibus complurimis vel de adveniente angelo, vel de sudore sanguinis, nil scrip- 
turn reperiri." But Hilary, 1061, "(Lucas) angelum astitisse comfortantem 
eum, quo assistante orare prolixius cseperit ita ut guttis sanguinum corporis sudor 
efflueret (non Matt, et Marc.) The Syrians are charged by Photius, the 
Armenians by Nicon, with having erased the passage in question. DQLXoie 
Vulg. and Euseb. Canons have it. Iren. 219, writes, " Nee (si veram camera 
non habuisset) sudasset globos sanguinis." Just, cum Tryph. p. 331 (Ed. Col.), 
aW supports it. — E. and T. 

204 ,BT LUKE XXII. 45-48. 

favourable issue. — ixTmsripov, more intensely.^ [This was done at His 
second and third departures, Matt. xxvi. 42, 44, 39. Therefore it 
was immediately after His first suppHcation that the angel appeared ; 
and after each of His prayers we may suppose that the angel 
strengthened Jesus." — V. g.]) The more intensely with both mind 
and voice : Heb. v. 7. Therefore not only were the (three) nearer 
disciples (Peter, James, and John) able to hear Him, but also the 
eight others. — iyhiro Be, but His sweat became) Hereby is set forth 
(exhibited) the intensity of His distress and agony. — o idpZg, sweat) 
Although it was cold at the time : John xviii. 18. [That sweat was 
drawn out by the power received through the angel, by the agony of 
the struggle, by the intensity of His prayers, and His desire of 
drinking the cup. — V. g.J — iiail 6p6fjL^oi) a'i/j,arog ipofi^oi, clotted drops 
(hillocks), from ipi-^ai, i.e. 'nn^ai, to fix ov coagulate. 0p6/ji,Boi a'i'/j,a,roc, 
drops, thick and clotted, of real blood. The force of the particle iiml 
falls on Spo/M^oi, not on al^aaros, as is evident from the fact of it (not 
aljji.a.Tog) having the epithet, and in the Plural, xaTajSahovrii, The 
blood streaming from the pores in smaller drops became clotted to- 
gether by reason of its copiousness. If the sweat had not been a 
bloody one, the mention of blood might have been altogether omitted, 
for the word 6p6/j,^oi even by itself was sufficient to express thick 
sweat. — I'Trl r^^v yriv, upon the earth) by reason of its copiousness. 
Thereby the earth received its blessing. 

[45. Ka/ aimsrag, and when He rose up) Given up completely to 
the will of the Father. — Y. g.J 

46. 'Ava<rram-£5, rise up and pray) This posture of the body, there- 
fore, is suited for overcoming drowsiness. 

47. TipofipyiTo auTodg) Some read vporip^ero ahruv. But the same 
phrase occurs in Mark vi. 33, vpoijXhv avTovg, they outwent them : 
by comparing this passage with the present, it is evident that the 
traitor reached our Lord more quickly than the band which accom- 
panied him. 

48. [E/Vek aurui, said unto him) In the confused din of the multi- 
tude (comp. ver. 51, 52), the exceedingly wise course of proceeding 
which Jesus adopted is well worthy of observation. — ^V. g.] — p/X^- 
//.ari, with a hiss) The traitor abuses the highest token of love with 
the highest degree of daring presumption. Comp. the note on 
Luke vii. 45. [None of His most intimate disciples and friends had 

' More earnestly straining every nerve in prayer, '^xrii/yis, Th. Tslva, I stretch 
or strain. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXII. 49-61. 205 

ever kissed the Lord. The traitor alone dared to profane with im- 
pure lips the face of the Lord. This unprecedented act matched 
well with his unprecedented treachery.] 

49. Ti ho/iivov, what was about to follow) Contrary to their own 
opinion, which heretofore they had continued to hold. 

50. Kal, and) without waiting for the Lord's reply to the ques- 
tion, put in ver. 49. See ver. 5L 

51. Ei-jriv, said) to Peter and all the others, Matt. xxvi. 52 
[" Then said Jesus unto him (Peter), Put up again thy sword into 
his place ; for all they that take the sword shall perish with the 
sword"]. — lart, suffer ye) So Acts v. 38 [ears aurou;, let them alone\. 
— Ew; roiirou, thus far) Do not go any further. So 1 Mace. ii. 33, 
'ititi rou vZi', Lev. xxvi. 18, npN 1J?, 'ioii Tourov. 

52. Ua,pa'/ivo//,i\iov;, who were come to Him) The servants and 
attendants had been sent, whereas the priests had come of their own 
accord. — STparriyoug rou iepou) The Jewish Captains of the watches 
stationed in the temple. — s^sXriX\:SaTt, ye have come out) with sudden 

53. 'T/iSi', your hour) An hour not given to you before, [al- 
though long ago looked and waited for by you. — V. g.j — fi s^ouaia, 
rou exoToug, the power of darkness) John ix. 4 [" The night cometh, 
when no man can work"], xiv. 30 [" The prince of this world"] : of 
darkness, that is to say, of Satan." The abstract put for the con- 
crete. An allusion to the timesin which he spake, viz. the night. 

55. 'Ev fiisu), in the midst) as the place admitted. 

56. Ilphg rh (pug, by the light [of the fire]) If he had avoided the 
light, he might have been better able to have remained unobserved. 

58. Oux 6/>/, / am not) Whilst Peter is denying himself, he is all 
the time denying his Lord; and whilst he is denying that he is 
(says " that he is not"), he in fact ceases to be [viz. of the Lord's 
followers]. His very words show the flutter of agitation he was in. 

59. "npag, one hour) When once woimded, he does not recover 
himself in a whole hour. 

61. 'Eii6/3>.£'4/£, looked upon) By this one intimation of a mere look, 
when there was no opportunity of speaking, Jesus roused the whole 
mind and attention of Peter. Comp. John i. 42 [Andrew brought 
Simon to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him (e/il3Xe-^ag avrSi) 

' No interrogation is marked by Bengel or Tischendorf ; but there is in the 
English Version. — E. and T. 
^ Eph. vi. 12, "The rulers of the darkness of this world."— E. and T. 

206 ST LUKE XXII. 63-70. 

He said, « Thou art Simon," etc.] as regards " the look," which 
Peter may even afterwards have remembered. 

63, 64. [o; ewiymrii, who held fast) during the whole night.— 
V. g.] — i'epovnr iruirror Taleag) Aepiiv is used of beating the whole 
body ; ruvniv, of striking a part ; Tahiv, of smiting or wounding with 
violence, and so as to give pain. [No one of mortal men, not even 
the direst of malefactors, ever endured so great wantonness as 
Christ, the Just One, suffered to the utmost.— ^arw., p. 540.] 

[64. T/'s Ism, who is it ?) To not a few, who are more desirous 
from their heart to escape observation than was that wanton mass, 
composed of the scum of mankind, it shall hereafter at last be said. 
Thou aet the man (who smote the Saviour) : even though the 
matter (this final award) is about to be put off until the last day. 

-V. g.] 

68. 'Eav bi, hut if) Comp. Jer. xxxviii. 15 [Jeremiah said unto 
Zedekiah, " If I declare it unto thee, wilt thou not surely put me 
to death ? and if I give thee counsel, wilt thou not hearken unto 
me?"] — epcoT^ecii, if I ask) The truth easily convicts the contuma- 
cious by means of questioning. [Ch. xx. 3, Jesus, when questioned 
as to His authority, replies, " I will also ask you one thing, the 
baptism of John," etc.] 

69. 'Awh roS ]ivv) [not ' hereafter,' as Engl. Vers., but] from this 
point, when " ye are not willing to let Me go." This itself was His 
path to glory. The idea being expressed without a copulative con- 
junction, is thereby rendered emphatic' — o T'log tou avSpuimv, the Son 
of Man) This is the last place where Jesus calls Himself the Son 
of Man. 

70. OuK, Art thou then [therefore]) They drew the inference from 
the Predicate [which He attributed to Himself] in ver 69, and this 
with great emphasis. Art Thou? say they, not, Shalt Thou be? 
[Ver. 71. AuToi — rjxovga/jiiv, we ourselves — have heard) They of them- 
selves : they give testimony against themselves.^ — ^V. g.] 

1 But ABDLXaJ Vulg. and 2 MSS. of Memph. read Si after «xo tou uvv. 
Orig. 3,715b, and c, read «3-o yxp tou mu. — E. and T. 

^ That is to say, they bear witness themselves that they have heard Jesus' 
testimony to His divinity out of His own mouth, and yet they believed not. This 
will be their heaviest condemnation. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXIII. 1-7, 30T 


[1. "Affav rh tX^Sos, the whole multitude) One may compare this to 
a conflagration sweeping away everything before it on every side. — 

2. Ell^o/iev, we have found) An invidious expression [one calculated 
to excite odium against Him]. [But yet neither Pilate nor Herod 
found any 'fault' or "cause of death" in Him, ver. 4, 14, 22. — 
V. g.] — rh E^Do;) The term Xahg, the people, is applied to the Jews as 
contrasted with the Gentiles ; but the term 'ihoi, nation, is apphed 
to both Jews and Gentiles. AaJj, the people, is used in a political 
sense, and at the same time a sacred sense : 'ihog, nation, is used 
in a genealogical or, physical sense: John xi. 50, 52 ["It is ex- 
pedient that one man should die for the people {Xaoij), and that the 
whole nation (s^nos) perish not"]. Comp. Rev. v. 9, note [Thou hast 
redeemed us — out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and 
nation (Xaou, 'iSvovg)']. — x.oiX\jona,, forbidding) as a kind of Anticsesar. 
— Kai'eapi, to Ccesar) By nothing else were they so much bound in 
devotion to Caesar as by their hatred of Christ. The transition 
from spiritual to political matters is fraught with dangers. — x'eyovra, 
saying) By this they give an illustration of the words biasrpi(f)ovTa,, 
perverting, and xtaXvovra, forbidding. From the appellation, Christ 
a King, they infer a double calumny as the consequence. Dismiss- 
ing the latter, Pilate inquires concerning the former : [viz. the ap- 
pellation, Christ the King."] 

4. ' o Ss TLiXdro;, moreover [or then"] Pilate said) Pilate perceived 
that Jesus professes Himself to be a King of such a kind, as would 
prove of no detriment to Csesar's sovereignty. For He was now 
alone, deserted even by His disciples. [Again and again Pilate 
avouched the faultless innocence of Jesus; but he did so in a 
peculiarly emphatic manner three times in all, Luke xxiii. 4, 14, 
22. Comp. Matt, xxvii. 24 ("He took water and washed his 
hands, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person ; see ye 
to it") ; John xix. 4:.— Harm., p. 547.] 

5. TaXi-Kalag, from Galilee) Whilst they are exaggerating the 
matter, they give a loop-hole of escape to Pilate. 

7. ' Avi'irifi-l'it) He sent Him back (referred Him) as to His proper 
prince. Comp. v. 11 {a/iTi/i-^iv, said of Herod sending Him back to 

208 ST LUKE XXIII. 8-12. 

Pilate) ; or else the force of the 0.^0. is, " He sent Him uf to the 
higher part of the city. 

8. 'HpuSri;, Herod) The great and powerful usually have less op- 
portunity of meeting with Jesus : and they are wont to he the last 
in knowing of the things of the Kingdom of God. The first propa- 
gation of the faith as it is in Jesus Christ was, therefore, not due to 
the instrumentality of the potentates of the world. — ler}/j,eTov iSsTv, to 
see a sign) Miserable beings are they who seek in Christ nought save 
food to minister to the gratification of their natural senses. Such 
' gladness' as Herod's is not conducive. — ^V. g.J 

10. EuT-o'vws [vehemently, Engl. Vers.J, severely^) Acts xviii. 28. 
Priests often have zeal, though a false zeal ; courtiers have none at 
all : owing to which fact the latter often assail the truth more 
lightly than do the former. Herod had it in his power at the time, 
and therefore ought to have let Jesus go free. 

11. 'E^ovSiv^sag, having set at nought) He did not think Jesus of 
sufficient importance to give himself any trouble about Him, as re- 
spects the allegations, whatever they might be, which the priests 
were making. He thought at the time that he had stripped Jesus 
of His wisdom and of His power. — inS^Ta Xa/ji'Trpikv, a gorgeous robe) 
A royal vestment. [Such as he himself may be supposed either to 
have worn, or to have wished to wear. — V. g.] Herod seems to have 
meant contemptuously to indicate that he has no fears fi'om such a 
king as this. But in reality he honoured Him unconsciously by the 
robe, as Pilate did by the inscription on the cross. [The elder 
Herod gave way to fears sooner than there was just reason for : 
this Herod, on the other hand, when the kingdom of Christ was 
now more immediately imminent, gives way to careless security. 
Such is the perverse way of the world. — V. g.] — av'sm/x^'^iv, sent Him 
back) He had it in his power, and ought to have rather let Him go 
free. [Therefore in sending back the innocent to Pilate, he involved 
himself in the guilt of Pilate. Acts iv. 27 (" Against thy holy child 
Jesus — ^both Herod and Pontius Pilate — were gathered together"). 
— Harm., p. 548]. 

12. <t>/Xo/, friends) [in such a way as that neither now desired to 
derogate aught from what was due to the other. — V. g.] Judaism 

' 'Eigide.' 'EMi/u; from rsi'ua, straining every nerve. Wahl translates it 
' acriter,' " cum contention e," with bitter eagerness. It occurs only here and 
Acts xviii. 28, in the New Testament. In the latter place it is said of ApoUos, 
" He mightily," or rather, " with stern earnestness, convinced the Jews."— E. 
and T. 

ST LIIKK XXIII. 14-2S. 209 

and Heathenism (as in this instance) began to coalesce at the time 
of the birth of Christianity. 

14. 'Ekwotoi/ lij/jm, in your presence) from which ye see that the 
matter hp,s been examined into in good eai^iest. — olbh ilpov, I have 
found nothing) Hereby he refutes the eipo/j^iv, we have found, of the 
Jews, in ver. 2. Therefore the iyii, I, is the antithesis in relation 
to them, with which comp. John xviii. 38 [" He saith unto them, I 
{lyii, whatever you may say to the contrary) find in Him no fault at 
all"] ; and also in relation to Herod ; see the next verse. 

15. Xltirpayfufnov) what Jesus hath done} 

16. na/3sij(ras) Having chastised, viz. with scourging. A Meiosis 
[i.e. the tenn •Kaililimc, is a softer expression than what Pilate really 
meant]. At this point Pilate began to concede more than he ought. 

[22. oSros, this man) By this expression Jesus is put in contradis- 
tinction to Barabbas the robber. — ^V. g.] 

23. Ka/ rJiv apyjip'im, and of the chief priests) Forgetful even of 
common propriety, they joined with the rabble in their clamour. 

24. ''E' that is to say, he confirmed their judgment.^ The 
priests had given the previous judgment (the ' prsejudicium' which 
he followed up). 

25. Qikrifiari, to their will) that they might do to Him whatever 
they had wished or might wish. [If the same power were at the 
discretion of some of those who wish to be called Christians, what, 
think you, would be the result ? — V. g.J 

27. ' 'E.x.DitrovTo, bewailed) either jointly under the emotion of the 
one common feeling, or even under the influence of peculiar affection. 
KoVnrfa/ properly applies to the gestures :^ ^/jjive/P refers to the lamen- 
tation, and weeping tone of voice. 

28. [M)j — lit J/iE, not — concerning Me) Already every moment 
Jesus was more and more directing His thoughts towards the com- 
ing glory. In the way that is pointed out in Zech. xii. 10, He does 
not forbid their '■ mourning' for Him (but only in the way that they 
were noio mourning for Him, viz. as if He and His cause were 

' Not as Engl. Vers, "is' done unto Him." See xxiv. 35, iyvmSn al/rols. The 
construction seems to be, " What has been done by Him is not at all worthy of 
death :" or, " There is nothing worthy of death that He has done " {i.e. in what- 
ever He hath done). — E. and T. 

' ' Superjudicavit,' he gave sentence mier and above their judgment. The 
word occurs here only in New Testament. — E. and T. 

» To smite one's self on the breast on account of some one, is the strict mean- 
mg ; as the Latin, plangere. — E. and T. 

VOL. II. - ° 

210 ST LUKE XXIII. 29-31. 

crushed for ever ; whereas He and it were near their glorious 
triumph).— V. g.]— £?' iaurAs— ««/ M '"« """« {j/iuv—'iM, concerning 
yourselves— and concerning your children — behold) It is hereby indi- 
cated that the punishment about to be inflicted is near at hand. 
[Indeed that calamity was impending especially over the infants, and 
yet not so as that the women also who were lamenting Jesus could 
not live long enough to reach \t.—Harm., p. 561.J _ Jesus Himself 
too wept for the city, and not for Himself. See ch. xix.^ 41, xviii. 31, 
32 . [How many men and women there are, who might, if they would, 
find no want of altogether serious causes for deploring their own 
state, but who devote the present day to careless security !— V. g.J 

29. ''E.pouai) viz. "your children" sliall say. 

30. ToT-E, then) then in particular (or at last), more than now.— 
Sp^ovrai, they shall begin) viz. "the barren" shall begin, in answer to 
those by whom they were called ' blessed.' The same language shall 
be used afterwards also, Eev. vi. 16 [At the opening of the sixth 
seal, the kings, etc., said to the mountains, " Fall on us, and hide us 
from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne," etc.]. — Xeyiiv roT; 
opisi, veiiTS l<j) ri/Jiag' xal ro/J ^ouvoTg, xa.Xu'^a.Ti ^fj^ac) So Hos. X. 8, 
LXX., xa,! ipougi roTs optffi, xaXv-^an fi/JL&g' xal roTs jSouvoTg, visers Ip rifi,ag, 
— opssi, to the mountains) Often men have been covered [buried] 
beneath mountains. It is a great addition to the terror, when that 
which is horrible in itself is wished for by way of a shelter. See 
Kev. vi. 16. 

31. "On, For) By this adage Jesus either shows why He Himself 
desires the daughters of Jerusalem to weep; or rather brings before 
us the persons who desire to be overwhelmed beneath the mountains, 
stating the grounds of their terror. Therefore we may take the green 
tree as typifying the young, strong, and healthy : the dry tree (comp. 
Is. Ivi. 3, " Neither let the eunuch say, Behold I am a dry tree ;'' 
Ezek. xxi. 3 [xx. 47], xxxi. 3,' etc.), the old, feeble, and barren. A 
remarkable passage occurs in Joseph., B. vi. de B. J. ch. xliv. f. 
968, ed Lips. "When the soldiers were wearied out in killing the 
Jews, and a great multitude seemed still to be left surviving, Csssar 
ordered that those alone who were armed and offered resistance 
should be slain, and that the rest should be made captives. But the 
soldiers furoi (the sense requires xara) tuv 'Trapriyyi'k/Miviiiv, contrary to 
what had been commanded, slew the old and feeble (TOTS 

1 Where the Assyrian is called " a cedar in Lebanon.'' Comp. xvii. 24, " I 
the Lord have dried up the green tree, and made the dry tree *^o flourish." — 
E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXIIl. 32-34. 21 r 

A20ENEI2), (TO A* akmazon), but shut up in confinement those 
who were vigorous and serviceable," etc. Therefore in this crown- 
ing calamity they began debating with one another, as usually hap- 
pens, which was the more miserable. Tending to the same view of 
the words is the fact, that guXov denotes either a tree that is standing, 
or the wood of a tree that has been cut, which latter also is wont to 
be either moist (for so Erasmus renders lyphv, humidum, still retaining 
the sap) or else dry. Elsewhere indeed Christ is the tree of life, per- 
fect in its verdure : men, whilst outside of Him, are dry wood. See 
John XV. 1, 2. But His suffering (punishment) was truly more 
severe than that of any Jew, after the city was taken. 

32. "'E.Tifoi, others) among whom (as though He were a 'male 
factor' like them) Jesus was reckoned. Comp. ver. 39 ; and Acts 
xxvii. 1 (" Paul and certain other prisoners"). Yet the Greek eVe^w 
is more honourable to Him than aXkoi would be ; for the former 
more expresses the idea of a difference and dissimilarity between 
Him and them. — xaxoupyoi) Construe this, not with iripoi, but with 
duo [" two others ; namely, two malefactors"] (comp. ver. 33, 41, 
where they are contradistinguished from Him). 

33. Kpdviov, Calvary ["the place of a skull"]) In topographies 
the nomenclature is often derived from the parts of the human body. 

34. "EXfys, said) This is the first utterance of Jesus Christ on the 
cross. There are in all seven such utterances to be drawn from 
the four Evangelists, no single one of whom has recorded them all. 
From this it is evident, that their four records are as it were four 
voices, which, joined together, form one symphony ; and at one 
time single voices sound (solos), at another, two voices (duets), at 
another, three (trios), at another, all the voices together. The 
Saviour went through most of the ordeal on the cross in silence ; 
but His seven utterances contain a recapitulation of the doctrine 
calculated to be of profit to us in our last hours. [It would not be 
imattended with profit to comp. with this the German hymn of the 
Author, composed on a particular occasion, beginning thus : — 
" Mittler ! alle Kraft der Worte," etc. It may be found in " Sen. 
Udspergeri Unterricht fiir Kranke und Sterbende," Aug. Vind., 
1756, p. 408, and in " S. K. J. C. Storrii Gottgeheihgten Flammlein, 
etc., Stuttg. .1755, p. 315. — E. B.] For in these utterances He 
has regard to both His enemies and a converted sinner, and His 
mother with His disciple, and His heavenly Father. These seven 
utterances may also be compared with the seven petitions in the 
Lord's prayer. Even in the verv order of the utterances, mysteries 

212 ST LUKE XXIII. 35. 

are hidden ; and from it may be illustrated the successive steps of 
every persecution, affliction, and conflict (agonis) of the Christian. 
—ndTip, Father) At the beginning, and at the close of His suffer- 
ing on the cross. He calls upon God by the appellation, Father.— 
atpic, forgive) Had He not uttered this prayer, the penalty might 
have begun at once, whilst this most atrocious crime was in the act 
of perpetration, as often happened in like cases in the time of 
Moses. The prayers of the Long-suffering One (or simply, the Suf- 
ferer) prevent the immediate execution of wrath, and obtain a fiiU 
' forgiveness' for the time to come, as well as ' repentance' [Acts v. 
31] for those who were about (i. e. willing) to accept it. [Who 
knows but that forgiveness and repentance were vouchsafed to the 
few soldiers who took charge of the crucifixion ? — Harm., p. 563.] 
— oiUToT;, them) viz. those who were crucifying Him. — [rl mioijei, 
what they do) They knew certainly that they were in the act of 
crucifying, but Who it was that they were crucifying, they knew 
not. And truly it was awful ignorance on their part ; but if that 
ignorance had been removed, they would not have crucified the 
Lord of glory ; nevertheless, even heavier guilt was incurred by 
him who sinned knowingly. — V. g.] 

35. ['O Xais, the people) not the rabble (o%Xo() indiscriminately 
(whether Jews or Gentiles), as in ver. 48, but the Jewish people 
is here meant. — V. g. — hupSiv, beholding) The people no doubt 
feasted their eyes with that spectacle ; for Luke states, that the 
rulers with them/ namely, with the people, derided the Saviom'. 
But, a short while after, a check was put upon their fondness 
(lit. itching) for derision, ver. 48. — Harm., p. 564.] — euv aunli) 
viz. vdth those who had crucified Him.^ [Luke collects into 
one passage the mocking insults with which Jesus was harassed 
when being crucified, ver. 35-39. The inscription on the 
cross was itself an insult in the eyes of the heathens. For 
which reason, Luke makes mention of the vinegar also, which 
was offered to Him by the soldiers, sooner than the other evan- 
gelists.^ — Harm., p. 566. Men of respectability do not usually, 

' aiiu aiirais is read in A Vulg. and Rec. Text. But BCDLQftc omit the 
words.— E. and T. 

2 But the Harm., quoted above, makes' it with the people. — E. and T. 

" Matt, xxvii. 48 ; Mark xv. 36 ; John xix. 29. But all these describe the 
second offering of the vinegar, in compassion, to refresh His thirst, just before 
death. Whereas Matt, xxvii. 34, Mark xv. 23, and Luke here, ver. 35, de- 
scribes the vinegar, " mingled with gall," offered in mockery, and at an earlier 
point of time — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXUI. 37, 38. 21S 

under ordinary circumstances, blend themselves with such scenes ; 
but wantonness and desire of revenge in the present instance 
took away all regard for their own dignity. No one ever was 
derided with such sneers as was Jesus. See that you feel grate- 
ful to Him, and learn to endure meekly insults, especially when 
for His sake. — ^V. g.] — [o tou 0eou hXixTig, the cJiosen of God) 
It is not befitting, say they, that the chosen of GrOD (if Jesus were 
really so) should die upon a cross. — V. g.] — ouros, this man) Used 
as a demonstrative, with contempt. 

37. Ka/, and) viz. The soldiers, in mocking Him, make the title 
of ' King' the subject of their taunts ; whilst the Jews and their 
high priest taunt Him with the other things also (ver. 35). [The 
soldiers combined the taunts which they drew from the inscription 
on the cross, and the jeers of the high priests, into the sneer men- 
tioned in this verse, — ^V. g.J 

38. '^Hm dc xal, now there was also) The mention of His Kingship 
joins the 37th and 38th verses. — ypd/j^f/^ctm, in letters) There are still, 
to the present day, three languages in particular, to which they 
who learn and preach Christ are bound to devote their attention — 
^Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. — 'E/3^a;xo?s, Hebraic, of Hebrew) In 
John xix. 20, the Hebrew is placed first in order. Luke enume- 
rates the languages in the order in which Pilate had arranged 
them.' That order was [if one is disposed to admit of conjecture. 
— Harm., p. 567] Greek, Latin, Hebrew. John arranges them ac- 
cording to the custom of the Hebrews, in the order of their nature 
and dignity. Both however adopt that order, in which Christ and 
His cross and kingdom were subsequently preached. The begin- 
ning was made in the Hebrew tongue : in the last times the 
Hebrews shall have the first place (the most prominent part to fill). 

' Townson, in his Harmony of tiie Gospels, shows the prohability that 
Matthew gave the Hebrew inscription, as in other particulars his Gospel has 
most of an Hebraic character, This is Jesus the King op the Jews. Mark, 
in accordance with the Latin or Roman aspect of his Gospel, probably gave the 
Latin inscription. The Kino of the Jews ; and so no foreign word is found in 
this, supposing that this is the Latin. Pilate would scorn to introduce any 
word from another tongue in the inscription written in the language of dominant 
Rome. The brevity, too, accords with the genius both of the Latin and of the 
Evangelist's own style. Luke follows Mark with This is (oEto'j hriv, verse 35), 
brought down from above, This is the King op the Jews. Thus the Greek is 
left for John, Jesus op Nazareth the King of the Jews. But Bengel's 
view, given in the note, John xix. 19, that the words were the same in the three 
languages, is perhaps more probable. See his note. — E. and T. 

214 ST LUKE XXIII. 39-41. 

The Koman tongue never occupied the first place ; nor is it destined, 
after the destruction of Eome, to remain in great vigour. 

39. '■E.BXaatpniiii, began railing at Him) The most extreme trials 
do not bend every one. [Nay, indeed, so great is the strength of 
the mind disposed to sneering (the cavilling mind), that it can he- 
tray itself even when hung on a cross.— V. g.] That this robber 
was a Jew, and that the other was a Gentile, may be inferred from 
the language of both, and from other circumstances ; for the former, 
according to the custom of the Jews, sneers at His assumption of 
the name, Christ ; the latter directs his thoughts towards the name 
assigned to Him, King, as the soldiers did, but in a better way. 
We may add, that the Lord, in promising him blessedness, makes 
allusion, not to the words of the promises given to the fathers, but 
to the first beginnings of things [when the distinction of Jew and 
Gentile had not arisen], viz. concerning Paradise. Nor is it op- 
posed to this, that the words of the converted man refer to the one 
God [whereas the Gentiles believed in a plurality of Gods] : for 
faith in Christ, as an immediate consequence, infers faith in the one 
God. But still, let the Hebrew term in ver. 43, 'A/j,riv, verily, he 
considered, which however does not necessarily presuppose that the 
person addressed is a Hebrew. Comp. Matt, xxv. 40 [where the 
Judge saith, 'A/j^nti Xiyu vf/,iv, to persons not necessarily Hebrews]. 
Henc3 the opinion anciently entertained, as to the, con verted robber 
being a Gentile, retains a show of probability. I have written 
above, it may be inferred [not, it is positively certain]. — Xiyciiv, say- 
ing) with raging impatience and ferocity. 

40. 'O 'inpog, the Other of the two) The exceedingly hard cross 
rendered much help towards his repentance. Conversion seldom 
takes place on a soft and easy couch. — [liriTlf/.a avrSi, rebuked him) 
Thou mayest see here combined penitence, faith, confession, prayer, 
reproof of the ungodly, and all that is worthy of the Christian man. 
The abuse of this most choice example is fraught with danger ; the 
legitimate use of it is in the highest degree profitable. — V. g;] — oiSi) 
Dost thou not even fear ? Not to say, long for, have a desire after. 
\_Fear is the first commencement in the reformation (rectifying) of 
the mind. — V. g.J— po/3^, /mr) Therefore he himself was influenced 
by fear. — on, because, seeing that) This would have been quite suf- 
ficient cause for fearing. — rffl airffi) the same, as He and I are. 

41. -Aixalag, justly) The penitent approves of the penalty awarded 
to his sin. — oItoc, this man) The converted robber had seen and 
heard the successive progress (course) of the Lord's passion, at 

ST LUKE XXIII. 42, 48. 216 

least from tlie time of His being led forth from the city : or even 
he may have previotisly seen and heard Jesus. — obdiv arovov) nothing 
amiss, nothing unseasonable or out of place. 

42. Mv^aSrjTi, remember) He makes request modestly. ' Remem- 
brance' extends to a far distant period (i.e. he means that the re- 
membrance which he craves may hold good in a time yet to come, 
and a far way off). A most choice prayer. — K-Jpie, Lord) He 
publicly addresses by the appellation, Lord, Him whom His own 
disciples themselves had abandoned. — iX6pg, when thou shalt have 
come) hereafter, viz. from heaven. The antithesis to this is Jesus' 
expression in ver. 43, To-day. — h rji — gov) in Thy kingdom. He 
acknowledges Him as King, and a King of such a sort as can, 
though dead, benefit the dead, Not even the apostles at that time 
entertained so pure sentiments concerning the kingdom of Christ 
(without mixture of the alloy of notions concerning a temporal 
kingdom then). — ^agiXeicf, kingdom) Frequent mention of His King- 
ship and kingdom had preceded. See ver. 2, 3, 37, 38. Faith 
accepts in serious earnest the truth, which has been distorted and 
perverted into a subject of sneering by the Lord's adversaries. 

43. l,fifLipov, to-day) On that day the converted robber could have 
hardly looked for death.^ But the breaking of the legs was made 
subservient to this end. Thereby the Lord's promise was fulfilled. 
[The marking of the time by the expression, to-day, is not to be 
referred (joined) to the verb, I say, as if the robber should have to 
wait for his entrance into Paradise during I know not how long 
periods of time. That the words were spoken to him on that day, 
is of itself evident (without it being necessary to say so). Jesus 
never used the expression. To-day I say ; whereas He repeatedly 
used the expression, I say. Therefore we must read the words 
thus. To-day shalt thou be with Me in paradise. Thus the power 
and grace of the Lord, and also His own ready and immediate 
entrance into Paradise, is openly declared. — V. g. That was 
indeed to save, ver. 39 (which the impenitent robber had taunted 
Him with, as unable to effect it). — Harm., p. 570]. — /just j/ioD, with me) 
Much more then did Jesus Himself come to Paradise. [A fact which 
must have been very consolatory to Mary, wife of Cleopas, and Mary- 
Magdalene, against men's bitter taunts, and to the Virgin mother and 
John, when communicated to them. — Harm., p. 570]. — h ra Xlapw 
dilgu, in Paradise) in which there are happier trees than in Golgotha 
(especially " the tree of life which is in the Paradise of God"), asso- 

1 So tedious a death is crucifixion. — E. and T. 

216 ST LUKE XXIII. 44-48 

dated with immortality; Eev. ii. 7, note.^ Jesus employs tlie 
most august appellation for the seat of happiness in the profoundest 
depth of His own suffering. Comp. note on ch. xvi. 22, [The Jews 
called the good state of the dead the losom of Abraham and the 
garden of Eden.] This departure to Paradise differs no doubt from 
the ascension to heaven, John xx. 17 ("I am not yet ascended to 
My Father"), but yet it shows that His descent to 'hell' (the 
lower regions unseen) is to be explained in a good sense. 

44. "OX»)v, the whole) Mid-day darkness arising from the sun ob 
scured the whole upper hemisphere ; and the moon, which was then 
in opposition to the sun, without deriving any light from the sun, 
left in obscurity the lower hemisphere. 

46. ndrep, Father) The Father received the Spirit of Jesus; 
Jesus " receives the spirits" of believers : Acts vii. 59 [Stephen's 
last prayer, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit"]. — Tapa^rjaofiai) I will 
commend, in the very act,^ [As a deposit committed to Him at 
death. It was at this point of time, the most precious truly of all, 
that the atonement was made. — V. g.J 

47. "OvToj;, in very truth) Previously it seemed a matter of doubt 
to the spectators : now he affirms it as a certainty. — Slxaiog, a 
righteous) In this proclaiming (open avowal) of His righteousness, 
is contained the approval, on the part of the centurion, of all the 
words of Jesus, even of the doctrine as to Jesus being the Son of 
God, ver. 46; ['Father,' implying that He was "Son of God." 
Therefore the expression is, " Truly this was the Son of God," in] 
Matt, xxvii. 54, inasmuch as this was the very subject about which 
the discussion had been even before Pilate. John xix. 7 [" By our 
law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God"]. 
Comp. Is. xH. 26, 23.' 

48. &iupla,v, sight) They who had been merely spectators [who 
previously had been stirred up by the high priests to raise the cry, 
Crucify Him, but who now were altogether differently disposed. — 

' No other tree but " the tree of life " is mentioned there ; whereas in Gen. 
ii. 9, iii. 3, many others grow, and it is in the midst — words not in the best 
MSS. of Rev. ii. 7.— E. and T. 

2 So Kec. Text and LA. But ir»pa.Tlhfia,i in ABOPQ Orig. 3,726e; 'com- 
mendo,' in ahcd Vulg. Hil. 1074, Syr. and Memph. Versions. So Engl. Vers. 
— E. and T. 

» " Who hath declared from the beginning, that we may say. He is righteousf 
— Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are 
gods." This contrasts with the heathen gods Him of whom alone the cen- 
turion's declaration could be made, He is righteous. — E. and T 

ST LUKE XXIII. 50-56. 217 

Harm., p. 577], were now revolving in their minds thoughts tending 
to salvation, and were being prepared for the Pentecost described 
in Acts ii. ; but those who had perpetrated the deed were for the 
most part in a state of agitation. — TOLhrnv, tliis sight) viz. of the cross. 
— rdi, ysvo/isra, the things which had been done) at the death of Jesus. 
The sight (huplav) which they had sought for was attended with a 
sight {SicaprjgavTig to, jivojii^a) which they looked not for. 

50. 'Aya^Jff %a,\ Sixaiog, a man good and just) Eom. v. 7.* Every 
man that is ayaShg, good, is also dr/.aioe, just ; not vice versa. Luke 
mentions the whole (aya^Jj, the genus) before the part {binaioi, the 
species). Paul observes the difference between these words more 

51. Ouros) He, i.e. he alone. [If aught that is wrong goes for- 
ward without thy consent, do not at least give your approval to the 
act.-^ — y. g.] Nicodemus, we know, was apy^uiv, a ruler, but he is not 
called ^ouXiurris, a counsellor. — rjj /SouXjj, to the counsel) See ver. 1. 
The phraseology approaches nearly to that in Ps. i. 1 [" Blessed is 
the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly"]. — tT] irpa^ii, 
the deed) ver. 33. 

54. 'Hfiifa, ?!/ <KapaaM\in, the day was the preparation) The term 
irapasxiuri is put as an epithet (" It was the preparation-day"). — 
iTspwffxs, was drawing on [lit. was dawning'^ The beginning of the 
Sabbath was in the evening : and yet the expression used is, was he- 
ginning to dawn ; for even the night has its own light, especially at 
the full moon, which was shining at the time." 

55. 'EhdeavTo, looked at [beheldj) so as that' with the greater ease 
they might anoint Him the day but one following (on the day after 
the morrow). — rh //^vri/nTov, the sepulchre) ver. 53. 

56. ' Hrolfioigav, they prepared) They had their home in Galilfee; 
ver. 49. The office they rendered to Him is the greater on that ac- 
count, as being rendered away from home, and attended with greater 
cost and trouble. [Thou hereby dost perceive truly unwearied piety 
(affection) and assiduity springing from faith ; which faith, however, 

1 The man who fulfils his lawful duty towards others, and no more, is called 
lixaiof, Hebr. ]>^i^. He who also confers benefits on others is oaios, '''on. 
Aya^oV approaches to the latter ; one perfect in all the offices of piety, gene- 
rous, large-minded, and a benefactor to men. — B. and T. 

' Rather iiri(pmx,iii is naturally used, though by catachresis, where dm/ is 
the subject, even though counted artificially from evening. So the Jews called 
the evening i''«, light, denominating even the beginning of the twenty-four hours 
day, a potior! parte, viz. the light. — E. and T. 

218 ST liUKK XXIV. 1-10. 

itself already underwent a strange eclipse in those excellent souls. — 
Harm., p. 583.] — apuifj-aTo., spices) which are dry. — ijj\jpa, ointments) 
which are liquid. — ^ajSiSaTov, the Sabbath) The rest appointed to be 
observed on the Sabbath was more obligatory than the rest connected 
with the feast. [Christ's rest in the sepulchre claimed to itself this 
whole Sabbath, which is on that veiy account most worthy of atten- 
tive consideration. The things which at that time took place in the 
kingdom of the invisible world, will benefit believers in no ordinary- 
degree, so long as there shall remain aught of them, nay, indeed to 
all eternity. — V. g. Most excellent effects truly took place, during 
the calm repose of this Sabbath, in those souls which, though timid, 
were yet choice and precious, nay, indeed in the Saviour Himself. 1 
Pet. iii. 18, 19 ; Acts ii. 24, et seqq. — Harm., p. 583.] 


1. Tm;, some) viz. other women, who had not come from 

2. Tin X/^oK, the stone) Luke mentioned nothing previously as to 
the stone ; but takes for granted in the narrative itself that the stone 
had been rolled to the mouth of the sepulchre. (Comp. John 
xi. 38.) 

4:."AvSp£g, men) viz. angeh. Seever. 23. Comp. Matt. xxviii. 5.^ 

5. Tin luvra.) Him, who not merely has returned to life, but is 
altogether the living One. [The truth of the resurrection is most surely 
established. — V. g.] — fi,iTa. rm vexpZv, with [' among'] the dead) in the 
state and position (condition) of the dead. 

7. Thv Tihv Tou Mpunu, the Son of man) This is repeated from the 
discourses which were delivered by the Lord before His passion. 
But the Lord Himself did not give Himself the appellation, Son of 
man, after His resurrection, but either spake in the first person, or 
else employed the express appellation, Christ.~a/j,apTuXuv, of sinful 
men) viz. the Gentiles. 

10. ?!-—«;) So [a Plural nominative follows after a Singular verb 
and nominative, the verb Plural being supplied fi-om the Singular 

* Where mention is maSe only of one angel, viz. the angel who spoke — 
t andT. 

ST LUKE XXIV. 12-18. 219 

verb] Deut. xxvli. 9, xal IXdXrjai Mcougris xal o'l iipiT; — X'iyovTig. So 1 
Cor. ix. 6.^ The names are given in this place in particular, as 
being those of the witnesses to the fact, and not sooner. 

12. 'A-TrjXk wphg kavrhv, departed to his own home') 'As to the 
matter of fact, comp. ver. 34 ; as to the phrase, comp. the note on 
John XX. 10 [^airfiXSov 'jrphs aureus o/ /jja^nral, "the disciples departed 
to their own homes"'\. 

16. 'ExfaroSvro, were holden) The antithesis is in ver. 31, binwr/;- 
6ri(Sa\i, their eyes were opened. 

17. eJVe, He said) It is the part of wisdom, to pass with ease into 
profitable conversation. John iv. 7, 8 [Jesus taking occasion from 
the well, and His request to the woman of Samaria for a drink, to 
pass to the subject of the living water] ; Acts viii. 30 [Philip and 
the Eunuch reading Isaiah]. 

18. 'O iTg, the one) The name of the other of the two is not given ; 
who notwithstanding was also dear to the Lord. So too John i. 35, 
40 [where " two disciples" are mentioned, of whom Andrew alone 
is named]. The godly are mentioned not for their own sake, but 
for the sake of others. [Long ago Origen indeed considered Peter 
to be the companion of Cleopas who was meant (L. contra Celsum, 
p. 105) ; but in that case either Peter would have spoken, or at least 
Cleopas would have more distinctly appealed to Peter's report of 
what he had seen at the sepulchre in ch. xxiv. 24. There is to be 
added the fact, that both of these disciples are expressly distinguished 
from "the Eleven" in ver. 33. Harduin suspects that Cephas, Gal. 
ii. 9 ; 1 Cor. i. 2, 9, 15, was a disciple distinct from Peter ; and from 
the passage, 1 Cor. xv. 5, that he was the companion of Cleopas, 
Op. seL, p. 928. But from 1 Cor. xv. 9, it is not obscurely evident 
that Paul speaks of Kephas as an apostle. One may more reason- 
ably raise the question, whether the Simon to whom the Lord ap- 
peared was not a disciple distinct, as well from the companion of 
Cleopas, as also from Peter or, as he is otherwise named, Kephas, 
inasmuch as the appearance of our Lord was vouchsafed to the latter 

^ iM^ oix. t%oi^i!i k^ovalaii — a; ol Tlo/tto) «xoVt(iAo<, viz. e)(,omi« ; However Be 
read ^irciu Se, and so Lachm. and Tisch. AD omit the words. Inferior Uncial 
MSS. and the best Versions ab Vulg. Memph. Theb. read tju U. — E. and T. 

' As the French chez lui. But Dab Euseb. Can. omit ver. 12, which may 
have come from John xx. 4, 5, 6 : Tisch. omits it. However ABc Vulg. Memph. 
Theb. retain the verse. B omits xe/^ei/*, and A and Vulg. MS. Amiat. omit 
uoiia. Lachm. brackets the verse. Vulg. and Engl. Vers, connect vfoi e«uTo» 
not with aw^Tih, but with ffuvfia^a:/, wondering in (with) himself. ~K and T. 

220 RT LUKE XXIV. 19-2G. 

before that Peter returned to the rest from the walk mentioned 
in ch. xxiv. 12. Whichever of these views be correct, at least it 
is certain that the Saviour appeared to the women first ; then to 
some of the disciples not distinguished with the dignity of apostles ; 
in fine, to Simon Peter, who even most of all stood in need of this 
grace, and to the rest of the apostles, who as well as Peter ought to 
have conceived faith sooner than all the rest, and that too a faith of a 
more elevated character. — Harm., p. 603.] — •xapoi-AiTs, art Tliou only 
a new-comer [' stranger']) Jesus here seems to have retained the 
dialect of Galilee, inasmuch as Cleopas does not tate Plim to be a 
citizen of Jerusalem. 

19. Ta ■jTE/j/) The things concerning Jesus." This clause, after the 
description of the Subject (Jesus) has been interposed, is explained 
in detail in ver. 20 : with which comp. ver. 14 and 18 at the end. 

21. 2ijv •!Tagi Touroii, besides all these things^ Hebr. nt 73 DJ?. — rfknv, 
third) Therefore after the death of Jesus they seem to have enter- 
tained some hope on the first and second day, which however they 
lay aside on that very day on which the hope is ftilfilled. — ayii) used 

24. [E/Vov, had said) viz. that the body was not in the sepulchre. 
— V. g.] — ahrh) Himself. 

25. 'Avojjro;, fools) [void of mind]. In proportion as faith is the 
slower or the speedier in being entertained, the worse or the better 
is the voDs (from which comes avo'jjro/) or mind. Gal. iii. 1 [O foohsh 
Galatians] ; John i. 49 [Nathanael's quick confession, " Thou art the 
Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel"]. [A salutary reproof. 
— V. g.J — \fipabiTg, slow) "We ought to be quick in believing, where 
we have sufficient warrant of any word of GoD. — V. g.] — It/, on 
the authority of [respecting'^ The words of the prophets are open to 
you, and yet ye do not believe. Almost in the same way bia is used 
in John iv. 41, 42 [" Many more believed because of His own word 
(5/(i rhv Xoyov aunu) ; — not because of (dici,) thy saying"]. 

26. Tavra, these things) The very things which ye take up as 
causes to create doubt, are characteristic marks of the Christ. — Uei, 
ought) because it was so foretold. — ■!roi,kTv, to suffer) It is respecting 
this point of faith that the slowness of belief on the part of men 
most especially exhibits itself. See Matt. xvi. 22 [Peter, after his 
noble confession of Christ's divinity, on hearing of His cross, saith, 
"Be it far from Thee, Lord," etc.].— [rin- Xpierhv, the Christ) the 
Eedeemer of Israel, ver. 21.— V. g.] — iIseXkTv, to enter) which could 
not have been accomplished in any other wav. 

ST LUKE XXIV. 27-3C. 221 

27. T& mpt iaurou, the things concerning Himself) namely, the 
things which had been written. There is no doubt but that the 
passages alluded to were the same as those which the apostles subse- 
quently were wont especially to quote. 

28. UpogivoiiTro) He made (acted) as though He was about to go 
farther ; and He had been about to go farther, had not they besought 
Him, and perhaps had been about to appear to them in another 

29. MsTm, abide) They were beseeching Him, from love for His 
own sake, and from hospitality, that He should not venture to pro- 
ceed on His journey by night. 

30. Aa|8(uv, having taken) according to His wonted mode. 

31. "A<pavTog syeviro) He vanished out of their sight. This too 
showed that it was He. The former appearances of Jesus after His 
resurrection were of shorter continuance, in order that the more 
room (scope) might be left for faith. 

32. Kaio/Mvr}, burning) much and for long. [A most blessed sen- 
sation ! — V. g.] — ?iv, was) They observed the fact more afterwards; 
than during the actual continuance of the burning sensation. — sXdXu 
ij/jjii) He spake to us. This means more than with us [which is how- 
ever the Engl, rendering]. — \_8jrimyi\i, He opened) The Scripture is 
opened out, when " the understanding" is opened, ver. 45. — V. g.] 

33. Aurfi rr\ oipcf, the same hour) of the night or tiie evening. Now 
no longer have they any fear of the journey by night, which they had 
previously dissuaded their unknown companion against in ver, 29. — 
\_\i'!ri(STfii-^oi,\i, they returned) actively. — V. g.] — euvrjSpoia/j.houg, gathered 
together) as persons who meet to consult on some sudden emergency. 

34. AsyovTccg, saying) Appearances had taken place on both sides, 
whereby they to whom they had been vouchsafed mutually confirmed 
one another. So the distinct appearances to Paul on the one hand, and 
to Ananias on the other, mutually confirmed one another. Acts ix. 10, 
12 ; and to Cornelius and Peter respectively, x. 3, 10 ; and to Moses 
and to Aaron, Ex. iv. 27, 28. — ovriws, inverydeed) They cast away their 
former fioubt, but not completely; for in ver. 37, "they are affrighted 
at His appearance as if they had seen a ghost." Mark xvi. 13 [They 
(the two) went and told it to the residue; neither believed they them]. 

35. 'EyvueSri) He made Himself known. So yiinx, LXX. ymgirigo- 
/J.UI, Num. xii. 6, "I will make myself known." So lupidriv ("Tprsesto 
fui"), T caused myself to be found, Eom. x. 20. 

36. "Earn) stood : before that they perceived Him coming. — h 
li'ssif), in the midst) This is more significant than iif //-inv, into the 

222 ST LUKE XXIV. 38-45, 

midst, would be. — ilpm, peace) A form of salutation, transferred by 
the Saviour to higher things : Eph. ii. 17, [He came and preached 
peace to you which were afar off, etc.] — £/w £/>/, fifi ipo^iTgh, it is I, 
he. not afraid) The Versions present these four words, in accordance 
with the MS. of Wolf, with great unanimity : and they are in con- 
sonance with ver. 38, 39.' 

38. A/aXoy/tf/Ao/, thoughts) The Lord throws open their thoughts. 
—&m^\i, rise up) A well chosen phrase. Our thoughts are 
hidden from us, before that they rise up. 

39. Khrhi) I Myself, Jesus.— ■3-v£C//.a, a spirit) See ver. 37. 

40. TAs %E??'a?, His hands) well known to them. The senses of 
touch and sight assure the soul. 

41. 'AT/ffrojvrwv, whilst they were distrusting the evidence of their 
senses) They no doubt beheved at the time, otherwise they would 
not have rejoiced : but the full exercise of their faith was being re- 
tarded by their joy. Strong affection and intent knowledge mu- 
tually impede one another. 

43. "K(payev, He did eat) freely, without any necessity : on this 
account He did not also drink. 

44. E/Ve, He said) namely, on the day of the Ascension. See 
ver. 50, with which comp. Acts i. 2, 5, 9.^ — ?", as yet) It was a 
thing sad to hear of, before that it took place ; but now most joyous, 
when it has taken place. — h r{S v6/i.ifi, x.t.X., in the law, etc.) Here 
we have the division of the Hebrew Bible [the Law, the Prophets, 
and the Hagiographa]. — irpofriTais, the Prophets) the former and 
later Prophets. It is in reference to the former ones, that the Pro- 
phets are put before the Psalms. As to the Twelve especially, see 
Sir. xlix. 12. — -^aKfLotg, the Psalms) The Hagiographa, the foremost 
place in which is occupied by the Psalms, a remarkable portion of 
the Scriptures, in which also the subject of Christ and His kingdom 
is most copiously discussed. See note on Heb. x. 8 [which quotes 
Ps. xl. 6, " Sacrifice and offering Thou didst not desire — then said 
I, Lo, I come," etc. ; proving the great authority of the Psalms]. 

45. Airim^ev, He opened) Many obstacles which are in our mind 
need to be removed out of the way, in order that we may under- 
stand. See Acts xvi. 14 [" The Lord opened the heart of Lydia, 

1 GPc Vulg. read the words. But ABD06 Memph. (1 MS.) Theb. omit 
them. Lachm. retains them in brackets. — E. and T. 

' Verse 47, " Beginning at Jerusalem," accords with Acts i. 8, " Ye shall be 
witnesses to Me, both in Jerusalem," etc., spoken just before the Ascension.-— 
E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXIV. 46-49. 223 

that she attended to the things which were spoken of Paul"']. He 
opened both by His power and by His words. — rag ■ypa<pa;, the Scrip- 
tures) See with what power, not long after, Peter brought forward 
the Scriptures in Acts ii. et seqq. ; as also with what wisdom in Acts 
i. 16, 20 [the prophecy and direction of the psalm as to Judas]. 

46. Ka! oiircag) and therefore thus. 

47. 'Ap^d/isvov^ The Accusative absolute, as in Acts x. 37 [o'l'daTi 
TO yim/J^ivov prifMO, — ap^df/^svov aTh Ttjg VaXiXaiagJ. 

48. 49. Mdprupeg — svayyeXiav, witnesses — the promise) John xv. 
27, 26 [" Ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me 
from the beginning — When the Comforter is come, whom I will 
send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, whicJi pro- 
ceedeth from the Father, He shaU testify of Me"]. 

49. ' AmgrixXai, I send) The Present. Comp. note on John xx. 
17.^ — rriv kitayyiXiav, the promise) i.e. the Spirit, who has been 
promised ; Acts i. 4, ii. 33, notes. [Ammonius says, 'MTiieyyikai is 
applied to one who undertakes or engages that he will give to him 
who has asked; l^ay/tXXsra/, of one who of himself promises or en- 
gages to give.] This was clear to them from the conversation He 
had with them, John xiv. 16, 17 |T will pray the Father, and He 
shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you for 
ever, even the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot receive, etc.]. 
For a-jrogriXkis^ai is for the most part used of persons ; '!ri//,msSa,i, of 
the person and of the thing. The abstract for the concrete is suit- 
able to those times of the beginning of the Church ; comp. note on 
Matt. iv. 17. [The first preaching was in the abstract, " The king- 
dom of God is at hand ;'' afterwards in the concrete, " The King," 
or " Messiah." The former suited the hidden beginnings of the 
Gospel ; the latter, the glorification of Jesus.] So presently, dum/jbiv, 
power. — roij iLarpoc fio\), of My Father) The Father promised and gave 
His gifts through His Son. — 'ispoueaXri//,, Jerusalem) For it was 
there that they were about to receive the promise. [If they had 
not received this- direction, they without a doubt would have left the 
city. — V. g.] — Bvdvsrjgh, until ye be clothed [endued]) suddenly and 
completely. We are naked whilst destitute of the heavenly power. 
They had heretofore been purified, viz. through the word, John xv. 
3 [" Now ye are clean through the word, which I have spoken unto 

1 " I ascend unto My Father," not « I will ascend." The time of His ascen- 
sion, and, here in Luke, of the consequent sending down of the Spirit, being 
regarded as already present. So as to the second Coming, / come, 'ipx,ofi»i, not 
I mil come, Rev. xxii. 20. See note on Luke ix. 51. — E. and T. 

224 ST LDICE XXIV. 50-5? 

you"] : now clothing also is promised to them. — sg 'i-^ovg, from on 
high) to which Jesus ascended. The height, put for heaven, is an 
expression from sacred poetry. See Eph. iv. 8, from Psalm Ixviii, 
18 [" When He ascended up on high, He led captivity captive"]. 

50. \^ E^riyayiv 6i, and He led them forth) Mark and Luke make 
express mention of the Ascension in its own proper place ; John 
(ch. XX. 17), as also Matthew (ch. xxviii. 18, 20), only in passing. 
He who believes the Eesurrection of Christ, must, as a consequence, 
beheve all things that follow upon it. Therefore the Gospel His- 
tory strictly reaches in its extent up to the Eesurrection : Acts i. 
22 (" Beginning from the baptism of John unto that same day that 
He was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness 
with us of His resurrection") ; Eom. x. 9 [" If thou — shalt beheve 
in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt 
be saved"]. — Harm., p. 613.] — 'i^ta, out) to that place, where He 
suffered. [A remarkable place was the Mount of Olives, Acts i. 
12, and Bethany especially so, in respect of all those things which 
are recorded in John xi. 1, et seqq. (as to the raising of Lazarus), 
xii. 1, et seqq. (the anointing at Bethany) ; Luke xix. 29, et seqq. (the 
royal entry into Jerusalem from Bethany) ; Matt. xxi. 17 (His 
lodging at Pethany during Passion week), xxiv. 3 (His prophecy 
on the Mount of Olives as to the end of Jerusaiem and of the 
world) ; Luke xxii. 39 (His agony in Gethsemane, which is at the 
side of Olivet). Comp. Zech. xiv. 4.^ — Harm., p. 612.] — us) to- 
wards. — s'!r(fi>ag, having lifted up) The gesture of one in the act of 
praying or pronouncing a blessing. He did not now any more lay 
on them His hands. Comp. John xx. 22, note. [After His resur- 
rection He did not touch mortals, although He allowed Himself to 
be handled by His disciples. " He breathed on them."] — ilXoyriSiv, 
He blessed them) This benediction appertains to all believers; for 
the Eleven, and those who were with them, were at the time the 
representatives of these. 

52. llpoi!%\i\in(!oi.)irii, having worshipped Him) In that attitude, 
which is described in Acts i. 11 [" Looked stedfastly toward 
heaven — Stand ye gazing up into heaven"]. Therefore Christ 
must be God. — x^-fo-i, with ^'03/) No longer now were they missing 
with sad regret the sight of the Lord. This was a prelude to Pen- 
tecost. John xiv. 28 [" If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice, because I 

^ " His feet shall stand in that day on the -Mount of Ouves." From which it 
appears the same mount is to be the scene of His return, as of His Ascension. 
Comp. Acts i. 11. — E. and T. 

ST LUKE XXIV. 53. 225 

said, I go unto the Father"]. [No doubt they rejoiced both con- 
cerning what was passed, and concerning what was promised in 
time to come. — Harm., p. 613.] So it is recorded of the Eunuch 
and Phihp, Acts viii. 39 [" The Spirit of the Lord caught away 
Philip : and he (the eunuch) went on his way rejoicing"J. 

53. Aia'?ra,vThg h rjS '/epip, continually in the temple) ch. ii. 37 
["Anna — departed not from liie temple, but served God with fast- 
ings and prayers night and day"]. — amuvrn, praising) which is the 
fruit of joy. 

VOL. ri. 



In this book is set forth the history of the Son of God dwelling 
among men, and that — 

I. The history of His earliest days : wherein the 
writer, after premising a summary of the whole 
Gospel truth,'' , . . Ch. i. 1-14 

Records the testimony which John the Baptist 
gave after the Lord's baptism ; as also His 

1 He is the chief of the Evangelists, whom we could least afford to be with- 
out. He takes for granted very much that is recorded in the thrfee former 
Gospels ; viz. all the events which preceded the Lorcfs baptism : first of all, the 
place of His natimiy, comp. ch. vii. 42 ; also the name of the mother of Jesus; 
His temptation in the wilderness [John's representation of Jesus returning by 
way of Bethabara to Galilee, ch. i. 28, 29, 43, as if from the wilderness, is quite 
in accordance with the view of the Synoptic Evv. : the interview with John the 
Baptist took place after the Lord's baptism, as appears ver. 32, 33 ; and as the 
temptation followed the baptism immediately, and the interview was followed at 
once by a return to Galilee, the interview, ver. 29, must have taken place be- 
tween the temptation and the return to Galilee] ; John's own name, and that of 
his brotlier and of the other apostles ; the circumstances which caused the Baptist 
to be imprisoned [the imprisonment itself he expressly alludes to, ch. iii. 24], 
also his death ; the Transfiguration, although John was himself present at it; 
lastly, the agony at the Mount of Olives, and Jesus' prayer that the ' cup ' might 
pass from Him. — Harm., p. 38. In modern expression, one may call John's 
Book a Supplement to the Gospel History, as set forth by Matthew, Mark, and 
Luke. And in this Supplement, one may fix on four divisions • the first of them, 
chapters i.-v. ; the second, ch. vi. ; the third, ch. vii.-x. ; the fourth, ch. xi. 21. 
--Harm., p. 155. 

' As to the pre-existing divinity, and the subsequently assumed hunmni'.j af 
tht Word.— E. and T. 



drawing disciples after Him for the first time, 

Herein is noticed. 
What happened 
On the first day, 

On " the NEXT DAT," 

On " the NEXT day" [after that]. 

On " the THIRD DAY,"^ 

" After this," 
H. The history of the two years' intervening 
period, marked chiefly by His journeys to 
I. His journey to His First Passover, 

1. His acts in the city: 

1. His zeal for His Father's house, 

2. The miraculous power and wisdom 

of Jesus ["He knew what was 
in man "], 

3. His instructing Nicodemus, 

2. His sojourn in Judea ; the crowning 

testimony of John the Baptist con- 
cerning Him, 

3. His setting out from Judea, through 

Samaria, to Galilee, where He heals 
the nobleman's son, iv. 1, 4, 43 

n. His journeys to the Feast of Pentecost, 
Here are set down acts of His, 

1. In the city, 

2. In Galilee, before the Second Pass- 

over, and subsequently, vi. 1, 4, 22-71 ; 

vii. 1 
III. His journey to the Feast OF Tabernacles, 2-13 
Here are set down acts of His, 
1. In the city, 

1. In the very middle of the Feast of 

Tabernacles, and on the last day 

of it, . . 14,37-53; viii. 1 

2. Next in order, . . . 2-x. 21 

Ch. i. 15-19 
ii. 1 


iii. 1-21 



V. 1 


' The third day from the day last mentioned, ver. 43. One day is occupied 
on the journey. The day but one after that in ver. 43 is the third day — E. and T 

228 ST JOHU 

3. At the Feast of the Dedication, Ch. x. 22 
2. Beyond Jordan, . . . 40-42 

ni. The history of His last DATS, which were, 

I. The days preceding the great week [the 
week of His death] ; wherein is pre- • 
sen ted to our view, 

1. The account of the two days spent 
outside of Judea, during which 
Lazarus fell sick and died, . xi. 1-6 

2. The journey into Judea ; the raising 
of Lazarus; the counsel of Caiaphas ; 
the sojourn of Jesus in Ephraim, 
ver. 54 : the ' commandment' of His 
adversaries concerning Him, ver. 
57, .... 7-57 

3. The sixth day before the Passover : 
the supper at Bethany ; the anoint- 
ing of Jesus, . . . xii. 1-1 1 

II. In the great Week itself, [during which 
occurred] His Third Passover. 
There was, 

1. On the first day, and the next two 
days consecutively. His royal entry 
into the city ; the desire of certain 
Greeks to see Him; the obstinate 
unbelief of the Jews, 37-43 ; the 
solemn testimony of Jesus, 44, etc., 12-50 

2. On the fourth day, His washing the 
disciples' feet ; His declaring the 
traitor, followed by Judas' going out 
by night, . . . xiii. 1-30 

3. On the fifth day, 

1. His discourse, 

1. Before the Passover Supper, 31, 36-38 

xiv. 5, 8, 22-31 

2. After the Passover Supper, 
followed by His prayer, xv.-xvii. 

2. The beginning of His Passion [last 
suffering, Old Engl.], 

1. In the garden, . xviii. 1-11 

2. Before Caiaphas, , . 12-27 

ST JOHN 1. 1. 229 

4. On the sixth day : 

1. His Passion [suiferings] under Pilate : 

1. In the Prastorium or Hall of 
Judgment, . Ch. xviii, 28-xix. 16 

2. On the Cross, . . 17-30 

2. His death, . . . 30-37 

3. His burial, . . . 38-42 
ni. After the great Week : 

1. On the very day of the Resurrection, xx. 1 

2. Eight days after, . . 26-31 

3. Subsequently, . . . xxi. 1-25 


1. 'Ev ap^ri ^J Xoyog, x.a! o Xoyoj riv vphg rhv &ihv, xai &so; r)v o Xoyoi' 
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
the Word was God) This is the thunder brought down to us by a 
" Son of Thunder;"^ this is a voice from heaven, which man's con- 
jecturing in vain starts objections against. By no reasoning of his 
could any orthodox believer better establish the truth of this pal- 
mary [capital] text, or more effectually refute Artemonism, than 
has Artemon's^ modern follower himself, i.e. Samuel Crellius, whilst 
maintaining throughout the whole of his book, which he has entitled, 
" The Beginning of the Gospel of John restored according to eccle- 
siastical antiquity," that, instead of &s6;, there ought to be written 
010V. His whole system, both in the foundation and the superstruc- 
ture, is mere conjecture : and the more I call to mind the contexture 
of his reasonings, the more I feel confirmed in the truth, which has 
been assailed by this foremost veteran of Unitarianism on such 
trifling grounds. To avow this again and again, I regard as the 
part of piety. In my Introduction [' Apparatus'], page 559, line 1 1, 
there has crept in by mistake, " if you read ©eoS" [si &sou legas], 
whereas the thing speaks for itself, that it ought to have been writ- 
ten, " if you read @i6g" [_si &i6g legas]. The easier such a lapse is, 
the more ought we to follow the steady agreement of all the trans- 
cribers, who happily retain the reading ©eo's. The book of Artemo- 
nius contains two parts, the first of which is more of a critical cha- 
racter ; the second, which is furnished with four Dissertations, more 

^ Boanerges, the title given to John and James. — E. and T. 
' A heretic of 3d cent, a.d., who, with his friend Theodotus, denied tlie 
diyinity of Christ.— Euseb. H. E. v. 28.— E. and T. 

2S0 ST JOHN 1. 1. 

refers to the subject itself. The former we have of course examined 
in the Critical Introduction ; whereas the second is a subject for the 
Gnomon, in which, as we stated in the Introduction, we^ would dis- 
cuss Artemonius' views, independently of the mere critical point 
of view. For in truth the divine honour of our God and Saviour 
is at stake ; and this citadel of the Christian faith is every day more 
and more assailed ; and this book of Artemonius (which is pro- 
nounced in the Biblioth. Angl., T. xv., p. 539, to be one of the 
weightiest of this class ever published) finds more numerous readers 
than is desirable. We shall therefore take the five or six first verses 
of John i., and we shall make on them such remarks as are appli- 
cable, not merely for the refutation of Artemonius, but also for the 
explanation of John. — Iv dpx^) in principio) John's style, especially 
in this passage, is pre-eminent for its simpUcity, nicety [acute re- 
finement, ' subtilitas'], and sublimity. The Beginning here means 
that time, when all things began to be and were created by the 
Word, ver. 3. 'E» apy^f!, he says ; that is. In the beginning, as the 
Septuagint Greek version of Gen. i. 1, and Prov. viii. 23. That by 
The Beginning in this passage no more recent time is meant, is proved 
by the whole series of things in the context ; for the beginning of 
the Gospel [which some allege is meant here] was made, when 
John the Baptist went forth preaching, Mark i. 1 : but the ' Be- 
ginning,' which is here spoken of, is more ancient than the Incar- 
nation of the Word. In like manner, none is higher [goes further 
back]. In the beginning of the heaven and the earth, God created 
the heaven and the earth : in the same beginning of the heaven and 
the earth, and of the world, ver. 10, already the Word was in 
existence, without any beginning or commencement of itself. The 
Word itself is purely eternal ; for it is in the same manner that 
the eternity of the Word and of the Father is described. He was, 
at the time when first were made whatsoever things began to be. 
Artemonius maintained that it is the beginning of the Gospel which 
is meant by John ; and he thus explains the verse : In the beginning 
of the Gospel was the Word ; and the Word, through His first ascen- 
sion to heaven, was, in the same beginning, with God, etc. [Soci- 
nians have invented the figment of Jesus having ascended to heaven 
for instruction before entering on His prophetic office.] This expla- 
nation he attempts to give colour to, by the authority of some of 
the ancients, Photinus, and such like. We shall examine his argu- 
ments. He lays it down, that the first epistle of John was written 
before his Gospel ; and that the beginning of his Epistle is vindi- 

8T JOHN I. 1. gSl 

eated from the perversions of Cerinthus, hy the beginning of his 
Gospel. Thence he infers, that the ' Beginning,' 1 John ii. 13, etc., 
is the beginning of Gospel-preaching ; and accordingly, that in ch. 
i. 1 of the same Ep., and in ch. i. 1 of his Gospel, ' beginning* is used 
in the same sense. — Part ii. c. 13. First [in answer we observe], John 
certainly wrote the Gospel before the destruction of Jerusalem, as we 
show at ch. v. 2, Even Artemonius cannot assert this of the Epistle. 
The Gospel teaches the truth, ch. xx. 31. The Epistle goes further 
and refutes errors, and indicates that a great turn in affairs had 
taken place. John wrote the Gospel, according to the testimony 
of Irenffius [providens blasphemas regulasquse dividunt Dominum], 
FORESEEING the blasphemous systems which rend the Lord^s body. — 
B. iii. c. 18. Such at least was the system even of Cerinthus, which 
Irenaeus pronounces to be not older, than the Gospel of John, when, 
B. iii. c. 11, he says, that in the Gospel of John is refuted the 
ERROR WHICH WAS DISSEMINATED [" inseminatus erat"] among 
MEN BY Cerinthus, and much earlier bt the Nicolaitans 
[errorem, qui a Cerintho et multo prius a Nicolaitis inseminatus 
erat hominibus]. For the translator, whose authority otherwise is 
justly entitled to support, readily made a pluperfect " inseminatus 
erat " out of the Greek past participle, which is found in the frag- 
ments of IrenaBus collected out of Greek fathers of later ages. A 
comparison of chapter 11 with chapter 18, both of which we have 
here quoted in the author's very words, will import the force of the 
tense to be perfect, rather than pluperfect. Certainly Irenseus has 
not a word as to any perversion [alleged by Artemonius] of John's 
Epistle by Cerinthus : and he himself, B. iii. c. 18, has so woven to- 
gether quotations of the Gospel and of the Epistle, as to imply no 
obscure recognition of the fact, that the Gospel was written before 
the Epistle. Accordingly, as Peter condemned mockers, and Paul 
apostates, so John iil his Gospel has condemned the false teachers 
about to arise ; and in his Epistle, when they had actually come, he 
more openly stigmatized them. Thus we have shown that at least 
the foundation on which Artemonius builds so much, viz. the theory 
of the Epistle having been written before the Gospel, is uncertain 
conjecture ; though it does not much concern our side of the ques- 
tion which of the two works was first in point of time. Not even in 
the Epistle itself is ' Beginning' always used in one signification : 
nay, in the opening of the Epistle, ' Beginning' is used absolutely, 
the beginning of all things, of heaven and earth ; and so also in the 
Qpening of the Gospel. This is the only difference, that in the latter 

232 ST JOHN 1. 1. 

it is expressed, " In the beginning ;" in the former, "From the be- 
ginning." Artemonius, P. ii. c. 18, supposes that Cerinthus, who 
had 'perverted the words, " From the beginning," is more expressly- 
refuted by the words, "In the beginning ;" but the Valentinians per- 
verted the words, " In the beginning," in just the same manner. It 
would be a more simple explanation to say, that " In the beginning" 
is rather used absolutely ; " From the beginning" relatively, in this 
sense, In the beginning and thenceforward. In that beginning was 
the Word, in such a way, as that also before the beginning the Word 
was. See Prov. viii. 22, etc., " The Lord possessed me in the be- 
ginning of His way, before His works of old : I was set up from ever- 
lasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was ;" where msm, set 
down [occurring] four times in the Heb., the Septuagint render, at 
least in the second and fourth place of its occurrence, Tpo, and rightly 
so (although Artem. Diss, i. stoutly denies it) : for in the passage 
there follow in parallel correspondence, \'H2 -jrfo, D1J33 t^o, 'JSP irpi, 
^h ny. See below, ver. 30, ch. iii. 13, vi. 62, viii. 58, xvii. 5, 24 
[all proving His pre-existence with the Father]. Artemonius, page 
76, and everywhere throughout his book, urges that Justin Martyr 
was the first who taught that Jesus was the Son of God, before that 
the world was made. But the truth is, Justin praises that doctrine 
as new, not that it was recently invented, but because it was un- 
known to Trypho, and such like persons. We will bring forward in 
this place |;he single testimony of Ignatius, who, in his Ep. to the 
Magnesians, § 8, says, ilg &i6s leriv o cpanftjiaag laurh Sia 'iriSoZ Xfi/iTTOu 
roD T/'oC auroC, oj Istiv airov AOrOS AIAI02, oiix airh eiyjji; <rpoiX6<iv, 
"There is one God, who manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His 
Son, Who is the Eternal Word of Himself, not having come forth 
from silence" [i.e. Always having been The Word]. The objections, 
by which Artemonius tries to turn aside the force of this passage, P. 
ii. ch. 36, etc., are so far-fetched, that their effect ought to be, not to 
carry away the reader with them, but to confirm him in the truth. — 
flv, was) Not, was made. See the difference of the words marked, 
ver. 10, 14, 15, ch. viii. 58. The Father also is called 6 m, x.t.X., 
Rev. i. 4. The Word was before the world was made, in which He 
afterwards was, ver. 10. — o Xoyos) Speech [sermo]. Word [Verbum] ; 
it is also found written in Latin, Logos : see notes on Gregor. Thaum. 
Paneg., § 50.' That Logos, of whom ver. 14 speaks. Whence is 

1 A Utile volume, edited a.d. 1722 : and as it may not be ready at hand to 
I within reach of] most of our readers, we may he permitted here to subjoin th^ 
fmssage, whJfA we heg may be compared with the notes o^Semler, to be found in 

ST JOHN I. ]. 233 

it that John calls Him The Word ? From the beginning of his first 
Epistle, say? Artemonius, P. ii. ch. 14 and 19. More rightly, as is 
plain from what was said above, the expression may be regarded as 
derived [copied] from the Gospel into the Epistle. In both writings 
he uses the term Logos before he comes to the appellation oi Jesus 
Christ. But he so terms Him, not copying Philo, much less Plato ; 
but by the same Spirit which taught the inspired authors of the Old 
Testament so to express themselves. See Gen. i. 3 ; Ps. xxxiii. 6, 
" By the Word of the Lord the heavens were made, and all the host 
of them by the breath of His mouth," where the Septuagint has ra 
"KoyiAi Kupiou 01 oupavol eeTipiuiirieav : Ps. cvii. 20, " He sent His word," 
airiereiXs rhv Xiyov airou. Hence the very frequent appellation, The 
Word of God, in the Chaldaic Paraphrase : also Wisd. xvi. 12, xviii. 
15. The one and the same mystery in the Old and in the New 
Testament is expressed in similar terms. God is a Spirit, or eternal 
Mind : the Son of God is the Logos, the inmost, and yet at the same 
time the most fully manifested [exsertissimum,the most fullyput forth] 
Word of the eternal Mind. He who spiritually knows the spiritual na- 

the paraphrase of the Gospel of John ; — " Gregory is not without some allusion 
to {an observation made by Bengel) that ancient passage, o' Se ye t unSpuvov 
Xo'yof jr£(pi/x' «x<) ©s/ow 7\iyciv. Moreover, when also our author (the sai»e 
Gregory) employs the term Tioyof in divine things, we interpret it, as the pas- 
sage suggests, Reason [ratio], or more willingly [by a better term], Speech 
[sermo], or most willingly [as the best term], Word [verbum]. Petavius says. 
That mental word, that is inner and that has its existence in the soul, approaches 
nearer to the likeness of the Divine Word, and is there/ore adopted mure freely 
by learned Fathers. For it is a term presenting more advantages, and hav- 
ing more points of likeness : since it is both spiritual, and least of itself falls 
under the cognizance of the senses ; and remains in the mind, from which it pro- 
ceeds, and is not parted from it ; and without it the mind can have no existence 
even for a moment of time. All these notions, and even others besides, of the 
term T^oycis, other Greek fathers have brought together on this mystery, nay, 
often have joined several in one : whence it has happened that the Latins also 
have preferred the Greek term to any Latin one, as being fuller in meaning, and 
have even set down the Greek itself. We too have done so at times, after the 
example of Rhodomanus ; and have used Logos rather than Ferbitm or Ratio. — 
See as to the significations of the Divine appellation, Ao'yof, if you desire ener- 
getic writing, Witsius, vol. ii. Miscell. Ex. 3, as to God the Word, § 20 : but if 
it is copiousness also you desire, Petavius, vol. ii. Theol. dogm. B. vi. on the 
Trin. ch. 1, etc. Franc. Junius, vol. ii. 0pp. f. 145, comes to this wise conclu- 
sion, Christ, in various relations, and in a manifold sense, is called The Word of 
God. Thus one relation, or aspect, has presented itself to one commentator, 
another to another. This has the effect of showing forth the more the wonderful- 
neM of that manifold wisdom of God.— Ern. Bexo. [son of J. Alb. Beng.] 

2Zi ST JOHN I. 1. 

ture of God, knows also the spiritual nature of His Word : and under- 
stands why He is also called the Word, before He is called the Light 
and the Life ; see 1 John i. 1, etc. Hence just as often the apostles, 
speaking of Christ, contradistinguish flesh and spirit ; So He, whom 
John terms Logos, the same is termed by Clemens Eomanus, a father 
of the Apostolic age, Spirit, iT; Xpiarog o K6pioc i edea; Ti/Mag, £\i /liv ri 
-TTpuTov imxifha, syiuro aap^, x.r.X. : that is, The one Lord Christ, who hath 
saved us, although previously He was Spirit, yet was made flesh, etc. ; 
which passage the objections of Artemoniils, P. ii. ch. 44, etc., cannot 
rob us of. The Logos is He, whom the Father has begotten, or spoken, 
as His only-begotten Son, by Whom the Father speaking makes all 
things ; who speaks of the things of the Father to us. The reason 
why He is called Logos, and the actual Description of what is the 
Logos, is given, ver. 18. He is the only-begotten Son of God, who 
was in the bosom of the Father, and acted most expressively the 
part of His Exponent [exegetam egit, the Declarer of Him, ver. 18, 
i^riy^sctTo], The idea in this clause receives additional emphasis 
and clearness from the two clauses that follow in this verse. — •j-pJj 
Tbv &i6v, with God) Therefore distinct [in personality] from the 
Father. Upo; for -jrapi [Latin apud, French chez], as el; for sv, ver. 
18, denotes a perpetual, as it were, tendency of the Son to the 
Father in the unity of essence. He was with God in a pecuhar 
and unique sense [singly and exclusively, ' unic^'], because there 
was then nothing outside of God. Again, John speaks in this place 
more absolutely than in 1 Ep. ch. i. 2, where he says. The Eternal 
Life was with the Father, in antithesis to the manifestation of 
Him made to believers, in order that they might become Sons. 
Thus we dispose of the difference, which Artemonius, P. ii. c. 18, 
tries to establish between the expression in the Epistle, and that in 
the Gospel : He also in Diss, ii., and elsewhere throughout his book, 
interprets the words, to be with God, of an ascension of Christ to 
heaven before His baptism. But this interpretation, when once the 
phrase, " Li the beginning," is rightly explained, forthwith falls to the 
ground. If Christ, before His passion, had trodden the way to life 
by an ascension of this kind, He would not have had it in His 
power subsequently to say, " THou hast made known to Me the 
ways of life ;" and His whole journey, from His birth to that ascen 
sion, would have been of no benefit to us : but the plans, on which 
our salvation rests, would only begin to come into effect simul- 
taneously with the descent, subsequent on the supposed ascension : 
whereby the first two chapters of Matthew and Luke would lose all 

BT JOHN 1. 1. 235 

their point. The words of Ignatius, in the Ep. already quoted, § 6, 
ai'e clear : Jesus Christ before all ages, irph alumv, was with the Father, 
and in the end, h reKn, appeared : also the words of Hermas, The 
Son of God is elder than all creation, so that He took part in His 
Father's counsels for founding creation. These words Artemonius 
quotes, p. 404, etc., and cannot weaken their force. — Qiog, God) 
Not only was He with God, but also was God. The absence of the 
Greek article, especially in the predicate, does not weaken its signi- 
fication, as meaning the true God. The Septuagint, 1 Kings 
XVUl. 24, BaaiX. r. 'israi i Qih;, 05 civ i'lraxoiidri it 'irvpl, olrog @s6g. 
Moreover, when the predicate's placed before the subject, there is 
an emphasis on the word, ch. iv. 24, nveu/ia 6 &i6s. Further, in this 
passage the same signification is confirmed from the fact, that there 
was then no creature, in relation to which the Word could be called 
God [in a lower sense] ; it must therefore be here meant in an absolute 
sense. This fact presses hard against Artemonius ; and on that ac- 
count the more precious in our esteem ought this reading to be, 
which we have defended in our Critical Introduction. In this 
stronghold of the faith, in this most sure centre, we stand unmoved, 
and we fortify ourselves against all enticements which try to draw 
us off in a quite contrary direction [to other and irrelevant argu- 
ments]. There is no expedient to which Artemonius does not resort, 
that he may prove Christ in Scripture is nowhere called or re- 
garded as God ; and, that we may take a cursory view of the second 
part of his book, especially in this passage, in Chap. I. he attacks the 
words, John v. 17, etc., x. 29, etc., Phil. ii. 6, etc. ; in all which 
passages, the sentiment [sense] is not only vindicated as worthy of 
the Divine majesty of Jesus Christ, by the pious zeal of competent 
[able] interpreters, but even is shown to be so by the weakness of the 
Artemonian objections. Chap. H. denies that Christ was accounted 
as God by His disciples before His passion. But see John i. 14, 
" We beheld His glory, the glory as ox the only-begotten of the Father ;" 
2 Pet. i. 1 6, " We were eye-witnesses of His majesty," etc. He de- 
nies that Jesus was accounted God after the Resurrection : but see 
John XX. 28, "My Lord, and my God" [Thomas] ; Acts xx. 28, 
" The Church of God, which He hath purchased with His own 
blood ;"' Eom. ix. 5, " Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever ;" 

' The Codex Vatic. B, the oldest of MSS., reads &ioi, and so also the oldest 
MS. of the Vulgate, viz. Amiatiuus. However Tischendorf, Laehmann, etc., 
read Kvpiov, with A cod. Alexandr. C* cod. Ephrsemi rescript, corrected, and D 
cod. Bczffi. — E. and T. 

23fi ST JOHN I. 1. 

1 Tim. iii, 16, « God manifest in the flesh ;"^ Tit. ii. 13, « The glo- 
rious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:" 
com p. notes, Eph. v. 5, "The kingdom of Christ and of God;" 
Heb i. 10, iii. 4 [comp. with ver. 6, " Christ, a Son over His own 
house"], " He that built all things is God" Even this one passage, 
John i. 1, would be enough for a soul hungering and thirsting, 
simple and candid. In Chap. III. he objects, that Christ is always 
contradistinguished from God. We reply : Not always, but for the 
most part, and that without compromising the Deity of the Son 
The instance, 1 Tim. i. 1, " The commandment of God our Saviour, 
and Lord Jesus Christ,"^ Artemonius felt to be irresistible ; for in 
that passage even God the Father is called Saviour, and yet the Son 
is not by that fact excluded. So also when the Father is called 
God, that is not done in contradistinction to Jesus. See the writer 
himself, how frigid is his reply on the passage ! Chap. IV. extends 
too far the parallelism, John i. 1 and xx. 31. Chap. V. discusses 
why Christ is not called God, when He is really God, inferior to 
the Father alone ; but he produces such reasons as prove unanswer- 
ably, since Christ is really also called God, that Christ is called 
God, not in the sense in which the name is assigned to creatures, 
but in the sense in which it is assigned to the Father. Chap. VI., 
in order to escape the argument from the passage. Is. ix. 5, when 
Christ is called by one name, compounded of twice four words. 
Wonderful, Counsellor, [the] Mighty GoD, [the] everlasting Father, 
[the] Prince [of] Peace, does open violence to the parallel passage, 
Is. x. 21, as to the Father, disguises the agreeing soundness [the 
sound agreement] of old versions in the appellation, the Mighty God, 
and exaggerates the variations of these same versions, which are quite 
ahen to the subject. In Chap. VII. the passage, Ezek. xxviii. 2, 9, 
is transferred from the King of Tyre to the God-man [rbv Oidn^pumv]. 
In Chap. VIII. and the following, Artemonius has many discus- 
sions as to Cerinthus, as to the Nicolaitans, and as to the design of 
John in opposition to both. But first, to such a degree it is now 
proved that the book of Artemonius has but little accordance with 
truth, that what the book approves must deservedly be postponed 
meantime as doubtful, whilst the case is being decided by argu- 
ments : next, a knowledge, no doubt, of the errors which the apostles 
refute, ought to be obtained from ecclesiastical history, as far as is 

' Tisch. however reads oV for Qeog, with A* C* Memph. Theb. Versions. 
" Tisch., with AD*, omits Kvplov. — B. andT. [The * marks a more recent 
correction of a MS.] 

ST JOHN I. 1. 



possible ; but the question of sound interpretation does not depend 
on such knowledge, much less does the genuine reading : nor ought 
any fallacies, forged out of the dark mass of most ancient heresies, 
turn off the eyes of simple-minded believers from the rays of Scrip- 
ture, which are most clear of themselves. Let those who despise 
the short way, the King's highway, wander at large into labyrinths, 
since such is their pleasure, and let them lie there. As regards the 
design of John in opposition to Cerinthus, B. Buddeus has refuted 
Artemonius in his Ecclesia Apostolica, p. 425, etc. ; comp. p. 378 
as to the Nicolaitans. We make one observation : That the 
question is not, in what particular sense Cerinthus himself may 
have allowed the Word to be called God [see Artemon. p. 340], 
but in what sense the whole section of John, in spite of Cerinthus, 
so frequently calls the Word God. Cerinthus, I fancy, had no 
higher idea of Christ than Artemonius shows he has : why, then, 
should not the words of John, so hateful to Artemonius, not strike 
Cerinthus I I have thought of several reasons ; but these words of 
Artemonius, p. 381, set me at my ease on this head : It was not 
necessary that John should follow Cerinthus through all his absurdities; 
for even those in which he does follow him [refuting them], he does so 
only incidentally, and whilst engaged in a different object. By this 
one erasure, Artemonius declares his whole treatise about Cerinthus 
to be useless [lost labour]. For, since John did not set down that 
assertion. And the Word was God, for the sake of refuting Cerin- 
thus, he must have set it down for other reasons : no doubt in order 
that he might refute Socinians and Artemonius, and that he might 
fortify believers in their faith. If you have the time to spare, let 
there be formed out of all the sentiments which John puts forth, 
contradictory sentiments, such as perverted reasoning has either 
produced among ancient heretics, or can produce among any here- 
tics whatever, what wUl be gained by it ? 

In Chap XXIV. and the following ones, he brings up the Alogi, 
and in their character [on their part] discusses, in what way this 
Gospel, which the Alogi alleged was not John's writing but that of 
Cerinthus, could, or could not, have been by them forced into ac- 
cordance with the mind of Cerinthus. We reply : The Alogi either 
thought this very assertion. And the Word was God, came from 
Cerinthus, or they did not. If they did not think it, to dispute, in 
the name of the Alogi, as to the Cerinthic character of the assertion, 
is useless ; but if they did think it, then the sense [sentiment] which 
they attributed to Cerinthus, they must have either considered to 

238 ST JOHN T. 1. 

be true or false : If true, they must for other reasons have ascribed 
the Gospel to Cerinthus ; but if false, then they regarded Cerinthus 
as entertaining unworthy sentiments as to the Logos under specious 
words, as Artemonius acknowledges, p. 426, etc. What prejudice 
to John do these particulars produce ? What use moreover does it 
serve, to turn the eye aside, with such obliquity of vision, and to 
look at John's assertion through the glass of the Alogi and Cerin- 
thus, when one can look at it directly ? In Chap. XXXVI. and 
the following, he examines a passage of Ignatius against Cerinthus, 
on which see above, on the words, " In the Beginning." In Chap. 
XL., he attempts to steal away [get rid of, set aside] all the passages 
of Ignatius wherein Christ is called God, by comparing Ignatius 
himself and his interpolator with one another, as also [he tries to 
set aside] the passage of Clemens Romanus, where the ■7raSf)/iaTa 
0£oD are mentioned. We reply : 1. As Artemonius treats the 
apostles, so he treats apostolic fathers. 2. John is quite enough for 
lis, even though we had not the additional testimony of Ignatius and 
Clemens. 3. Interpolators might have as readily in some passages 
of -Ignatius erased the name of God, as in others (for this is what 
Artemonius contends to have happened) inserted it. Already, p. 
131, etc., he had attacked [unsettled] the passage of his Epistle to 
the Ephesians, where he says, that Christ is called by Ignatius, Jv 
sapxi yevo/isvov &i6v, not before He took our flesh, but after He was 
made God in the flesh. But Ignatius' construction is not, after He 
was made God, but, after He was made in the flesh, i.e. having be- 
come incarnate [Constr. yivo/nnov with h eapxl, not with @s6i\. 

In Chap. XLI. and the following ones, he guards against it being 
supposed, that John wrote with the view of opposing the Ebionites, 
And the Word was God. We reply : That John wrote his Gospel 
against the Ebionites, Epiphanius and Jerome have laid down as a 
fact : no doubt he wrote against all, who either then denied, or were 
afterwards about to deny, that tJie Word is God. Buddeus has 
several remarks about the Ebionites in opposition to Artemonius, 
B. quot., pp. 501, etc., 518, etc. In Chap. XLIV. and the follow- 
ing, he discusses the passage of Clemens Romanus, as to which, see 
above at the first mention made by John of the Word. Lastly, in 
Chap. XLVIL, he gives a paraphrase of the whole passage, John i. 
1-18, which corresponds to what had gone before, as a conclusion 
to premisses ; and as the premisses have been refuted, so is the con- 
clusion. At the same time he expresses admiration at the sagacity 
of Laelius Socinus, who had already explained the introduction of 

ST JOHN I. 1. 239 

John, as referring to the beginning of the Gospel History ; and adds, 
that Andr. Osiander may have supplied him with the first sugges- 
tion of the idea, as that writer, in his Gospel Harmony, has joined 
together the Baptism of Christ and the " Word in the beginning." 
If this supplied the suggestion, then Socinus took in a heterodox 
sense, what Osiander had laid down in an orthodox sense. So 
Ammonius had previously laid it down. So G. Kohlreiffius, in 
Chronol., p. 90, laid it down not long ago. So also D. Hauber in 
his Gospel Harmony, not to speak of my own. See also the remarks 
which we make below at ver. 6. 

There are added four Dissertations ; the two first of which we 
have touched upon above ; the two remaining ones are elsewhere 
examined at Heb. i., and at John viii. 58. The whole work of 
Artemonius is on the whole ingenious and learned ; but it is also 
insidious, strained, full of conjectural suspicions, sometimes even ' 
ludicrously so ; and owing to the vivid colours in which the inner 
divine economy is painted, a point in which the common herd of 
Socinians are quite strangers, it speaks fair ; but withal it remains 
bound in death-like iciness. By means of the answers we have given 
to his arguments, the rest of the latter may be easily answered. We 
the less regret our brevity in this respect, since, besides Wesseling, 
who is noticed favourably in our Introduction, several other distin- 
guished writers have refuted Artemonius. D. Weismann has given 
to the world, in a.d. 1731, " Specimens of the exegetic brawlings of 
the Socinian party continued and augmented by L. M. Artemonius:" 
next the celebrated Wolf pounded at the same anvil in vol. ii. at the 
end of Cur. in N. T., and in vol. iii. and iv. everywhere. And in 
the year 1735, John Phil. Baraterius, when hardly more than fourteen 
years old, published Antiartemonius. — rjv, erat) Was, not made God, 
but the true God. The Word was God, and that in the beginning. — 
Xoyos, the Word) This is set down a third time, with the greatest 
force. The three clauses are arranged in a gradation [an ascend- 
ing climax : The Word was in the beginning ; the Word was with 
God ; the Word was God] : the Article here is the distinguish- 
ing mark of the Subject. The Godhead of the Saviour had been 
openly declared in the Old Testament : Jer. xxiii. 6, " The Lord 
our righteousness," Jehovah-T sidkenu ; Hos. i. 7, " I will save them 
by the Lord their God;" Ps. xxiii. 1, " The Lord, Jehovah, is my 
Shepherd;" and the proofs of it are taken for granted in the New 
Testament, for instance, Heb. i. Accordingly Matthew, Mark, and 
Luke make their aim, rather to prove that Jesus, who is real man, 

240 ST JOHN I. 2, 3. 

is the Christ. And when in consequence some began at last to 
doubt as to the Godhead of Christ, John asserted it, and wrote in 
this book a kind of supplement to the Gospels, as in the Apocalypse 
he wrote one supplementary to the prophets. 

2. Ouroj, He) He alone. The 5e comprises [includes, in its apph- 
cation] the whole of the verse immediately preceding it, as He, in 
the 7th verse, comprises the 6th verse. — irphg rh @i6v, with God) This, 
being repeated [from ver. 1], is now put in antithesis to His subse- 
quent mission to men. The three weighty truths, put dividedly in 
the preceding verse, are repeated and brought together in one in 
this verse. He, the Logos, who was God, was in the beginning, 
and was with God. A remarkable antithesis, comp. ver. 14, as also 
1 John ii. 1 [which contain the same antithetic contrast.] 


Was in the beginning God : 
With God : 

Was made flesh, 
And dwelt among us. 

Moreover the very congeries of this second verse manifestly sup- 
ports this antithesis, the appellation of Logos being intermitted be- 
tween ver. 2 and 14. 

3. Ylawa, all tilings) A large word, by which the world, i.e. the 
whole totality of things created is denoted, ver. 10. All things, 
which are outside of God, were made ; and all things which were 
made, were made by the Logos. Now at last the Theologian is 
come from the Being \_Esse\ of the Word to the Being made [Fieri\ 
of all things. In verses 1, 2, is described [His] state before the 
world was made ; in ver. 3, in the making of the world ; in ver. 4, in 
the time of man's innocency ; in ver. 5, in the time of man's dege- 
neracy. — b! avTov, by Him) In opposition to without Him. — lyiviro, 
were made) That in some measure is earlier than the xTieig, founding 
of all things, and evidently implies, as an inference, the making of 
all things out of nothing. Thus the all things sounds as if it were 
something earlier than the 6 xog/Mz, the world, wholly completed, 
and especially mankind ; to which John comes down in the 9th and 
10th verses. — xa/ %a)f/?, and without) This sentence expresses some- 
thing more than that immediately preceding. The Subject is. Not 
even one thing : The Predicate is, without Him was made, which was 
made. And the S, which, is evidently used similarly to the o, 1 Cor. 
XV. 10, By the grace of God 1 am what I am. — ovUi iv, not even one 
thing) However superlatively excellent. — S yiyonv, which was made) 

ST JOHN I. 4, 5. 2*1 

" after its Kind:" Gen. i. 11, 21, 24. The Preterite yiyovii [is in 
existence] implies something more absolute than the Aorist eyhsro 
[was brought into existence], though in Latin both are expressed by 
factum est. Those fancies, which Artemonius, p. 333, 402, etc., 
invents according to his own theories, have been refuted, together 
with the theories themselves. 

4. 'Ev, in) First, John says. In Him was life: (comp. ch. v. 26, 
" For as the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the 
Son to have life in Himself"). Then he calls Him the Life. So 
in 1 John i. 1, 2, first he calls Him the Word of Life, then the Life; 
and in the same chapter, ver. 5, 7, God is said to be Light, and to 
be in the light. John especially imitates the expressions of the Lord 
Jesus.^ — ^£0)5, life) After the consideration of being [esse], the next 
consideration is as to living [vivere]. Then [the result of life entering 
the world] there is no death, there is then no nature devoid of grace. — 
xai !} ^ft)^, and the Life) The Subject : the Life, bestowing life on all 
things, which were alive. — nv rh (pug, was the Light) Light and Life 
together : ch. viii. 12, " He that followeth Me shall not walk in 
darkness, but , shall have the light oi life: 1 Tim. vi. 16, "Who 
only hath immortality, dwelling in the light, which no man can 
approach unto :" Phil. ii. 15, 16, " Ye shine as lights in the world, 
holding forth the word of life." As on the opposite side, niD?V, 
Darkness and death. Quickening is, however, prior to illumination. — 
rm Mpiiiwotv, ofmeri) Of all men in the state of innocency, from which 
there ought not to be separated the consideration as to the Logos.* 
Men : nowhere is this expression used for Adam and his wife ; so it 
denotes mankind. The evangelist here is come from the whole to 
the part — from those things which were made, or which were alive, 
to rational beings. In relation to the several particulars, o Xoyos, 
the Speech [Sermo], has the signification suited to each. 

5. Ka/, and) From this verse the doctrine of evil and its rise, 
receives much light. — h tjj exor Ic;,, in darkness) This darkness is not 
said to be made. For it is a privation, which men have incurred 
\To wit, tliat state of the human race is expressed by this word, which 
has prevailed since Adam's transgression down to the appearance of 
the true Light. — ^V. g.J It is in the darkness that the glory of the 

' John viii. 12. That which thus harmonizes with the intimate relation be- 
tween the beloved disciple and Jesus, is made a ground of cavil by Rationalists ; 
viz. that elsewhere John puts into Jesus' mouth a phraseology which is not 
Jesus' but his own. — E. 

* Or, of man in his ideal. — E. 

VOL. II. ^ 

24a ST JOHN I, C, 7. 

Light is the more conspicuouslyseen, — <pai\iii, shines) The present time 
has the same force as in (purH^u, ver. 9. It always <pa,hei, shineth. 
The Light was always nigh at hand, even in the Old Testament, 
ready to apply a remedy to darkness and sin. The same word fa'mi, 
shineth, as regards the New Testament, 1 John ii. 8, " The darkness 
is past, and the true light now shineth." — %a/ — ou, and — not) Similarly 
and — not, ver. 10, 11. — n axorla, the darkness) i.e. men wrapt in dark- 
ness. — aurJ ou jcariXa^iv, [comprehended it not] did not attain to it) 
Men, it seems, were too much averse from the Light, as well as too 
deeply sunk in darkness. When they did not comprehend the X0701' 
aeapjiot, The Word unclothed in flesh, " He was made flesh," ver. 14. 

6. 'Ey'sviTo) not riv. The Evangelist does not say, was of John, but 
ivas made [fiebat : ehai is to be, yineSai, to begin to be\. The question 
is asked, how far the opening introduction to this book extends. The 
answer is, There is no introduction : the treatise itself [ipsa trac- 
tatio, the handling of the subject itself] begins with the beginning 
of the book. For in ver. 6 the Evangelist already describes the 
office of John, in bearing witness of the Light : and in the first five 
verses, he records what before had always been the nature and prin- 
ciple of the Light. Therefore up to this point a summary has been 
given of those things, which evidently preceded John ; nor can 
these by any means be referred to the action of Jesus immediately 
succeeding John, as Artemonius, p. 412, refers it ; and now there 
is unfolded by the Evangelist a more copious description of recent 
[new] events. Both [the things preceding John, and the things 
then from that point occurring] are most orderly in their arrange 
ment. — avSpumg, a man) God deals with men through agents similar 
to themselves, namely, men ; in order that they may the more readily 
take [' capiant,' take in, understand] and accept [His ofiers of 
love]. — a'^esraXfi^ivo; ntoLfo, 0eoC, sent from God) The definition of a 
prophet. Comp. Matt. xi. 9, 10 [A prophet ? Yea — and more than 
a prophet. For this is He, of whom it is written. Behold I send My 
messenger," etc.] The Participle is here in immediate connection 
with the noun a man : and in mediate connection with the verb, was 
made [sy'mTo began to be]. — •xapa ©eoD, from God, ver. 33. — 'laianm, 
John) That is, an interpreter [exponent] of the grace of God. The 
greatness of John [is hereby implied], of whom mention is made 
immediately after the preceding statements [ver. 1-5]. Greater 
knowledge was brought mto the world through John, than had been 
in all previous ages. 

7. E;j iLaprMpiav, for a witness) The evangelist again touches on 

ST JOHN I. 8. £43 

this, ver. 15, and again, ver. 19. But with the fullest and most 
tender feeling he interweaves with this testimony of the Forerunner 
his own testimony as an apostle, by means of most noble digressions, 
in which he states the nature and grounds of the Baptist's office, and 
partly premises, partly subjoins an explanation of his [the Baptist's] 
brief sentences, and declares the full complement of his testimony 
[gives a clear filling up of it] : [thus forming a kind of succinct prelude 
to our-Lord!s own speeches, which He was about to set forth in this very 
Gospel. — Harm., p. 153.] 'What Matthew, Mark, and Lulce term 
a Gospel, this John for the most part terms a testimony or witness : 
the former term expresses the relation to the promise, that went be- 
fore : the latter expresses the altogether certain knowledge of him, 
who announces it : the former is used in reference to Christ as He 
was manifested ; the latter, \ with reference to the Glory of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of Gox), when raised from the dead : accordingly, 
in the Acts and Epistles of the Apostles, both are often employed. 
Testimony applies to a thing, known for certain by witnesses, a thing 
not falling under the eyes at least of the hearers, and yet all im- 
portant to them : accordingly to it answers faith. There follows 
immediately the declaration, that he might hear witness of the Light : 
and the words, that he might bear witness, are handled forthwith : 
the words, of the Light, are handled at ver. 9. — 'Im f/^apTupiiari, that 
he might bear witness) The sum of his testimony was : He, who 
comes after me, etc., ver. 15. — vipl rou owroj, concerning the Light) 
John comprises under the appellation of the Light, the things which 
he wrote, ver. 1-5. — ha, in order that) They need Testimony, who 
were in darkness. — -zavrig, all men) to whom He had corned — Si 
auTou, through him) through John, not e/'s aMv, not in John, but in 
Christ, ver. 12.^ The power of John's testimony extended itself so 
as even to come under the knowledge of the Gentiles, Acts x. 37 
[Peter addressing the Gentiles, Cornelius and others, " That word 
ye know, which was pubHshed throughout all Judea, etc., after the 
baptism, which John preached."] A;a, through, in a higher sense, 
is said of Christ, 1 Pet. i. 21 [Who by Hun do believe in God.] 

8. "BTiimg, That One) Some had suspected, that John was the 
Light : eximg, that One points out a more remote object. 

1 May it not express the grace of God, " who will, M'Aei, have all men to be 
saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth," 1 Tim. ii. 4.— E. 

' Grot, wrongly understands 8/ xirov through Him, the Light, which would 
confuse the whole, by renderine; it , necessary to understand ui h6ii after 
virTiiiaiiai. — B . 

24* ST JOHN I. 9. 

9. ''Hi', was) The Light itself, moreover, was that true light, which 
enlighteneth. The Effect shows the Subject, to whom the name of 
Light is most applicable [whose attributes entitle Him best to the 
name.] — rJ aKn^mv, the true) There follows immediately the declara- 
tion, which enlighteneth, etc. This forms an antithesis to John, [who 
was only] a lamp, a witness. Comp. concerning the Truth, ver. 14, 
17. — (ptariZii, which enlighteneth) It is proved by the effect, that 
this is the true light. It enlightens, the Present, in relation to the 

time, in which He came, as opposed to the former time, ver. 5 

nravra, every one) every one, and wholly, so far as a man doth not 
withdraw himself from His influence : whosoever is enlightened at 
all, is enlightened by this Light. The singular number here has 
great force. Comp. Col. i. 28 [Warning every man and teaching 
every man, and that we may present every man perfect in Christ 
Jesus] Eom. iii. 4 [Let God be true, but every man a har]. Not 
even one is excluded. — av^punv, man) Who by himself [when left to 
himself] is in darkness : every man has a more august sound, than 
all men, ver. 7. John was but a man, ver. 6. The Light, so far as 
it is light, is contradistinguished from man. — ipx,6/iivov slg riv x6e/ji,oii, 
coming into the world) ipx^f^ffoy, coming is nominative, and depends 
on r}v, was. A striking antithesis is thus presented : [Byiv'sTo] was 
made, [a'^iBTaXfiivoc] sent, ver. 6, and [rjii] was, [ipx6/J,ivoi\ coming [in 
this verse] : in which last word the Participle present, as often, has 
the force of an imperfect. Comp. Siv, ch. ix. 25 [nfiXb; &v, &pr, 
ISxivu, whereas I was blind, now I see] Notes : and elsewhere. 
Among the Hebrews it is a frequent periphrasis for a man. D^lW xan, 
coming [a comer] into the world : but in the New Testament, and 
especially in this book, this phrase is used of Christ alone, and in an 
exalted sense. For He was, even before that He came. Thus evi- 
dently the phrase is applied ch. iii. 19, Light is come into the world: 
ch. xii. 46, / am come a light into the world. Presently after this 
ver. 9, succeeds the mention of the world and of His coming, re- 
peated, ver. 10, 11. The Son is also said to be sent by the Father, 
but not in the same way, as John is said to have been sent. More- 
over the Son came, being sent and given. Matt. xxi. 37 " Last of aU 
He sent unto them His Son;" John iii. 16, " God so loved the 
world, that He gave His only begotten Son ;" ch. xi. 27, Martha, 
" Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the 
world ;" Eom. viii. 3, 32, « God sending His own Son, in the like- 
ness of sinful flesh— He that spared not His own Son, but delivered 
Him up for us all ;" 1 John iii. 8, " For this purpose the Son of 

ST JOHN I. 10, 11. 24S 

God was manifested ;" iv. 9, " God sent His only begotten Son into 
the world, that we might live through Him." Therefore it was not 
at last after His mission [it was not then first], that He was made 
Son, but evidently before His being born of a woman ; Gal. iv. 4, 
" God sent forth His Son, made of a woman." 

10. 'E» rcB xoV/itS ^v, He was in the world) The evangelist adds 
this, lest any one should so understand the expression, coming into 
the world, as if the Light had not been previously in the world at all. 
Three times in this verse world is repeated ; three times it is said of 
the human race, as in the previous verse, but not to the exclusion of 
the other creatures, at least in the first place. — ii aWau lyinro, was 
made hy Him,) a'uTov, masculine, as presently after aurov. It is re- 
ferred to the sense,^ though (pSJ; is neuter. Artemonius, p. 439, 450, 
etc., maintains that there is meant here the dissolution of all things, 
which was now about to have taken place, at the time when Christ 
suffered, had it not been turned aside [removed] by His own sacri- 
fice, and for that purpose he quotes the passage, Heb. ix. 26, " Now 
once in the end of the world hath He appeared to put away sin 
by the sacrifice of Himself." But in that passage ^ suvtiXuo, rm 
aluiviiv does not mean the putting off of the end of the world on [sub- 
ject to] a condition, but categorically denotes the last times of the 
world, as opposed to the many ages that have elapsed since the 
foundation of the world. If such an interpretation [as Artemonius'T 
holds good, Israel too might be said to be made by Moses ; inasmuch 
as he averted its dissolution. With the same purpose in view, Arte- 
monius, p. 455, urges the order of time in the clauses of this verse, 
but without reason. There is rather in it a gradation, wherein the 
world is urged to the acknowledgment of the Light by that [first] 
reason He was in the world, but more so by this [second reason] and 
the world was made by Him; or in other words, began to be. — xa;, and) 
and yet.— 6 x6e/jbog, the world) The name world in the sacred writings 
implies the impious silliness [futilitatem, emptiness] of the 
HUMAN RACE. Gamer, note in John xvii. 

11. TSi 'l&ia. His own) From the world, the whole, the discourse 
goes down to the part. Formerly there belonged to Messiah, as 
peculiarly His own, to, 7dia, whatsoever belonged to Israel — ^its land, 
city, and temple : oi 'Ibioi, His own people, the Israelites ; Matt. viii. 
12, " The children of the kingdom." The time, moreover, of His 
coming into the world and to His own is one and the same, namely 
after the coming of John; ver. 6, 7. 

' By the figure 'xpo; to t!inf>.!tiv6fi,siio>. — E. and T, '•> 

246 ST JOHN I. 12, J 3. 

12. 'osoi, as many as) even [including also] such as previouslji 
had not been 7Sioi, His own. — sXafSov) This verb difFers from xaro- 
Xa,u,j3AHiv, ver. 5, and from •jrafaXa.iJ.^aniv, ver. 11. KccTaXafi^am 
is apphed to that which is close by: irapa,Xa//,^dm, that which is 
offered : Xaf/-^a.m, of my own accord, napakaij.^aniv was the part of 
the Jews, whom the Truth was appertaining to [spectabat] ; Xa/j,j3dvii\i 
is the part also of the Gentiles, whom grace appertaineth to [spectat]. 
In ver. 12 and 13 mere external differences are taken away most 
effectually. Gal. iii. 26, etc., "For ye are all the children of God 
by faith in Christ Jesus." — Ucaxiv, He gave) This is the Glory of 
Christ, the Only-begotten Son. It belongs to the Divine authority 
to make Sons or Goi> : as it belongs to the Light, to make sons of 
light, ch. xii. 36, "Believe in the Light, that ye may be the children 
of light."— J^ouff/av, power) The power^ does not precede the yheniv 
Tixvm or filiation, as if they were two distinct things : but the filiation 
itself is this power, or, in other words, dignity. A great fact ! John 
viii. 36.^ — Tsxva &10U — ToT; •manijoMaiv, sons OF GoD — to them that be- 
lieve) Two weighty truths are set before us, of which the former is 
elucidated in ver. 13 ; the second in ver. 14, where the manifestation 
of the Word in the flesh is not so much recorded as it was accom- 
plished, but rather as it was believed : which view the series of 
things down from ver. 6 proves. — yevieSai, to become) whereas Jesus 
isthe Son of GoD. — ofo/Aa, the name) The name of the Only-begotten. 
For to this is to be referred ver. 14. The connection is inferred 
from the kindred term rsnva, children '\_sons'\. 

13. O/, who) This is to be referred to ri-Ava, children. For as the 
words [fXa/3ov] received and to them that believe [roTg menhoxjen'] cor- 
respond to one another, and denote the cause : so the effect is denoted 
in that expression to bect)me children, and it is further explained in 
this verse. — ol-x. If az/jbdrm, not of bloods) Cttl al/Lara, the Hebrew 
idiom often has bloods in the Plural number, even when only one 
man is spoken of : but when the subject treated of is generation, it 
does not call it the blood or bloods of the parents. But for the com- 
mendation of a noble lineage, the term blood is frequent among the 
ancient writers, as it is in the usage of the present day : and thence 
it is that bloods denote variety of origins, in consequence of which 
various prerogatives [privileges] are either sought after, or even 

' Potestas, legitimate power, authority ; not mere limtfus, potentia, might. — 
E. and T. 

" If the Son, therefore, shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. Comp. 
Gal, iv. 6.— E. and T. 

ST JOHN I. 13. 847 

enjoyed, in the world. — oiae Jx kXfi/ians gapxog, nor of the will of the 
flesh) Husband and wife are Flesh, and that one flesh : and the will 
of the wedded pair, fan, gives birth to the children, who being bom 
of the flesh are flesh, and sons of the flesh. John iii. 6, " That which 
is born of the flesh is flesh ;" Eom. ix. 8, " They which are the 
children of the flesh, these are not the children of God." With pro- 
priety the term, the will, is used as moving midway between holy 
[pure] love, and grovelling lust, opt^iv. Nor does John use the softer 
word, of which the flesh considered in itself is unworthy : nor the 
harsher, lest those born of holy [pure] parents should except them- 
selves \i.e. Had John said. The children of God were born not of 
lust, then those men who are bom of a pure marriage union might 
think themselves excepted from the children of the flesh]. — ovSh ix 
iiXrifiUTo; avdpog, nor of the will of man) The ivill of man is contained 
in the will of the flesh : and yet it is mentioned separately, as if it 
were the greater, and in some measure, the more guilty part of it. 
For Christ had a mother, but one who knew not man. Luke i. 34, 
"How shall this be, seeing I know not a man." [Mary to the 

These three things, bloods, the will of the flesh, the will of man, 
bring to the sons of men sE,ov(Siav, power and rank, which are noble, 
but natural and human. For, indeed, it was on these three the Jews 
used to lean, being wont to boast either of their ancestors, Abraham, 
Isaac, Israel, Juda, Benjamin, Levi, Aaron, David, etc., or of both 
parents, but more especially of their fathers, and fancied that owing 
to these they could not but be pleasing to God ; but John declares 
that these very things have no weight [with Him]. — aXX' Ix ©aoD, 
but of God) To the natural generation of men is opposed generation 
of God. And although the former, as the latter, is in reality single, 
yet the former being expressed in a threefold manner ["infert," 
causes] carries with it a threefold mode of viewing the latter. We 
are therefore taught, that they become Sons of God, who are born, not 
as the sons of men, such as themselves also were by original descent, 
after the manner of men, but of God : that is, 1) not of bloods, but 
of the heavenly and supreme Father, from whom the whole of the 
blessed and holy family is named : 2) not of the will of the flesh, 
but of that love, of which the Son is Himself the first-begotten of 
every creature ; Col. i. 13, 15, " His dear Son, Who is the image of 
the invisible God, the first-born of every creature :" and of that will 
which hath begotten us as a "[a kind of] first fraits of His creatures;" 
James i. 18, 3K fatlier, and n3N he willed, he loved, are kindred words. 

248 ST JOHN 1. It. 

3) Not of the will of man, but of the Holy Spirit. A similar anti- 
thesis occurs, Luke i. 34, 35, Mary, "I know not a mara." The 
angel, " The II0I2/ Ghost shall come upon thee, etc., therefore that 
holy thing which shall be bom of thee shall be called the Son of God." 
These indeed are the sons of God, and of such sons Adam was a 
type, since he was begotten not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, 
nor of the will of man, and in consequence he stood in a peculiar re- 
lation to God ; Luke iii. 38, " Adam, which was the son of God ;" 
and Isaac, Gal. iv. 23, 29, " He who was of the bond-woman was 
born after the flesh, but He of the free-woman was by promise ; — 
He, that was bom after the flesh, persecuted Him that w^s bom 
after the Spirit:'" but John uses this phraseology, of the sons of God, in 
a higher sense. — lyEvv^^Jiffav, were born) This as to regeneration is not 
merely a mode of speaking peculiar to this evangelist ; but a doctrine 
frequently and emphatically dwelt upon in the writings of the Pro- 
phets and Apostles. Believers are sons of God by a generation 
peculiarly so called, deriving their life from Himsel:^ reproducing 
[referentes, exhibiting in themselves traits of] His character, shining 
in His image : how much mpre so the Only-begotten One, 6 (lovoytvrii ? 
They are sons through Him by adoption. In all ways God claims 
as to Himself. 

14.*) 2a^g, flesh) Flesh (besides that it denotes as to us our cor- 
rupt nature, estranged from the Spirit of God, ver. 13), denotes the 
human body, or, as in this place, the man himself, denominated from 
his visible part. Comp. 1 Tim. iii. 16, " Great is the mystery of 
godliness, God was manifest in the flesh." — syhero, was made) not 
was, as Artemonius maintains, p. 332, 387, etc., 472. [It is not said 
here ; there was made another man, sent by God, whose name was 
Jesus, comp. ver. 6 ; but The Word was made flesh. John Baptist, 
before that he was born of Elizabeth, had no existence : but the Word 
was, before that His mother Mary — before that Abraham — before that 
the world at all was brought into being : and in His own time the 
Word was made flesh : i.e. assumed a human nature, in such a way, 
however, that there were not two Messiahs, but one ; not two sons of 
God, but one. — V. g.] Nowhere in the whole range of literature will 
any passage be found under the sun, wherein the difference of the 

' 'hoyos, the Word) John in this place repeats the former denomination in 
this sense : That same Being, who was previously the Word, who was the Life, 
who was the Light, the same was now made Flesh. What He had been before, 
that He did not cease to be ; but He was now made what He had not been be- 
fore. — 'V. g. 

ST JOHN I. 14. 249 

words tlfil and ymf^ai is more studiously observed than John i. Read 
from the beginning the whole context, from ver. 1 to 30, and you 
will agree with this assertion. Since Artemonius, p. 464, acknow- 
ledges that the tenses of the verbs are set down by John with great 
accuracy [discrimination], why not also the verbs themselves ? — xal 
hxfivcasiv, and dwelt) From this point to the end of the verse there are 
four sentences ; to the first of which the fourth has reference, by 
■Xjaec-k • to the second, the third has reference ; in very apposite 

1) And dwelt among us ; 

2) and we saw His glory, 

3) the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father : 

4) frill of grace and truth. — laxftvueiv h rifiTt, dwelt among us) 
2!t»)V)j, a tabernacle [tent] ; whence Bx.riv6!a [I tabernacle] : He dwelt 
as in a tabernacle [tent] with us ; truly, but not long, giving us a 
view of [the opportunity of seeing] Himself. The verbs are akin ; 
igx^mdev, and ehagd/ie&a, as a stage-scene [ffx^v^] and a theatre. The 
Dweller was 6 Xoyoi, the Word : the flesh was His tabernacle and 
temple : Heb. ix. 11 [Christ being come, an high-priest of good 
things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made 
with hands, that is to say not of this building] ; John ii. 21 [" The 
temple of His body" destroyed, and then in three days raised up 
again by HimJ. The same letters are in nvaB* and e^iriiiri. — ri/j,Tv, us) 
men who are flesh. — ekaadfieda, we beheld) we, the apostles, especi- 
ally Peter, James, and John, Luke ix. 32. [These three, at the 
transfiguration, " saw His glory."] The apostles, in speaking of 
that which they had seen, are wont to speak in the plural number : 
a usage which tends to the greater confirmation [of the things which 
they attest]. 1 John i. 1, " That which we have heard, which we 
have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands 
have handled." 2 Pet. i. 16, "We have not followed cunningly 
devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and com- 
ing of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eye-witnesses of His ma- 
jesty." Paul uses the singular number, 1 Cor. ix. 2, " Have / not 
seen Jesus Christ our Lord?" and John the Baptist, ver. 32, 
"/ saw the Spirit descending, etc., and it abode upon Him." — ■ 
rri]i do^av) His glory, His Godhead, ch. ii. 11, "Jesus manifested 
forth His glory." — ug, as) This particle does not compare, but de- 
clares. For He, the Xayog, the Word, is Himself the Only-begotten. 
— fiovoyevovi, the only begotten) There is hereby intimated the reality 
and unity of the Divine generation. There is reference chiefly to 

260 ST JOHN I. H. 

the baptism of Jesus Christ ; ver. 34, " I saw and bare record that 
this is the Son of God;" Matt. iii. 17, "Lo a voice from heaven 
saying, This is Mi/ beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ;" al- 
though the history itself of Jesus' baptism, as being fully described 
by the other Evangelists, John fittingly omits. Comp. Matt. iii. 
14, "John forbade Him, saying, I have need to be baptised of 
Thee, and comest Thou to me ?" — irapA, by [or of]) Construe with 
(i^omyivovg, the Only-begotten : alone, not only-begotten by the Father, 
but even sent [by Him] : ch. vi. 46, "He which is of God;" ch. 
vii. 29, " I am not come of Myself, but He that sent Me." — ■a'knpni, 
full) not vs-TrXripojf/^hog, filled, which, however, in another point of 
view^ is said of Jesus, Luke ii. 40.' [ We ought to construe the pas- 
sage thus. The Word dwelt with us full of grace and truth : inas- 
much as this was properly the very point intended to be indicated in 
this verse: for the fact of His being made flesh is repeated from the 
previous verses. — V. g.] — ^dpirog nat aXrikiag, grace and truth) The 
whole of this is repeated, ver. 17: Grace alone is named, ver. 16, 
[of which if destitute we could not have endured His glory. — V. g.] 
Truth is grace clad with a promise, and put forth in exercise. Heb. 
TDn riDXI, Ex. xxxiv. 6. Thence Ps. xxv, 5, etc., " Lead me in 
Thy truth, and teach me, for Thou art the God of my salvation ;" 
10, " All the paths of .the Lord are mercy and truth ;" xxvi. 3, " I 
have walked in Thy truth ;" xxxiii. 4, 5, " All His works are done 
in truth : He loveth righteousness and judgment : the earth is full 
of the goodness of the Lord ;" xxxvi. 6, " Thy righteousness is like 
the great mountains ;" Ixxxv. 1 1, " Truth shall spring out of the 
earth : and righteousness shall look down from heaven ;" Ixxxix. 2, 
3, " Mercy shall be built up for ever : Thy faithfulness shalt Thou 
establish in the very heavens. I have made a covenant with My 
chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant ;" 5, 8, " Thy faith- 
fulness ;" 14, " Justice and judgment are the habitation of Thy 
throne ; mercy and truth shall go before Thy face ;" 24, " My faith- 
fulness and mercy shall be with Him ;" 33, " My loving-kindness 
will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer My faithfulness to fail ;" 
49, " Lord, where are Thy former loving-kindnesses, which Thou 
swarest unto David in Thy truth?" xcii. 2, "To show forth Thy 
loving-kindness every morning, and Thy faithfulness every night ;" 
xcviii. 3, " He hath remembered His mercy and truth toward the 
house of Israel ;" c. 5, " The Lord is good : His mercy is everlast- 

' " The child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom :" where His 
perfect humanity is exhibited. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN I. 15. 251 

ing : aud His truth enduretli for ever ;" cxv. 1, " Not unto us, 
O Lord, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy and for Thy 
truth's sake ;" cxvii. 2, " His mercifiil kindness is great toward us : 
and the truth of the Lord endureth for ever." Add Eom. xv. 8, 9, 
" Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, 
to confirm the promises made unto the fathers : and that the Gen- 
tiles might glorify God for His mercy;" Col. i, 5, 6, "the word of 
the truth of the Gospel, — which bringeth forth fruit — in you, since 
the day ye heard of it, and knew the grace of God in truth." This 
grace and truth is by nature unknown to the sons of wrath, and to 
the untruthful : but it falls to us [is bestowed on us] in the well- 
beloved Son, in whom the Father is well pleased, Matt. iii. 17. It 
is called the grace [of God] in truth, Col. i. 6 ; 2 John 3, " Grace 
be with you, mercy and peace Irom God the Father, and from the 
Lord Jesus Christ the Son of the Father, in truth and love ;" the 
true grace {of God], 1 Pet. v. 12. 

15. MapT-jpiT, hears witness) From this point the testimony of John 
is described more at large ; and the whole passage, from ver. 15 to 
28, is indeed composed of two members, but, however, both parts 
fall on the one day: for, in ver. 19, it is not said on the following 
day, or any like expression : and the discourse, ver. 29, etc., which 
John spake on the following day, has reference to the former part 
of the whole passage, rather than to the latter. Moreover, the fol- 
lowing days are so closely connected with this one day, that the bap- 
tism of the Lord, and His sojourn in the wilderness, ought not to be 
interposed or subjoined, but be placed before. Therefore John in 
testifying of Him, and crying out [ver. 15], This is He of whom I 
spake, must either then have had Jesus before his eyes, after He had 
returned from the wilderness — comp. ver. 29, 36, " John seeth 
Jesus coming unto Him : looking upon Jesus as He walked" — or at 
least have heard previously striking reports concerning Him. — 
xixpaye, cried [cries]) ;This has the force of a present, as ver. 19, this 
is the record: because it is connected with /j-aprvpiT, bears witness, 
and this itself, in its turn, is put instead of the Preterite. Some 
compare with this passage Aristides, who says, ti <?r6\ig aurri swo- 
fioXoyu xal xexpays. John cries with confidence and joy, as becomes 
a great preacher [herald] : ver. 23 " The voice of one crying in the 
wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord," in order that all 
might hear and beUeve, ver. 7 [to bear witness of the Light, that all 
men through Him might believe]. — Xeyav, saying) After the baptism 
of Jesus.— oSroj, This) Jesus. John had spoken indefinitely before 

252 ST JOHN I. 15. 

the baptism of the Lord, concerning the Christ coming after John, 
and he had not himself known Him by face : but in His baptism he 
recognised Him first, and immediately after bare witness that this 
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God.— e/Vov, I spake) Before the 
baptism of Jesus. Matthew, Mark, and Luke, describe what John 
the Baptist said before the baptism of Jesus : but the Evangelist 
John records what John the Baptist said after the baptism of Jesus, 
in such a way, however, that at the same time he refers himself to 
what had been said previously. In ver. 15 the expression is, ov sMv, 
whom I spake of, not mpl ol eTmv, respecting whom I said : wherefore 
there is no need to suppose that the whole subsequent discourse is 
here referred to, as if uttered by John before the baptism of the 
Lord. It is enough that he said, that after him comes One much 
more powerful, is-^uponpog. The other words, 'ifiirpoehv, x.r.X., the evan- 
gelist has appended, as promulgated by John the Baptist after that 
baptism. The speech is concise [in mode of expression] as often, in 
this sense : I spake, that there is one who is to come after me. And 
This is the very person who is come after me. This is the very per- 
son, saith he, who was made [is preferred] before me. (A similar 
mode of expression occurs Deut. xxxiii. 18, " And of Zebulun he 
said, Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out ; and, Issachar, in thy tents," 
where similarly, under the title [lemmate] And to [or o/] Zebulun 
he said, that also which he spake to Issachar is narrated). But, in 
verse 30, it is mpl o5, concerning whom : and in the same passage the 
Jvov, I said, now [no longer bearing the meaning it had in ver. 15] 
denotes those things which John the Baptist, at the actual time of 
the baptism, and immediately after and previously. — 'yiyoviv, was 
made) This is not said of His Divine nature, but of the office of the 
Christ : and it is said again, ver. 27, and a third time, ver. 30, where 
He is called avrip, a man. In this sense : He who was behind my 
back is now before my face, and has outstripped me, and left me be- 
hind Him. Jesus obtained this priority in His baptism \wherein He 
was proclaimed by God Himself to be the Son of Gor>, before that 
He had any disciple. — V. g.] ; ver. 31, 34, " I knew Him not, but 
that He should be made manifest to Israel — 1 saw and bare record 
that this is the Son of God ;" eh. iii. 30, " He must increase, but I 
must decrease;" comp. Phil. iii. 13, "Forgetting those things 
which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are 
before," where 6«Vw and 'ifiirpodh are contrasted : nor does tf/.'rpoahv 
ever mean before [prius], in reference to time ; in which case there 
would be nothing else asserted in this clause than what is asserted 

ST JOHN I. 16. 258 

in the following \_for He was before me] : but it means before [ante], 
in reference to position, and here in reference to grade. TmaSai xal 
thai, to become, and to be, with an adverb, often change the significa- 
tion of the adverb into that of a noun : ch. vi. 25 fmn uds yiyoms] ; 
Acts xiii. 5 [yivo/iim ev 'SaXa/iiii] ; Eph. ii. 13 [o; vots ovtis fiaxpav iyyii 
eyivrj6r}ri\ ; 2 Thess. ii. 7 [eids sx. fieoov yhnTaij ; 2 Tim. i. 17 [_yiv6f/,£vog 
iv 'PW|U,?]] ; Eom. vii. 3 [tuv yhrirai andpi iTipSi] ; ch. xvi. 7 [ysyomdiv it/ 
XplaTui.'] So 2 Sam. xi. 23, eyivrjSrifiiv I* ahroiig ; Acts v. 34, 'i^u 
minaai. E. Schmid has collected more examples, at Mark iv. 10 
[iyhero xctTa fj,6ms\. — on, because) This is the idea : [I said that] He 
who was coming after me outstripped and left me behind, because He 
was far before me. The infinite excellence of His person is the 
foundation of His precedency, so to speak, in office. — -Trpung //,ov) 
Before me [nay, even prior to Abraham ; yea, also prior to the world. 
— V. g.] A parallel expression is that : / am not worthy to unloose 
His shoe's latchet [thong], ver. 27. 

16. Ka;, and) [But BC*DLX, the Latin ante-Hieronymic 
Versions ab, the Memphitic, and Origen thrice, read or/ for xos;] 
The evangelist confirms the fact, that to this prediction of 
John the Baptist the event corresponded, and that the priority 
of office fell to Christ; for the statement in this verse is that 
of the Evangelist ; since the Baptist would not be likely to call 
Jesus the Christ so openly as ver. 17 does : moreover the fulness, 
ver. 16, has reference to the yiorAfull, ver. 14 ; [and so ver. 16 is to 
be regarded as a continuation of those things which were begun, ver. 
14. — V. g.] — f!/J:iTs 'iraiiTig, all we) Not all beheld, ver. 14, but all re- 
ceived, — Apostles and all the rest [of His disciples] received,^ Jews 
and Gentiles. — sXd^ofiiv, ■x.a.i, we received, even) The Accusative is 
understood, all that was to be received out of His fulness, and [spe- 
cially] grace for grace. — x''''P"' ""'"' X^'f^"^} grace for grace) Each 
last portion of grace [though itself], indeed large enough, the subse- 
quent grace by accumulation and by its own fulness, as it were, over- 
whelms [buries under the load of its own fulness]. See an instance, 
ver. 51 [Jesus to Nathaniel, Because I said, I saw, see under the 
fig-tree, believest thou ? Thou shalt see greater things than these, 
— Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God as- 
cending and descending upon the Son of man].. A very similar » 
use of aiiTi occurs in ^schyl. Agam. heido; nxii H SavT onlhovg ; and 
Book VI. of Chrysostom, concerning the priesthood, ch. xiii., where 

1 Vk. Wliat He offered.— E. and T. 

26* ST JOHK :, 17, 18. 

he makes his Basilius speak thus : <su hi iJ^i ix'Trefivug, iTipav av^ iTifaf 
tfipovTi&a. hhis ; thou dost dismiss me, imposing one anxieti^ on another : 
•wherein the fonner care, and that the less one, had not been re- 
moved, but a new one had been thrown in [in addition], and that 
so great a one, as to throw into the shade the former one, and as to 
seem not to have been added to it, but to have succeeded it. 
Examine the passage itself, if you please, and what comments we' 
have collected upon it, p. 516. The Hebrews use by as laB' hv latJ', 
Jer. iv. 20, xlv. 3 ; Ez. vii. 26 ; Ps. Ixix. 27. 

17. "'o v6/j,o;, the law) producing wrath [Rom. iv. 15], and having 
a shadow [Heb. x. 1] : the moral and ceremonial law. — idoSri, was 
given) No philosopher so accurately employs words, and observes 
their distinctions, as John, and especially in this chapter : after- 
wards he says, eyhiTo [Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ ; for]. 
The law is not Moses' own : [but] grace and truth are Christ's 
own. — r} %ap'j, grace) The conjunction is elegantly omitted; for 
both an adversative and copulative, had place [" locum habebat ;" 
a ' but' was to be looked for here]. To grace and truth the law 
gives way, ch. iv. 23 [The true worshippers shall worship the 
Father in spirit and truth : for the Father seeketh such to worship 
Him]. Concerning grace, an explanation was given at ver. 16: 
concerning truth, see below, ver. 18 [Comp. 2 John 3, Grace be 
with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love]. — I^ffoD, 
Jesus) John when once he had made mention of the incarnation, 
ver. 14, never afterwards puts the noun Xoyog, the word, in this 
signification, throughout this whole book : comp. 1 John i. 1 with 
3 [That— which we have heard, which we have seen, — of the word 
of life. That which we have seen and heard, declare we unto you, 
that ye also may have fellowship with us ; and truly our fellowship 
is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ^ where also he 
begins with the name Xo'/oj ; but as he goes onward, he names Him 
Jesus Christ. — sy'snro, were made [came into being]) Previously the 
world had neither known, nor had had grace. 

18. ©sov, God) Whom grace and truth exhibit as love [in essence], 
— ovbtii, no one) not even Moses, much less those earlier than the 
time of Moses, nor Jacob, nor Isaiah, nor Ezekiel : not even the 
angels saw Him in such manner as the Son. See the note on Rom 
xvi. 25, etc. [The revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret 
since the world began]. — lupocxi, hath seen) no one hath seen : no one 
hath declared [God] : The Son hath seen, the Son Iiath declared, 

ST JOHN I. 19, 20. 258 

[God] ch. iii. 32 [What He hath seen and heard, that He testifieth]. 
— 6 uiv, who was) Comp. v. 1, and still more, John vi. 62 [What 
and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up, where He was before ?] ; 
1 John i. 2 [That eternal life which was with the Father, and has 
heen manifested unto us]. So wv for was, ch. ix. 25 [whereas I was 
blind, now I see ; rupXJ; iliii] : So Heb. pJV, who sucked, Song Sol. 
viii. 1. £/c Tov xd'K'irov, in the bosom) ch. vi. 46 [Not that any man 
hath seen the Father, save He which is of God, He hath seen the 
Father]. Prov. viii. 30 [Then I was by Him as one brought up 
with Him, I was daily His delight, rejoicing always before Him], 
Zech. xiii. 7 " My shepherd, and the man that is my fellow, saith 
the Lord of Hosts." The bosom here is divine, paternal, fruitful, 
mild, secret, spiritual. Men are said to be in the loins, who are 
about to be born : they are in the bosom, who have been born. 
The Son was in the bosom of the Father ; because He was never 
not-born. The highest degree of unity, and the most intimate 
knowledge are signified by immediate sight [the seeing God face to 
face]. — EX£r>os \_That Being] He) An epithet of excellency and dis- 
tance [implying the vast interval that separates Him above all 
others]. — i|?)y;j(raro, hath explained [declared God]) both by His 
words and by the sight of Himself [as God manifest in the 

19. O/' hubaioi, the Jews) Matthew, Mark, and Luke rarely em- 
ploy the appellation Jews ; John most frequently : no doubt the 
cause is, they supposed, as their first readers, Jews: John, believers 
of the Gentiles. — i| dpoeoXii/jiM, from Jerusalem) that seat of religion. 
— lipi/g xal Xeuiras, priests and Levites) With the testimony of John 
to the people is interwoven his testimony to the rulers. This em- 
bassy, sent forty days at least after the baptism of Jesus [to allow 
for the forty days' temptation subsequent to the baptism], indicates, 
that the preaching of John began not at a long interval before the 
baptism of Jesus. Otherwise the embassy would have been sent 
earlier. — ipairrjauiaiv, that they should ask) in the public name, ch. v. 
33 [Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth]. — aii rig 
el; who art thou?) with that baptism of thine, ver. 25. [Why bap- 
tizeth thou then ?] 

20. ' O./x.o'ko'yriae, he confessed) the truth. Comp. ver. 8 ; ch. v. 
33. — oiix ripv^daro, he denied not) Whilst he denied himself, he did 
not deny Christ [Ps. cxviii. 15, 16 (Perhaps Beng. means Ps. cxix. 
= cxviii. in the Septuag.)] — lyw, 7) By thus hmiting his speech [to 
the denial that he was the Christ] he gives a handle to the thought 

266 ST JOHN I. 21-24. 

arising, that the Christ is not far oflF. — 6 Xpieroe, the Christ) they had 
suspected that John was the Christ. 

21. 2u, thouf) John had said, I am not the Christ. -They perse- 
vere in asking about the subject : it would have been better for 
them to have asked about the prsedicate, Who is the Christ ? Wlieo-e 
is He ? But John presently leads on the conversation to this. — oux 
iifil, I am not) He was a second Elijah ; he was not the Tishbite 
himself, about whom their enquiry was. He rejects from himself all 
things [all the characters, which their conjectures attributed to him], 
in order that he may confess Christ, and bring the enquirers to 
Christ. — -TrpoipriTtis, the Prophet) that one, of whom Deut. xviii. 15, 
18, spake [The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet 
from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me ; tmto him 
ye shall hearken, etc.] The article has reference to the promise 
of the prophet, who was about to teach aU things, and to the expec- 
tation of the people. Yet they supposed Him not only to be dis- 
tinct from Christ, but even inferior to Elias, as is evident from the 
gradually descending climax here, and in ver. 25 [Christ — Ehas — 
that prophet] : although the people afterwardg regarded the prophet 
as the same as Messiah the King, ch. vi. 14, 15 [Then those men, 
when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a 
truth that prophet that should come intp the world ; When Jesus 
therefore perceived that they would come and take Him by force, to 
make him a king, etc.] ; and again, on the contrary, they looked on 
the prophet as a distinct person from the Christ, ch. vii. 40, 41. 
[Many said. Of a truth this is the Prophet ; others said, This is the 
Christ.] — II all, art thou) they enumerate aU those of whose coming 
prc»)hecy had foretold. 

22. 'A'TToxpiaiv du/iiv, may give an ansvjer) The people had de- 
manded an answer, and especially the Jewish chief priests. — repi, 
concerning) Each man himself ought) to know himself [and, if he 
has any tmdertaking in particular, he ought to have in readiness a 
reason [to give] of his undertaking. — V. g.] 

23. 'Eyi) (pwn, I the Voice) An abbreviated mode of expression ; 
7 am that person, of whom it has been said ; the Voice of one crying. 
John was also himself crying. — I'Mmn) iToiij^deaTi — luhias mieTn, 
Luke iii. 4, notes. — fiacdag o 'jrpoprjrrig, Isaiah the prophet) Formerly, 
saith he, there were prophets : now the kingdom of God is nearer at 

24. 'Ex Tuv <papi6a.i(a\i, of the Pharisees) who made a great point of 
Jewish baptism ; and acknowledged the baptism of John to be a 

ST JOHN I. 26-29. 257 

thing of great moment, not to be administered except by one hav- 
ing a Divine mission. The evangelist is wont to set down certain, 
as it were, parentheses, as to causes, as to place, as to occasions, as 
to ends, as to effects, as to hindrances, of things, actions and 
speeches, and similar decisions, by means of which the subjects, 
which are in hand, may the more clearly be understood, ver. 28, 45 ; 
iii. 24 ; iv. 8 ; vi. 4 ; vii. 5, 39 ; viii. 20, 27 ; ix. 14, 22 ; x. 22, 23 ; 
xi. 13, 30 : xii. 33. 

26. Msffos') xifiiZv, in the midst of you) especially at the time of 
His baptism. — 'isripi.ti) Hath taken His stand [statuit sese]. — olx. 
o'lSars, ye know not) He addresses the inhabitants of Jerusalem, who 
had not been present at the baptism of Jesus : and he whets their 
desires, that they may be anxious to become acquainted with Him. 

27. Auro's) Himself. 

28. 'Ev jSrihaBapa, in Bethahara) Therefore they had come a long 
way, ver. 19. — Tspax) beyond, in relation to Jerusalem. — ootD, where) 
Where he was wont to baptize. [Bri6oi,\ii(f is the reading of the mass 
of authorities, ABC*LXa. BriSafiapS, was a conjecture of Origen. 
The Bethany here was one beyond Jordan, which had ceased to exist 
before Origen's time.] 

29. 'Ep^ofiivov "irphg abrov, coming to Mm) after His baptism, as we 
have seen [and indeed not on the very day of His baptism, on which 
Jesus was immediately led up into the wilderness (Matt. iv. 1.) In this 
place, it seems, Jesus began to walk publickly, ver. 36, 43, after His 
return from the wilderness full of victory (we saj flushed toith victory, 
victorise plenum) Jesus came to John in such a way, that John coidd 
point Him out close at hand : and yet Jesus did not begin the conver- 
sation with him. — V. g.J — 6 a/jLvos rou @eov, the Lamb of God) He 
calls Him the Lamb, [as being] innocent, [and] about to be immo- 
lated ; [One] who renders active and passive obedience, 1 Pet. i. 19 
[the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and 
without spot]. 'O, the article has respect to the prophecy delivered 
concerning Him under this figure, Isa. liii. 7 [He is brought as a 
lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, 
so He opened not His mouth] ; also under the type of the Paschal 
lamb. Moreover the passover itself was then near, ch. ii. 13. John 
being divinely instructed, calls Him the Lamb of God : although at 
that early time the exact understanding of this appellation would 

1 U, but) The Antithesis is to be taken from the pre-eminence of Him who 
followed after John : He truly baptizes with the Holy Ghost, ver. 33.— V. g. 
VOL. 11. ^ 

258 ST JOHN I. 30, 3J. 

escape, if not John himself, at least his .hearers. {Having first 
asserted his knowledge as to the exalted nature of the person of Jesus 
Christ, to wit, as to the Word which was made Flesh; next John 
describes His office and His chief benefit. In like manner Jesus 
Christ first presented Himself to be acknowledged by the disciples as 
Son of God ; then He instructed them as to His sufferings, etc.— 
— V. g.]— rou 0£oD, of God) The Lamb of God, whom God gave 
and approved of; and concerning whom He Himself bears such 
testimony,. This is the only Lamb, this is the only victim pleasing to 
Me, Heb. x. 5, etc. " Sacrifice and offering Thou wouldst not, but a 
body hast Thou prepared Me ; In burnt offerings and sacrifices for 
sin Thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo I come to do Thy 
will O God." So Ps. h. 17, The sacrifices of God [mean those] which 
God acknowledges [as pleasing to Him], Luke ii. 26, the Lord's 
Christ. — a'Ifuv,) Chrysost. John says, a/iviv KAI OTI a/>s;, h.t.}.. 
" Behold the Lamb, and that He takes away," etc. The Vulgate has 
Ecce Agnus Dei, ECCE qui tollit, etc. [Behold the Lamb, behold 
Him who takes away]. Both understood the words o afivog, 6 a'ipm, 
not in the construction of substantive and adjective, but as in appo- 
sition. The Lamb of God, i.e., He who takes away, etc. And tliis 
second clause was added by either the Baptist, or the Evangelist, as 
ch. iv. 25 [Messias cometh, which is called Christ]. The- Lamb of 
God first took the load of sin off thp. world on Himself, then rolled 
it off from Himself. [The same expiession evidently, as 1 John iii. 
5 (He was manifested to take away our sins). — V. g.] — rriv af^aprlav, 
the sin) The singular number, with the article, [gives it] the greatest 
force. [There was] the one plague, which seized on all ; He bore 
the whole ; He did not so bear one part [of our sin], as not to bear 
the other. The same singular number is interposed between 
Plurals, Isa. liii. 6, 8, 12, " The Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity 
of us all :" whereas in ver. 5, " He was wounded for our transgres- 
sions ;" — " for the transgression of My people was He stricken ;" 
" He bare the sin of many." Sin and the world are equally widely 

30. 'Aiirip, a man) Great, peerless. — 'apuro;, prior [to me]) Notes, 
ver. 15. 

31. Oi/x ri&tiv) I knew Him not by face, just as yom'selves [knew 
Hmi not], ver. 26. " There standeth one among you, whom ye 
know not;" at the time that I said. There cometh after me: see 
Matt. iii. 14, notes. This manifestly tends to prove that John 
was divinely instructed to testify as to Christ Jesus. — iVa, that) 

ST JOHN 1. 32-35. 269 

expresses not the sole end, but still the primary one, why he came 
baptizing with water ; Acts xix. 4 : " John verily baptized with 
the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should 
beheve on Him which should come after him, that is, on Christ 
Jesus." — ^a-TTTi'^m, baptizing) The connecting link of [i.e. of the 
previous words with] the words of John the Baptist, after the 
parenthesis of the Evangelist, presently to be observed. 

32. 'E/jiapruptisiti, bare record) as concerning a fact seen by him- 
self and not by the people. The words which follow [comp. ver. 
34] were part of his record [testimony] : the words which are spoken, 
ver. 29, etc. [comp. ver. 15, 27], were part of his demonstration 
[the clear proof of Jesus' Messiahship, which John demonstrated] 
from the record. The Evangelist interposes this in the midst of 
the connected words of the Baptist, as a sort of parenthesis ; 
ili,a,pT\jfirt(Si\i — oTi, John bare record, saying. — ri6ea/j,ot,i) I beheld. — £§ 
oupavoij, from heaven) Construe this with xara^amv, descending. The 
descent, ft least in its last and lowest part, was equally determinate 
[in its direction] towards Jesus, as its abiding on Him. — 'iiMnnv, it 
abode) with a considerable stay [continuance]. 

33. O'uK fi&iiv) I knew Him not, before that I saw the Spirit de- 
scending. — '!rs/i4'aff /iE, He that sent me) God. 

34. 'Eupaxa) T saw the Spirit descending. — -/.a!) and thence [in 
consequence]. — /j,ifj,a,priprixa) I became a witness [I bare record]. — 
6 'riig Tou Qeou, the Son of God) And so the Messiah. The reference 
is to that which is stated : Matt. iii. 17. \_Namely, how Jesus in 
His baptism, was proclaimed the Son of GrOD, and in His temptation 
asserted Himself to be the Son of God : thus this very truth, that 
He is the Son of God, is explained more at length in the first verses. 
Also these verses have a fitting place here, as intended to designate 
that Person, of whom John the Baptist bare record, by the mission 
divinely entrusted to him. The events which precede the entrance 
(the coming forward) of John the Baptist, namely, the nativity and 
baptism of Christ, etc., these the Evangelist has most dexterously 
interwoven with the rest. — Harm., p. 154.] 

35. Tjj enra.{ipm, on tl\e following day) Great days ! The first the 
day of the record borne as to Jesus being Messiah ; ver. 15, 16 ; 
the second, the day of his testimony concerning the same Person, 
and at the same time as to His suffering [passion] ; ver. 29, 30; 
the third, this day, that of the three disciples joining Him ; the 
fourth, that of Philip and Nathanael being brought over to Him, 
ver. 43. Add ch. ii, 1, 12 [on the thirdday;— after this He went 

2fi0 ST JOHN I. 36-39. 

to Capernaum, etc., and continued there not many days]. The 
care of this Evangelist in marking times is remarkable. — duo, two) 
about to be witnesses. 

36. UipmaTovvTi, as He walked) He was not now coming to John, 
as He was, ver. 29 : for [to have come] oftener, would not have 
been becoming. To have done so once was condescension enough. 

37. 'HxoXoi(9)](rav, followed) of their own accord from behind. 
[Here were] the first commencements of the Christian Church. 
At the beginning Jesus invited disciples with a kind of milk- 
like [' lacteei,' alluring] sweetness. [ You will not find that He 
appointed certain hours for instructing disciples ; hut all His con- 
versation presented [the aspect of one] continued instruction and 
lasting training, at one time the handle [for instruction] being given 
by a marriage ; at another time, in overwhelming straits on the water ; 
at another time in a case of household need ; at another time when 
some one was sick ; at another time, on the occasion of some lapse on 
the part of the disciples. Immediately, as it were, on the highway 
(before the public, and on the spot " in trivio") He taught, reproved, 
bent, bore with, admonished, tried, strengthened, established them, and 
opened out to them one part of the truth after another, and freed them 
from one false conception after another, commencing from, these first 
[earliest] times all along to His ascension. — Harm., p. 157.] 

38. T/ Z^vtTiiTi, what seek ye ?) He was aware it was Himself they 
sought. He means therefore, What seek ye with Me 1 not, Whom 
seek ye ? By this question He touched their heart. He showed 
that He knew that they were seeking something ; and He gives 
them the opportunity of begging [from Him] what they would. — 
'Pa^Bl, Rabbi) Seasonably they give this title to Jesus ; ver. 49.' 
Also the interpretation being added, shows that the disciples as- 
signed it to Him in the restricted signification. — vou /ihiii) we ask, 
where thou art stopping, where thou hast thy ^oi/ij [mansion, resi- 
dence], They are desirous of His intimacy. 

39. 'Elbov, they saw) They might have seen proofs of the Messiah 
in His dwelhng ; which was simple, quiet, neat, silent, and frugal, 
without any costly array of vases and books, (comp. 2 Kings iv. 10 
[Elisha's "little chamber on the wall" of the Shunammite, con- 

' i.e. as ver. 49. Nathanael there addressed Jesus, in consequence of learn- 
ing His omniscience in having seen Him under the fig-tree, Rabbi, etc. : so here, 
ver. 38, the disciples give Him the same title for the same reason, viz. their 
learning His omniscience, as extending to the knowledge of their thoughts and 
what they were se.eMnn- — E. and T. 

ST JOHN I. 41-44. 261 

taining " a bed, table,, stool, and candlestick,"]) in a word, worthy 
of Himself and of Him alone. — 'i//,iiva\i, they abode) Constancy be- 
comes disciples.' — rif/^ipav, day) O happy day ! — upa., hour) Andrew 
made haste, even though late in the evening, to tell the [glad] tidings 
to his brother. \_These incidents preceded simset by two hours. — ^V. g.] 

41. 'E.\if>i<s-/.ii, findeth) With the festival-like [joyous] freshness of 
those days beautifully cqrresponds the word Jindeth, which is used 
here more frequently [than elsewhere]. — 'rpSirog, first) It is to be 
presumed, that both of them sought Simon by different roads.' — rov 
adi'Ktpbv, his brother) He afterwards became superior to Andrew, 
who, it is probable, was the elder born ; ver. 44 [the order there is, 
" Andrew and Peter"]. — su^^xa/isv, we have found) ver. 45, " We 
have found Him, of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did 
write" [Philip to Nathanael]. A great and joyful lupri/iix, treasure- 
found, expected by the world for about forty centuries. They had 
learned from John, that He was close at hand. — o, which) This is 
an addition of the Evangelist, as at ver. 42. 

42. ' Efi^Xs-^ag, having gazed earnestly at him [fixing His eye 
upon him] An effectual look. — 2//i«i' o u;os'lwi/a, Simon, sonof Jona) 
These names no one had told the Saviour : and so by this address 
by name He took complete possession of Peter ; comp. ver. 48 
[His similarly winning Nathanael by showing His omniscience, 
" Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, 
I saw thee."] — K»ip2s, Cephas) Peter was ever afterwards called by this 
name, which is a Syriac one, especially when he was staying in Syria. 

43. 'Wi'Krisi]! s^i\hT\i, would go forth) and He did go forth, which 
ch. ii. 1 implies. By comparing with this ch. ii., especially the 11th 
verse, " This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and 
manifested forth His glory," etc., it is evident that the word for 
(7cim^ /orf/i is significant. He went forth to action, to the carrying 
on of His work. 

44. Sr}6ea.i8a,, Bethsaidd) This seems to be mentioned for this rea- 
son, because Nathanael's native country was neighbouring, ver. 45,^ 
ch. xxi. 2, "Nathanael of Cana in Galilee."^ 

1 Rather, as Andrew first of the two disciples found his own brother and 
brought him to Jesus ; so the other disciple, who was probably John, did the 
same, and brought his brother, James, to the Saviour E. and T. 

' So Philip ofBethsaida the more readily findeth Nathanael of Cana, which 
was near Bethsaida. — E. and T. 

' ' Kulpkv xctl nirpov, Andrew and Peter) Andrew may have been the elder 
brother. He did not take ill the great honour done to Peter ; however he was 
tne next after him. — V. G. 

2(53 ST JOHN I. 45, 46. 

45. Evpigxii, Jindeth) Philip, after being called, immediately sets 
himself to gain another [makes a gain on his talent, ' lucrifacit']. — 
rov Na6avariK, NathanaeJ) It is probable that he was admitted among 
the apostles, and that he was the same person as he who is called 
Bartholomew, by a secondary name derived from his father, Tolo- 
mseus, as Simon from Jona [Bar-Jona], James and John from 
Zebedee [" the sons of Zebedee"] : For Judas also was called Leb- 
bseus or Thaddseus. Certainly at Matt. x. 3 [the list of the 
apostles], he is joined to Phihp ; and at John xxi. 2, Nathanael is 
put down in the midst of the apostles, immediately after Thomas ; 
comp. Acts i. 13, " Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Mat- 
thew :" and it seems likely, that his name would have been submitted 
to the apostles casting of lots [as a candidate for the vacant apostle- 
ship, to which Matthew was elected by lot], Acts i. 23, [whereas 
Barsabas and Matthias were the only two submitted to it], had 
he not been already among the apostles. He was certainly a friend 
of the Lord equally dear [to Him], as a friend can be dear to a prince, 
though not employed on his embassies. — Xiyu, saith) with a loud 
voice, ver. 48,"^ and a joyous voice. [Mcosn?, Moses) John v. 39, 46, 
" Search the Scriptures, for," etc., " and they are they which testify 
of Me : — " Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed Me ; for 
he wrote of Me." — V. g.] — iupr}-/.afiiii, we have found) I, Andrew, 
and Peter. 

46. Auvarai ti) can anything? Therefore there were many 
worthless characters. Comp. as to that whole region, ch. vii. 52, 
" Search and look ; for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet" [the 
Pharisees to Nicodemus]. Nathanael's question is however more 
modest and cautious, than if he categorically denied [that anything 
good could come from Galilee]. Christ did not owe His excellency 
to His native land on earth [His excellency was not to be set down 
to the account of His earthly country]. He came from heaven. — 
ayaSov, good) But how great a Good, Christ! ch. vii. 12, "Some 
said. He is a good man." — 'ipx"^ ""^ "^h come and see) The best re- 
medy against preconceived opinions. What Jesus the day before had 
replied to the disciples [ver. 39], " Come and see" : that now Phihp 
replies to others, "lis, see, i.e. you will see. Often an imperative after 
an imperative has the force of a future ; Gen. xvii. 1, " Walk before 
Me, and be thou perfect"= and thus thou shalt be, Amos v. 4, " Seek 
ye Me and ye shall live." See Glass. Phil. Can. xliii. de Verbo. 

' "Before that Philip called thee," (pav^aai, raised his voice to thee.— 
E. and T. 

ST JOHN I. 47-50. 2C3 

47. Usp! a\iTo\j) concerning Him, not immediately to Him — aXitSug, 
truly) An affirmation showing intimate knowledge. — 'Xcparfkirng, an 
Israelite) one worthy to see angels ascending and descending, as 
Jacob did [on the ladder in his dream], ver. 51 ; comp. Gen. xxviii. 
12. No mere creature could bear the name, Israel, unless it were 
divinely given him; so vast [comprehensive] it is: the guileless, 
aboXoi, are worthy of it. \_A pre-eminent virtue truly is guilelessness. 
— V. g.] This speech contains a proof 1) of His omniscience ; 
2 ) of His benignity. ' Nathanael had been hasty ; ver. 46, " Can 
there any good thing come out of Nazareth ? " The Lord gives to 
him Himself as the Good. 

48. Hohv, whence) Jesus does not answer this question, but shows 
that He knows even more about Nathanael.— emriv, a fig-tree) An 
emblem of peace and Gospel security [1 Kings iv. 25; Mic. iv. 4]. 
— M6\i h, I saw thee) with the Divine eye. Nathanael is reminded 
of the meditations, which he had had at that time, truly worthy of 
an Israelite and free from guile. 

49. 'Airixpiirj, he answered) Considerate quickness in believing 
brings with it a blessed [sumptuous] portion : slowness is censured, 
Luke xxiv. 25, " O fools, and slow of heart to believe." — iu iT 6 vios tou 
. &ioZ, Thou art the Son of God) ch. vi. 69, " We believe and are sure 
that Thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God." Now Na- 
thanael himself confesses more than he had heard from Philip : and 
retracts his doubt as to the goodness of Jesus. — b liog — 6 jSagiXedg, 
the Son — the King) A confession as to the person and office of 
Christ. — (fi) eJ jSaaiXiijg nu 'isfank, Thou art the King of Israel) 
and so my King also, since Thou dost acknowledge me to be a 
genuine Israelite. 

50. E?3ov, / saw) The repetition confirms [the assertion] : as at 
ch. iv. 17, IS.—mgTediig) Others read it without the interrogation, 
which however the succeeding sentence, as being without the par- 
ticle ovv or any other such like particle, requires, /is/^w rourwv o-^^u. 
The same figure [the interrogation expressing surprise, rather than 
a query] occurs, Luke xxii. 52. At the same time the admiration 
of the Lord at the prompt faith of Nathanael is expressed ; as in 
Matt. viii. 10, at the faith of the centurion ; and the Lord shows by 
a new proof, that Nathanael is intimately known to Him, and He 

' ch. vii. 42, " Hath not the Scripture said that Christ cometh of the seed of 
David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was." The expression of 
the Evangelist, ch. iv. 44, as to Judea, " His own country," implies his taking for 
gtanted the birth-place, as recorded by the Three Synoptic Gospels.— E. and T, 

264 ST JOHN 1. Bl. 

[thereby] confirms Ms faith. — /ae/Xw, greater things) concerning which 
[see what is contained] in the following verse, and in eh. sxi. 25 
[There are also many other things, which Jesus did, the which, if 
they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world 
itself could not contain the books that should be written]. [To Mm 
that hath it is given. There is a perpetual (principle of) increase (in 
the case) of Divine gifts, works, and testimonies : ch. v. 20, 35 (The 
Father showeth Him all things, that Himself doeth : and He will 
show Him greater works than these ; — John was a burning and 
a shining light, etc.. But I have greater witness than that of John). 
Ch. xiv. 12 "He that believeth on Me, the works that I do, shall he 
do also ; and greater works than these shall he do ; because I go 
unto the Father." Avail yourself of the means which first offer them- 
selves : if you do not so, you are wanting to yourself by delaying. — 
V. g.] — o-^ii, thou shall see) In this word is contained [the- assurance 
of] Nathanael's staying with Jesus. 

51. 'Afirtv, a^v, verily, verily) Matthew, Mark, and Luke, in the 
speeches of Jesus, are wont to set down a/j^nv once, John twice [re- 
peating the word], upon which see Jac. Gaillius tr. de Filio horn, 
qu. 11, 12, p. 231—239. The others indeed do so too in those pas- 
sages, which are not parallel ; but yet even in parallels too. Matt, 
xxvi. 21, 34 [a/ijji', once] ; John xiii. 21, 38 {aMh twice'] : whence 
it appears, that the Saviour either always used this prefatory 
affirmation, &/j,riv, once, or, as we rather think, alwaj's twice. At 
the time of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, it was not yet the seasonable 
time to record it [the double a/iiiv] : when John wrote, it was sea- 
sonable. But why [is it repeated] twice ? Jesus spake in the name 
of the Father and in His own : add the note on 2 Cor. i. 20 [The 
promises of God — are in Him, Amen] : and His Word is Truth 
with the Speaker and with believers ; 1 John ii. 8 [A new com- 
mandment, — which thing is true in Him and in you] : [both] in 
substance and in words. Matt. v. 37 "Let your communication be 
yea, yea; nay nay:" They are Xoyoi aXrjhiiol xal irisro) [words], 
faithful and true : comp. Rev. xix. 11 \_He that sat upon the horse 
was called Faithful and True']. This is a Hebrew epizeuxis, as Ps. 
xli. 13, Ixxxix. 52 ; Ixxii. 19 [Amen and Amen] : as IKD nXD, very, 
very. — v//,Tv, you) [Plur.j To thee and the rest. — o-i^ee^e, ye shall see) 
Answering to o-^si, thou shalt see) ver. 50. Great faith, and [a de- 
cided] profession on the part of one, obtains even for others greater 
gifts. — rbv iivpavh avswyoVa, heaven open) i.e. Ye shall see the greatest 
signs, which are to show, that heaven is open. The Lord has de- 

ST JOHN II. 1, 2G5 

scended from heaven, and now stays on [" versatur in," walks famili- 
arly on] earth : and thence His heavenly messengers will have much 
to do ; for they will have to attend on their Lord. — ateuyora, opened) 
The prseterite, properly, comp. Matt. iii. 16, avK^y^Sriaav auT^ ol ovpa^ 
vol; and with [i.e. implying also] continuance to the time subse- 
quent, John iii. 13, " No man hath ascended up to heaven, but He 
that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in hea- 
ven;" Acts vii. 56, [The dying Stephen] "I see the heavens 
opened;" Rev. xi. 12, "A great voice from heaven saying unto them, 
Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud." — 
To-jg ayy'sXovg tou ©eoD, the angels of God) The same beings, whom the 
Only-begotten Son of God has as His ministering servants. — aeotr- 
^ahovrag xal xara^ahovTag, ascending and descending) Ascending is put 
in the 'first place : therefore there will be a staying of angels on 
earth. Jacob saw some such vision, Gen. xxviii. 12. How much 
more [shall] Israelites without guile under the New Testament [see 
it]. — rh\i T'liv Tou avSpurou, the Son of man) See note on Matt, 
xvi. 13. 


1. T^ fi/j,'if>c(, rr\ Tfikri) On the third day after the promise given, 
ch. i. 51. Now is exhibited a specimen [of its fulfilment]. [Between 
tliat day, on, which Nathanael was gained over, and the celebration of 
the marriage-feast, one day intervened ; on which some disciples, as it 
is reasonable to suppose, joined those previously made. — V. g. Nor 
loas this portion of time too limited for accomplishing the journey from 
Bethabara (Bethany?) to Galilee (and especially to Cana). — Harm., 
p. 159.] — ya/ios, the marriage-feast) Christ does not abolish human 
society, but sanctifies it. Thirst can be assuaged even by water ; but 
at a marriage-feast the Lord gives wine : [on an occasion] inde- 
pendent of marriage there would have been no case of need. The 
great graciousness of the Lord [is herein exhibited] : He takes part 
in a marriage-feast at the earliest period [of His ministry], whilst 
He is alluring [in a winning manner] disciples, being afterwards 
about to proceed by more severe ways leading to the cross, [both 
methods alike at the last] eventuating in glory. — ^ m^vjp tou 'inooZ, 
tjie mother of Tesus) John never calls her by the name Mary ; but 

266 ST JOHN II. 2-4. 

takes the name for granted as known from the other evangelists : 
comp. note on ch. vi. 67, vii. 42, xxi. 2.—hu, there) as a relative 
or intimate friend. 

2. o; iia6nrai, the disciples) There were by this time more disciples 
than those who had invited Jesus and His disciples seem to have 
thought : on that account the wine was the more speedily all spent; 
but Jesus most liberally compensates them, by giving as many vessels 
of wine as were about the number of companions whom He had 
brought with Him.— aJrou, His) Hence may be inferred the piety of 
those who invited Him. 

3. 'renp^gavTos, failing [coming short]) How many days the mar- 
riage-feast lasted, on what day of it the Lord came and the wine 
failed, is not known. — oux £%ouff<) The newly-wedded couple have not. 
She means this : I would wish you to withdraw, in order that the 
rest also may withdraw, before that the scarcity be made evident to 
all.^ Adopting this [Bengel's] sense as the meaning of Mary, the 
reply of Jesus not only does not appear harsh, but is most full of 
love. / 

4. T; l/jboi xai go! ; what is there [common] to Me and thee ?) Thy 
thoughts are one thing, saith He, mine another. Similarly the dis- 
ciples are disciplined, ch. vi. 6, "Jesus saith to Philip, Whence shall 
we buy bread, that these may eat ? and this He said to prove him ;" 
ch. xiii. 7, [Jesus to Peter, when about to wash his feet] " What I 
do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter." — yuvai) 
He does not say, Mary, nor mother ; but woman; which appellation 
held a middle place, and was especially becoming for the Lord to 
use : ch. xix. 26, " Woman, behold thy son ;" perhaps, also, it was 
pecuUar [in its use] to Him. The Lord had regard to the Father 
above all things ; not even did He know His mother, according to 
the flesh. 2 Cor. v. 16, " Though we have known Christ after the 
flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more." Comp. note on 
John XX. 13. Especially was the appellation of mother unsuitable 
to this formula, What is there to Me and thee'? However, the Greek 
yvmi, having no synonym in our language, has a more respectful 
sound than Woman [ch. xix. 26 shows it betrays no want of tender 
respect], mulier, [Germ.] Weih, as contradistinguished from [female, 
lady] femina, [Germ.] Frau : and woman is used for mother, Is. xlv. 

' This seems mere conjecture. Liicke more probably supposes that the Lord 
Himself had recently given some reason to expect that He would manifest His 
Messiahship in wonderfiJ works. Indeed she herself might have inferred this 
from prophecy: Isa. xxxv. 5, 6; Gen. xlix. 10, H.— B. and T. 

ST JOHN II. 5-9. 287 

10, " "Woe unto him, that saith— to the woman, What hast thou 
Drought forth?" — owoi nxsi) is not yet come. The same word 
[occurs], ch. iv. 47, viii. 42.— w^a, hour) of doing what you hint to 
Me, i.e. of withdrawing. Certainly his hour of assisting them was 

5., A'eyii, site saith) Mary had not yet seen a miracle performed by 
Jesus: ver. 11 [proves this] ; but from His own reply she wisely 
inferred, that one was about to be performed. — S,ti av Xiyji v/j,h, 
minean, whatsoever He shall have said untO you, do it) She feels 
that He is about to do something; therefore she delegates the 
whole management, resting on herself, as well as the servants them- 
selves, to Him. Comp. Gen. xli. 55, o lav e/V?) v/j^Tv, voingan, what- 
ever He shall have said to you, do ye [Pharaoh's direction that the 
Egyptians should go to Joseph]. 

6. 'rdpiai) water-pots, rather more broad in shape, than high : 
for they were lying [xilf/sivai] ; and they were capacious, long, broad, 
and deep, out of which draughts might be drawn, ver. 8. — xara) 
for [Engl. Vers., after the manner of]. — tuv 'loudalav, of the Jews) 
who used to have frequent washings. The Evangelist did not write 
among the Jews, [as] ver. 13, v. 1 [prove]. — /juirpnrdc, metretce [fir- 
kins, three-fourths of the Attic medimn, about nine gallons Engl.]) 
2 Chron. iv. 5, Septuag. jafwea (DTia) /nrpriTas [baths] rpis^iXloug. 
Hist. Bel, ver. 2, esfuddXiug aprd^ai duiSixa xai irpo^ara resaapaxovra 
xai o'mu fiiTpriTal eg. With these seventy priests were filled, be- 
sides women and children. See the same passage, ver. 9. Nor is 
there any doubt but that the remains left over were large. On 
this analogy the 15 metretse in Cana could have sufficed for the 
giving drink to more than 175 men, besides women and children, 
certainly not fewer ; for giving food to whom, 30 artabse (a Persian 
measure=l medimnus+2 chcenices) or 1530 choenices, and 100 
sheep, would be needed. I say purposely, on this analogy ; and also, 
presently after, I refer the words, for giving food to whom, to the 
words, more than 175, not to 175 ; and thereby the word more itself is 
much enlarged in its meaning. Comp. 1 Esdr. viii. 22 (20). Matt. 
Hostus shows that 12 metrette (at Frankfort on the Oder) are 
777| nossellse; but that 18 metretse are 1166f nossellse : thus the 
mean between for 15 metretse will be 972 nossellse. 

8. "Hviyxav, They bare) i.e. They drew and bare. [They ex- 
hibited a] beautiful obedience [to His directions]. 

9. 'O apxirpixXmg, the governor of the feast) who was directing 
the whole management of the feast : one skilled in deciding a 

2C8 ST JOHN II. 10, 11. 

question of taste. — rh Ihuf) The Article marks the subject. — six 
'-flhr jjSiisaii, did, not know : they knew) The ignorance of the governor 
of the feast proves the goodness of the wine : the knowledge of the 
servants [proves] the truth of the miracle. — ^mif) calls : it is not 
added, to himself. 

10. Aiyii, saitli) So that those who were present might hear : see 
the preceding verse. — rov pcaXov, the good) Therefore the bridegroom 
had set down wine, in the judgment of the governor of the feast, 
good enough ; but Jesus gave better. — orav f/^ihcrSSiai) Simply the 
speech of the governor of the feast is repeated, as also the custom 
of the Jews : drunkenness is not approved of. — riTripnxas, thou hast 
kept) He speaks as one ignorant of what had taken place, ver. 9. 

11. Tavrriv, this) The early miracles of Christ are put before us 
in singular abundance ; because the beginnings of faith rested on 
them. [And indeed the first miracles, in this place, and I'h. v. 8, 
" Rise, take up thy bed and walk" (Jesus to the impotent man) ; 
Matt. viii. 13, " Jesus said to the centurion. Go thy way, and as thoii 
hast believed, so be it done unto thee," He^ did not perform by 
His hand, hut hy words : in order that it might be manifest. His 
healing power was divine. A natural force is sometimes in men, so that 
even rather severe infirmities of body yield to their hands. But Jesus' 
healing power was of a different character ; since, when subsequently 
He stretched out His hands, or employed other ceremonials, in mi- 
raculous healings, He did so for the sake of those on whom the benefit 
was conferred : Mark vii. 33, etc. (The deaf mute ; whom Jesus 
" took aside, put His fingers into his ears, spit, and touched His 
tongue ") ; ch. viii. 23 (The blind man ; whom Jesus " led out of the 
town, spit upon his eyes, and put His hands upon him"), etc.— 
Harm., p. 159, etc.] — apxh^, beginning) Wbence now it might be 
supposed, that more [miracles] would follow. — %ai k^avipoist, and 
manifested) And thus began to manifest His glory. Previously He 
had not wrought miracles. [He, it seems, gave [prsemisit] doctrine 
before signs. When He made this beginning of signs, the beginning 
of His doctrine had been previously made with His disciples, who be- 
came confirmed in their faith by this very miracle, as also with others, 
through John the Baptist, and also through Jesus Himself. John i. 
— Harm., p. 160.] — MarBueav) They believed the more fully [comp. 
ch. i. 50, "Because I said, etc., believest thou? Thou shalt see 
greater things than these." Even in a marriage-feast a progress in 
faith, is to be sought after. Thenceforth the disciples were prepared 
to embrace whatever their Lord was about to do and say,— /ia^^ra/. 

ST JOHN II. 12-17. 269 

the disciples) His mother had previbusly believed : Luke i. 45, 
" Blessed is she that believed, for there shall be a performance," etc. 

12. KarilSii) He went down from Cana. — xal, and) A holy family. 
His Brethren are put before His disciples. The privileges of His 
brethren had been great, if they had used them. [^These are here 
mentioned in the first place: and Joseph is not now added. It is 
not without good reason one muy suspect, that Joseph died during the 
interval between the twelfth and thirtieth year of Jesus' age, and 
that His brethren were not Joseph's own children {for Jesus, as He 
was reputed the Son, so was He reputed to be absolutely the first- 
begotten of Joseph), but Mary's sister's sons. — Harm., p.* 160.] t-o'' 
-aoXXai rj/jApag, not many days) He accustomed them to travelling 
from place to place ; and His journey to Jerusalem was at hand. 
See the following ver. [Manifestly by this phrase (comp. Acts i. 
5, oO iJitra woXKug TavTctg ri/z^spag ; xiii. 31, e^l rj/jLipai vXiloug) this 
continuing [j/Miva,\i, they continued there] is distinguished from His 
dwelling at Capernaum. That went before, — this followed the im- 
prisonment of John. — Harm., 1. c.J 

13. TJ icaayjt, the Passover) About the times of the Passover the 
office of Christ was in especially fruitful exercise. 

14. Boas xal 'jrpo^ara xai -ripiSTipag, oxen, and sheep, and doves) 
which were used in sacrifices. — xaSrifihovf, sitting) in the very act of 
negotiation : [^going on so much the more briskly, as the Passover 
festival was at hand. — Harm., p. 161.J 

15. ^payiKXiov, a scourge) Admirable zeal! — ex. ayjimoKi) o/ several 
cords : for so scourges were formerly made. Moreover there was 
no material which inflicted less lasting hurt on the body than this. 
Nor is it said, that He inflicted a single blow upon the men : He 
accomplished His purpose by the terror [which He inspired]. 

16. ToC Xlarpog ,aou. My Father) Surprising authority ! \_The Sa- 
viour proved Himself on this occasion Lord of the temple, and of all 
the feasts connected with it ; therefore there was no reason why men 
should wonder, if either then He did not wait on to the end of the feast, 
or if afterwards He did not frequent all the feasts, or if he neglected to 
be present at the beginning of the feast. — Harm., p. 162.] 

17. ' 'E./j^vrieiriea.]/, they remembered) Comp. ver. 22, ch. xii. 16 [His 
triumphant entry into Jerusalem], " These things understood not 
His disciples at the first ; but when Jesus was glorified, then remem- 
bered they that these things were written of Him." Concerning 
the time of remembrance, also ch. xiv. 26, " The Holy Ghost shall 
bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto 

270 ST JOHN 11. 18, 19. 

you." — hZflXog — zarapa7£ra(>£, Zeal— shall eat Me up^) So Septua- 
gint, Ps. Ixix. 10. In truth, His enemies afterwards killed Jesus on 
account of His zeal for His Father » house. — o7xou, house) See ver. 16. 

18. t; aniiiTov, what sign) And yet this very act was a gruj-iTov, sign, 
which Jesus had miraculously wrought. \_0f how great a number 
do you imagine there would be need, if all the buyers and sellers had 
to be immediately driven out of any marhet-place ! — V. g. And on 
that account, indeed, that act was the more marvellous, inasmuch as 
Jesus, having just come from Sis baptism, had not yet ceased to be a 
stranger to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. — Harm., p. 161.] They 
require signs, to be proved by signs. They showed the same per- 
versity, ch. vi. 30, [After His miracle of feeding 5000, they said] 
" What sign showest Thou then, that we may see and believe Thee V 
Matt. xxi. 23, " The chief priests came unto Him, as He was teach- 
ing in the temple, and said, By what authority doest Thou these 
things ? and who gave Thee this authority 1 " — or/) seeing that, since. 

19. AveaTi, destroy) On account of this very deed, namely, the 
cleansing of the temple, they afterwards destroyed the temple of His 
body. Matt. xxi. 23 [see above], 46, " They sought to lay hands 
on Him ;" xxvii. 40, [They that passed by reviled, saying] " Thou 
that destroyest the temple and buildest it in three days, save 
Thyself;" xxvi. 61, [False witnesses said, in His trial before 
Caiaphas] " This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of Grod, 
and to build it in three days." Destroy, i.e. if you destroy : or rather, 
you will destroy. A similar use of the Imperative [occurs] Ecclesias- 
tic. XXX. 9, xxxiii. 26, Sootheyour little son, etc. [=: you will soothe]. — 
rh vaov, the temple) The body of Jesus, about to be raised again, is 
the temple and dwelling-place of the Godhead. Therefore Jesus is 
the Lord of the temple at Jerusalem, which was the type of the 
body of Jesus. — toZtov, this) There is no doubt but that Jesus sup- 
phed that which the Evangelist adds, ver. 21, by the employment of 
a nod or gesture, unobserved by the Jews. — ^iyifu, I will raise it up) 

' So ABP, the best authorities, read ; but the old Latin Versions aba Vulg., 
and the Rec. Text, read xareipaye, hath eaten Me up. — ^E. and T. 

2 61/ rpialv 'hfiipxi;, in three days) From this very time, in which it first came 
into the Jews' mind to destroy the temple of Clirist's body (Mark xiv. 68, We 
heard Him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within 
three days I will build another made without hands), down to His resurrection, 
by which He Himself raised the temple, is accounted, even in that sense, a three 
days' period, if you take one day, and that the Passover day, in this figurative 
language, as one year : to wit, by including in the numeration the years of the 
prophecy and of its completion (which years are Dion. 28 and 30). — Harm,, p. 162. 

ST John ii. 20-23. 27t 

A suitable word, [both] concerning the edifice of stone, and concern- 
ing the temple of His body. It recurs at verse 22. This is a grand 
declaration of His, I can do what I please with the temple of My 
body : ch. x. 17, 18, " No man taketh it from Me, but I lay it down 
of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take 
it again ;" and so also I can do what I please with this temple made 
of stone and wood. He puts off those demanding the sign : comp. 
ch. viii. 28, " When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall 
ye know that I am He, and that I do nothing of myself:" nor, how- 
ever, even in the time then being did He perform no signs ; ver. 23, 
" Many believed on His name, when they saw the miracles which 
He did." 

20. ' rixoSo/jt,ri6r], was built [was in building]) by Herod the Great, 
and subsequently. See, besides others, Witsius in Misc. T, ii. p. 
311. — xal au, and wilt thou) For this reason, the more they seem to 
have taken Jesus' words literally, because He was called a work- 
man. Mark vi. 3, " Is not this the carpenter?" comp. Matt. xxvi. 61, 
xxvii. 63, [The Pharisees, after the crucifixion, to Pilate] " Sir, we 
remember that that deceiver said, while He was yet alive. After three 
days I will rise again." Stupidity often, in the case of malice, is of 
advantage [proficit, prevails, makes progress, i.e. as to its own wicked 

21. Tlspl Tou vaoij rou ffu//.a,rog, concerning the temple of , His body) 
that is, concerning the temple, which was the body of Jesus. Let 
the expression be compared, which is found ch. xi. 13, " Howbeit 
Jesus spake of His death ; but they thought that He had spoken of 
taking rest in sleep." 

22. Was risen) His Resurrection, not His glorification, is appealed 
to, because the sign was fulfilled by His resurrection. Comp. iyipoj, 
I will raise, ver 19. — i/jLv^gSrieav, they remembered) Faith and memory 
lend mutual help to one another in this passage; and ch. xii. 16, 
xvi. 4, " These things have I told you, that when the time shall 
come, ye may remember that I told you of them :" they also work 
together ; Matt. xvi. 8, 9, " O ye of little faith — Do ye not yet — 
remember the five loaves," etc. ; Ps. cvi. 13, " They soon /or^ai His 
works ;" ver. 12, having just before stated, " Then believed they His 
words." — rfi ypafifi xal rcS Xo'yw, the Scripture and the word) concern- 
ing the raising of the temple : both being alike divine. 

23. 'El' rfi kpryj, in the feast) the people being collected, ch. iv. 45, 
" The Galilasans received Him, having seen all the things that He 
did at Jerusalem at the feast." — I'jrigTi-jeav, believed) as those, con- 

272 ST JOHN 11. 24, 25. 

ceming whom ch. viii. 30 speaks : " As He spake these words, many 
believed on Him ;" xii. 42, " Among the chief rulers also many be- 
Heved on Him." — ra an/j^iTa, signs) More signs are recorded as haviug 
been done by the Evangelists in Galilee, than in Judsea and Jeru- 
salem : ver. 1, and chap. iv. 46 [The miracle of the wine at Cana, 
and on the nobleman's son at Capernaum]. For in Galilee He 
wrought very many : Matt. xi. 20, " Then began He to upbraid the 
cities, wherein most of His miglity works were done :" and those 
which had been wrought in Jerusalem, were then very well known 
of themselves. 

24. Auto's) Himself. — olx. lirlenviv iaurov, He did 7iot commit Him- 
self) He did not descend to too great familiarity with them (Septuag., 
Job xxix. 24, II hyiXtav 'jrpog abroug, oux emorivov, " If I laughed On 
them, they believed it not) :" He did not reveal to them the things 
which it was not yet the full time for revealing. \_In fact, He left the 
city, when the passover feast was either not yet, or scarcely, finished, 
for this reason, because those men were already meditating with them- 
selves .the plots, which broke out more openly, ch. v. 16, 18, " The 
Jews sought to slay Him, because He had done these things on the 
Sabbath day :" and also " said that God was His Father, making 
Himself equal with God ;" vii. 1, " He would not walk in Jewry, 
because the Jews sought to kill Him :" for it was not then as yet the 
time for His submitting Himself to encounter their hatred. Without 
doubt it was, as having a secret surmise of these things, that Nicodemus 
had the interview with Him by night. — Harm., p. 163.] — The anti- 
thesis to oiix s'TiBTiuiv eaurov is e-jritSTivgav, many believed, ver. 23. — 
auTov) Himself, of Himself, knew all men. — ymudKeiv, knew) Often 
John so uses the word yivudxeiv, to know, of Jesus havmg cognizance 
>jf all things, without information given Him by man : ch. iv. 1, 
" The Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made — 
more disciples than John ;" v. 6, " When Jesus knew that he (the 
impotent man) had now been a long time in that case," etc. 

25. "Ot() because. — roD avSpuvou- ra av6pu'!ru, of man : in man) This 
is said of the whole race of men : in the preceding verse, of the 
individuals contained under it. — aWog) Himself, without any other 
testimony. — rr, what) to wit, treachery : every man is deceitful. The 
language of John has Euphemy.^ In man [the natural man] 
there is what is human : in the new man there is what is divine, 
Christian, spiritual. 

^ He avoided the liarsli expression of all that was implied. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN in. 1-3. 273 


1. ''Hv ds, Now there was) Eleven conversations of Jesus are 
recounted in full detail by John : the first of these now begins. — 
civSpiiimg, a man) one of those, concerning whom see eh. ii., towards 
the close : but one considerably better than many. 

2. NuxTo';, by night) There is never a time that Christ does not 
receive comers to Him. — o'lSafitv, we know) 1, and those like me : the 
rulers rather than the Pharisees, ch. xii. 42. To this plural answers 
the plural, ver. 7, " Ye must be bom again." The Antecedent is put 
by Nicodemus as the consequent : For this reason I wished to confer 
with Thee. He wished to hear as to heavenly things and as to 
sublime things, ver. 12 [but Jesus brings him up to first principles. — 
V. g.] — ^grifLiiix,, signs) ch. ii. 23, " At the passover, on the feast day, 
many believed on Him when they saw the miracles which He did." 

3. 'Eav firi Tig, Unless one [Except a man]) The expression is in- 
definite : Nicodemus, however, rightly applies it to himself. Comp. 
ver. 7, ye. The sense here is : That opinion of thine, Nicodemus, 
as to Jesus is not sufficient : it is needfal that you absolutely believe, 
and submit yourself to the heavenly ordinance, even baptism. Comp. 
Mark xvi. 16, " He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved." 
This was the doctrine necessary for Nicodemus. Accordingly Jesus 
began from this point, as Nicodemus indeed had furnished the 
handle, — yinn^f,, be bom) This is put forward first under a figure, 
in hard language, in order to convince [convict] Nicodemus of igno- 
rance ; it is afterwards, when he was humbled, shown in plain 
[literal] words, ver. 15, " That whosoever believeth in Him should not 
perish," etc., etc. \_Comp. 1 John v. 1, Whosoever believeth that 
Jesus is the Christ is bom of God^ The same truth is expressed 
in this passage, as Matt. iii. expresses by the word //,iTavo!as, repent- 
ance. For this word does not occur in the whole Gospel according 

' 8;B«(rz«Ai)f, master, [teacher]) That indeed is true ; hut it by no means carries 
with it every point [that is needed for salvation] ; ver. 14, 16, " As Moses lifted 
up the serpent, etc., so must the Son of Man be lifted up, etc. : for God so loved 
the world, that He gave His Only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on 
Him should not perish," etc. — V. g. 


27+ «T JOHN III. 4, 5. 

to John.* [Beware of thinking that the work of faith is accomplished 
without any trouble : for it is (nothing short of) a generation from 
above. Beware again, on the other hand, of regarding regeneration as 
more difficult than it really is : it is simply, to wit, accomplished by 
faith (i.e. in the act of believing).— V. g.'j—avcohv) Comp. ver. 2, 
7, 11, " We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen," 
etc. ; 31, " He that cometh from above is above all." amhv signifies 
from above, whence the Son of man hath come down. — ou dmarai, 
cannot) Nicodemiis had not himself sufficiently known [the full sig- 
nificancy of] what (ver. 2, Thou art a Teacher come from God) he 
had said. — i&ih, to see) even now, and after this Hfe : to see, with 
[real] enjoyment. — rfi\i ^aeiXelav roD @io\}, the kingdom of God) 
[JVicodemus was aspiring after this ; yet being ignorant of how great 
consequence in this respect faith in Jesus was. — V. g.J He who sees 
Christ, sees this. Whence the new birth [cometh], thence [also 
cometh] acquaintance with Him. 

4. Ilwf) This how and why are often obstacles to faith : ver. 9, 
" How can these things be?" eh. vi, 52, [The Jews object] "How 
can this man give us His flesh to eaf?" Nicodemus ' marvels,' as 
ver. 7 implies. It is well that he simply asks the question.^ — 
yii/vnSrivoii, be bom) Nicodemus ought to have taken into account the 
cinuhv, from above: that he passes by : therefore he says diuTspov, a 
second time. — yipoiv) an old man, not merely a grown-up man. 
Nicodemus therefore being an old man, asks the question on his 
own account;' and had come to Jesus, who was much his j-unior.— 
/i-/i Siiiiarai ; can he [num potest ; requiring a negative answer : 
Surely he cannot ?]) Nicodemus objects rather vehemently, [and in 
such a way, that his words appear not far removed from derision. 
JJence it is that Jesus frames His succeeding answer as well a little 
more distinct, as also somewhat more paradoxical and severe. — V. g.] 

5. 'e§ '{ibarog xal Hnxif/.a.Tog, of water and the Spirit) Jesus renders 
His speech the more difficult, in order to try [discipline] Nicodemus, 
and at the same time declares the difference between birth from 
above, and birth from a mother : and He defines birth from above 
by communion with [the partaking of] Himself and with [of] the 
Spirit (for He speaks concerning Himself and concerning the 

' Both Evangelists open the Gospel with the same initiatory truth, though the 
difference of the word in one from that of the other proves the coincidence un- 
designed E. and T. 

' As an inquirer, not a doubter. — E. and T. 

• And so puts it in that form which applied to his own case. £. and T. 

ST JOHN III. 8. 2-73 

Spirit also at ver. 11, " we speak that we do know "). Comp. 1 Cor. 
vi. 11, "Ye are washed, ye are sanctified, ye are justified in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." No one 
can enjoy God without the Son and His Spirit. Water denotes 
the baptism of John into [preparing for] Christ Jesus, ver. 22, 23 
[Jesus tarried in the land of Judsea with His disciples, and baptized : 
" John was also baptizing in JEnon," etc.] ; which baptism the 
colleagues of Nicodemus, by omitting, ver. 1, despised the counsel 
* of God : Luke vii. 30, " The Pharisees and lawyers rejected the 
counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of Jolin ; " 
when nevertheless the Jews were accustomed to baptisms : Heb. 
ix. 10, " divers washings.'' And Nicodemus himself appears to 
have entertained not sufficiently exalted views of John and his 
baptism, as being one who had wrought no miracle. Comp. ver. 2 
[where he emphasises the ' miracles' of Jesus ; thus forming a 
contrast to John]. Nor is communion needful with Christ only, 
but also with His Spirit : Acts ii. 38, " Repent and be baptized — in 
the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall 
receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." And because the same Spirit 
glorifies Christ, for this reason, the mention of water being presently 
after omitted, mention is made of the Spirit alone, of whom we are 
to be born again : nor does He say at- ver. 6, that which is horn of 
water is water. Therefore the necessity of regeneration primarily, 
and of baptism secondarily, is here confirmed (comp. a similar 
xai, and, ch. vi. 40, every one which seeth the Son and believeth on 
Him) : otherwise there would be but little hope of infants dying 
without baptism. Comp. as to wafer and the Spirit, Tit. iii. 5, 
" Not by works which we have done, but according to His mercy 
He saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the 
Holy Ghost." — I'laikkTv, enter) Answering to the word enter [a 
second time into his mother's womb] of the previous verse. The 
severity of His expression increases : comp. see, ver. 3. "He can- 
not even enter, much less see. He must enter a house, whoever 
wishes to see thoroughly its internal structure. That which is not 
born, uses neither eyes nar feet. 

6. 2af>g) True flesh : but also mere flesh, void of spirit, opposed 
to spirit, of an old generation. — to yeyinti/isvov, what is born) This 
being in the neuter, sounds more general, and denotes the very 
first stamina [groundwork] of new life : comp. Luke i. 35, " The 
Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest 
shall overshadow thee; therefore that holy thing, ri ymu/itvoj," etc. ; 

878 ■ ST JOHN III. 7-10. 

or even the whole body of those born again : comp. John vi. 37, 39, 
" All tlmt—irav 0— the Father giveth Me, shall come to Me," etc. : 
" This is the Father's will, etc., that of all which — -jran S — ^He hath 
given Me, I should lose nothing — J| airoD — but should raise it — 
auro— up again at the last day." Afterwards it is expressed in the 
masculine, o yi-yinrifihoc, who is bom, ver. 8 ; which signifies matured 
birth. — TBED/ia, spirit) That which is born of the Spirit is spirit : he 
who is born of the Spirit is spiritual. 

7. 't^2s, ye) Thee, and those in whose name thou hast spoken 
(ver. 2, " We know," etc.) : Ye, Jesus says ; not, we. 

8. Th miu/Mo) The Spirit, in the proper sense ; for it is He, not 
the wind (concerning which, however, comp. Eccles. 11, 5), that 
has a will [6iXii] and voice [^wv^v] : and it is of Him we are bom, 
and he who is born of Him is such as He is. It is not the person 
born again who would be immediately compared with the wind, 
but the Spirit Himself — Swov) where, whence, and whither : above 
the flesh, earth, and nature. The things opposed are, Jlesh and spirit ; 
earth and heaven ; nature and grace. — mtT) [bloweth, Engl. Vers. : 
rather, as of the Spirit] breathes, in the word and sound of the 
Gospel ; 1 John v. 6, " And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, 
because the Spirit is truth." — axoung, thou hearest) even now also, 
whilst thou art hearing Me, thou hearest, on earth, the voice of the 
Spirit. Comp. the " earthly things," ver. 12. — Tohv, whence) from 
heaven, from above [_amhv, ver. 3]. — croO, whither') ['quorsum,' in 
what direction] to heaven. Comp. the " heavenly things," ver. 12. 
— oiirag) So, as the Spirit Himself, whom thou hearest, and yet 
knowest not. For what the Spirit doeth according to Himself 
[" secundum se ;" in His own person and character], that He doeth 
also in him who is born of the Spirit. The Spirit quickens a man. 
The man in whom the Spirit breathes, 'in his turn breathes of the 
Spirit, and gives forth abroad [propagat] the voice of the Spirit, 
his will being set free through the Spirit.' 

10. 'O diddsxaKog, a master) a teacher of very many hearers, a 
veteran, and one somewhat better than the rest, who are altogether 
corrupt : ch. x. 8, " All that ever came before Me were thieves and 
robbers," notes. The article is emphatic. Nicodemus was the 
only one of all the teachers of Israel who had come to Jesus Christ, 
and who thus would be able to teach Israel the knowledge of Him ; 

1 The Engl. Vers, listeth — sound applies to the tcind; whereas Beng. applies 
these words to the Spirit. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN HI. 11-13. 277 

and indeed he afterwards acted the part of a teacher of Israel, de- 
fending the Just One, both by his opinion, oh. vii. 50, [at the con- 
sultation of the Pharisees against Jesus, Nicodemus said] "Doth 
our law judge any man before it hear him ? " and by his act, ch. 
xix. 39, [he brought for the body of Jesus] " a mixture of myrrh 
and aloes, about an hundred pound weight :" in which two passages 
the Evangelist repeats the mention of this interview by night. — 
j-Mura) these things, which make Israel [truly] divine. 

11. 'A,tt)]i' aiMf^t Xiyca aoi, verily, verily, I say unto thee) Three times 
this expression is used to Nicodemus. — o'lda/isv, we know) Jesus 
does not associate with Himself John or any other man : ch. i. 18, 
vi. 46, " No man hath seen God at any time ; the only-begotten Son, 
etc.. He hath declared Him :• — not that any man hath seen the 
Father, save He which is of God, He hath seen the Father." He 
speaks of Himself and of the Spirit. Comp. as to the Son, ver. 32, 
"What He hath seen and heard, that He testifieth :" as to the 
Holy Spirit, ver. 8, 34, " He whom God hath sent, speaketh the 
words of God ; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto 
Him;'' ch. xvi. 13, "The Spirit of truth — shall not speak of Him- 
self; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak ;" [also 
ch. V. 30, 1 can of mine own self do nothing ; as I hear, I judge.] — 
XaXovf/jiv) That only is what we speak. — ou Xa/i^dven, ye do not receive) 
[in faith, to wit. — V. g.] The plural, as in ver. 2, [Nicodemus said] 
we know. 

12. Td imyeia, earthly things) To the heavenly sense of Jesus 
Christ there are earthly things, Iviyua, which, having to be accom- 
plished on the regions of earth by us who creep on the ground, ap- 
pear in the highest degree heavenly. The whole style of Scripture 
is full of BuyytardBasig [condescension]. Regeneration is from heaven, 
not however in heaven : it is indeed [a process] on the margin of 
heaven. — mig, how) The cause why Scripture is silent about many 
things. — r(i evoupavia.) heavenly things, the inner principles of the 
kingdom of God, ver. 3 ; Wisd. ix. 16, /^oXig e/xa^o/isv ra lirt yni — '■« 
bi h ovpavoTg rig s^i^vlads ; He does not, at ver. 13, so much speak 
out, as hint at. — marixisin, will ye believe) The less anything seems 
credible to reason, often the more heavenly it is. 

13. Kal) And; you will see this is properly set down, if you 
change the interrogation at ver. 12, with some little time's reflection, 
into an absolute [categorical] form of expression. In the preceding 
and present verse we are marked [characterized] as of ourselves aliens 
to heaven. Without reposing faith in My words and in Myself, saith 

278 ST JOHN III. 14. 

Jesus, ye cannot understand or attain to heavenly things. The an- 
tecedent is put for the consequent. Similarly ytal, and, is used ch. 
xii. 35, " Lest darkness come upon you ; for he that walketh," etc. 
[xa/ •rrijimaruv. The conjunction for the relative, in which darkness 
he loho walketl{\. — oudi/g) no man sprung on the earth. Angels evi- 
dently are not excluded : ch. i. 52. Believers do not ascend, but are 
drawn by the Ascending [Saviour] after Himself, whom they have 
put on in their baptism. [Ilence appears the indispensable need of faith. 
— V. g-]— £'? '■i" ovpavov, to heaveti) He most especially speaks of the 
heaven of the Divine majesty. — e; /ijj, unless) Here, having changed 
the past time of the verb am^'SriKiv, hath ascended, into the future, 
understand amjSrigeTai, shall ascend: comp. ch. vi. 62, "What and if 
ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where He was before 1" 
Nowhere before His passion has the Lord spoken more clearly con- 
cerning His ascension, than in this passage, and in its parallel, ch. vi. 
62 ; where similarly He adduces His ascension, as something much 
more diflScult to be believed than those things were, which were then 
seeming so incredible to His hearers. On the whole, the two dis- 
courses, ch. iii. and vi., have a gi-eat similarity to one another; and 
the one treats of the rise, the other of the nourishment of the new 
life, [each alike] breathing altogether of heavenly things. The ob- 
jection made to the Saviour is as to the how, rh Tag. He [on the 
other hand] insists on the whence, and the whither [quorsum, whither- 
wards the new birth tends]. — o U roD ohpanZ xarafidc, He who descends 
from heaven) The Son of man, having assumed human nature, 
whereas He had previously been in heaven as the Son of God, began 
to be on earth. - Therefore That One, saith Jesus of Himself, can 
of Himself ascend, and will ascend to heaven. Prov. xxx. 4, "Who 
hath ascended up to heaven, or descended ? — What is His name, 
and what is His Son's name ?"— o on-) who was in heaven, and, before 
the creation of the heavens, [was] with God: ch. i. 1, notes. Thus, 
we may see. He both descended and will ascend. Comp. evidently 
riv, was, ch. vi. 62, " Where He was before :" so uv, who was [in the 
bosom of the Father : not lohich is, Engl. Vers.], ch. i. 18. Fre- 
quently Siv is used of the imperfect time : ch. ix. 25, " Whereas I was 
bhnd," rvtpXig u>v, xix. 38, "Being a disciple" \i.e. who was a disciple]; 
Luke xxiv. 44, " I spake whilst I was yet with you," 'in wv ; 2 Cor. 
viii. 9, " Though He was rich,— He became," etc., ^Xoiff/os l^y. So 
wfin this passage is interpreted by Raphelius in his Appendix annot. 
from Herodotus, p. 682. Nor is he alone in this interpretation. 
. 14. Kai, and) Often Christ, after mention of His glorification, 

ST JOHN III. 15, 16. «79 

made mention of His passion. — Moiera, Moses) This is the first men- 
tion of Moses, which is read as made by our Lord. — tov o<piv, the 
serpent) As that serpent was a serpent without poison, to counteract 
the poisonous serpents : so the man Christ [was] a man without sin, 
to counteract the old serpent. — Iv rfi lefiiJ.M, in the wilderness) where 
there was no other medicine [remedy]. — u-vj/wtf^ra;, be lifted up) on a 
cross towards heaven : ch. xii. 32, "I, if I be Ufted up from the earth, 
will draw all men unto Me," etc. \_Not as yet did Jesus speak at this 
early time more distinctly as to His suffering on the cross : see ver. 
1 6. — ^V. g.]—fSiT, must) For it was for this purpose He descended from 

15. "Jva, that) The goodness to us of the Son in ver. 15, and of the 
Father in ver. 16, is described in the same words. \_The grace of the 
Son is what is m,ost frequently noted, and the love of the Father (2 
Cor. xiii. 14, the benediction). — V. g.] Comp. 37, "All that 
the Father giveth Me shall come to Me ; and him that cometh to Me 
/■will in no wise cast out ;" notes, ch. x. 28, 29, " Neither shall any 
pluck them out oi My hand : — none is able to pluck them out oiMy 
Father's hand." — o mgrevav, who believeth) Now Jesus begins a plainer 
style of speech. Faith, in the case of those needing to be saved, is 
what looking to the uplifted serpent was in the case of those needing 
to be healed. — e/'s ahrov, in Him) as lifted up. The cross [is] the 
ladder to heaven. — /ijj a-JtoXn'^ai, should not perish) by the poison of 
sin. — Z^oii\v aiuimv, eternal life) by regeneration and faith. This men- 
tion of eternal life is made at the earliest time in each instance, in 
the discourses of the Saviour, and occurs in this passage first. He 
takes it for granted as very well known from the Old Testament : ch. 
V. 39, " Search the Scriptures : for in them ye think ye have eternal 
life." See Dan. xii. 2, " Many of them that sleep in the dust of the 
earth shall awake, some to everlasting life," etc. ; Luke x. 25, [The 
lawyer's question] "Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal 

16. 'Hydvrieev, loved) The Son knows the Father, and the love of 
the Father : and alone [though but one] bears the best witness [of 
Him] : comp. ver. 35, " The Father loveth the Son, and hath given 
all things into His hand."— rfv jcoV/^ov, the world) [all] the men under 
heaven, even those who were about to perish (comp. Si, [auteni] 
moreover— for indeed, ver. 19, " And this is the condemnation, that 
light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than 
light") : as being those with whom He was otherwise \i.e. but for 
the atonement through His Son] angry : ver. 36, "He that believe tli 

880 ST JOHN HI. 17-19. 

on tbe Son hath everlasting life : but he that believeth not the Son 
shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him," Were it not 
for this, their unbelief would not properly be a fault [guilt] fatal to 
unbelievers ; [but as it is] they ought to- have believed that the Son 
of God was given even for the sake of them also ; therefore He was 
given for their sake. Comp. by all means ch. xii. 47, " K any man 
hear My words and beheve not, I judge him not ; for I came not to 
judge the world, but to save the world — the word that I have Spoken, 
the same shall judge him in the last day." Mich. Beckius, " I heard 
an interpretation (as truly as the God and Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who knows I lie not, loves me) at an inn in Strashurg, in tJie 
year 1681, from a possessed woman, through whom Satan in the Latin 
tongue, in answer to that saying [of Scripture^, which I brought against 
Satan to prove the universal love of God, even extending to that 
wretched woman still living in the world [according to the then pre- 
valent superstition], whose name was Salome — replied in turn, with a 
horrible groan, in these words. The believing are the world" [meant]. 
— Disquis. hermen., p. 5. — iSuxei) gave [to be crucified. — V. g.], in 
truth, and in earnest [in act and in purpose] : Kom. viii. 32, " He 
that spared not His own Son, but delivered Hira up for us all, how" 
etc. And Christ gave Himself, Gal. ii. 20, "The Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave Himself for me," in truth and in earnest. — 
fig avTov, in Him) as having been [so] lovingly given by God. 

17. "Iva xphri, that He may judge [" to condemn," Engl. Vers.]) 
Although men accuse God of this. To judge, is by judgment to 
cast away into deserved destruction. 

18. KixpiTo,!, is judged [condemned]) This word is employed xkt' 
uvSpumv, in condescension to human notions. He who does not be- 
lieve, already has that [judgment, condemnation], which he falsely 
supposes the Son of God brings upon [into] the world. 

19. 'H xfioig, the judgment [condemnation]) i.e. the cause of judg- 
ment. — rh tfZtg, the Light) After the mention of life, the mention of 
light follows, as in ch. i. The Light, Christ. See what follows. 
In ver. 19, the hypostatical [personal] Light [Jesus Christ, its em- 
bodiment] is praised : afterwards, in the latter part of ver. 19, in 
antithesis to darkness, of which there is no hypostasis [personality], 
and in ver. 20, 21, the discourse treats of Light indefinitely in the 
thesis, but so as that, in the hypothesis, it answers chiefly to the 
hypostatical [personal] Light. — nyavrieav, loved) They did not pay 
back love for the love on God's part, ver. 16. — //-aXXov, rather than) 
The comparison is by no means inappropriate. The loveliness of 

ST JOHN III. 20-22. 281 

the light struck them with admiration ; but they were held fast in 
the love of darkness. Comp. John v. 35, " He was a burning and 
a shining light ; and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his 
hght." A similar comparison occurs, ch. xii. 43, " For they loved 
the praise of men more than the praise of God." — mvripa, evil [ma- 
ligna, evil-disposed]) This is indeed worse than paSXa, vile [worth- 
less, wrong], ver. 20. 

20. Jlpdasm) mu]i, ver. 21.' Evil is restless: it is a something 
more given to working than truth is. Hence they are marked 
by different words, as ch. v. 29.^ — iXiy^Sri) should be reproved, 
should be convicted of being such as they actually are : against the 
will of the evil-doer himself. The opposite to this is favefiui67}, may 
he made manifest, ver. 21 : sXiyyja, a word suited to this passage, 
from 'iXri and 'iyyja [I bring to the sun-light] : for o %\%y/j>i tig tpug 
ayu TO 'rrpayiMara.^ — to, 'ipya, avToij) Appositely, it is first said, the 
works of him [ain-oi! being put last], in the case of the man who 
flees from the light ; then in ver. 21, aurou rA 'ipya. [the avrou first], 
his works, in the case of him who knows that he will not be put to 

21. 'O ToiZv, who does) HohTv is often used of continuous zeal; as 
with the Latins, mercaturam facere, etc. — <panpu6ri, may be made 
manifest) Even Nicodemus subsequently acted more openly. — 'ipya, 
— I'lpyae/j/iMo) Words akin [conjugate]. — h ©sffi, in God) in the 
light, by the virtue [the power] and love of Him, from whom 
Cometh all truth. 

22. 'E'lgrr^v 'loudaiav yriv, into the land of Judcea) from the metro- 
polis of the Jews, \_ffe did not however long delay there (comp. con- 
cerning the word, Mrpi^i, ch. xi. 54 ; Acts xvi. 12, xx. 6, ol dierp!- 
'\ioi,[Liv rifiipag I'xra), and that because of the Pharisees, who were even 
less wellr-inclined towards Jesus, than towards John, ch. iv. 1, " When 
the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and 
baptized more disciples than John." — Harm., p. 165.] — k^d-imZifi, 
was baptizing) ch. iv. 1, 2, " Though Jesus Himself baptized not, 
but His disciples." John did not repel those, who came of their 

1 The former implies the continuous state of the evil-disposed, they practise 
evil; voiZu, the particular act or acts. Germ, thun and machen: Lat. agere 
aiii facere. — E. and T. 

^ And -shall come forth, they that have done good, ol ra, dyxSii ■Koiiiaa.iiri;, to 
the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, etc., oi to. (favT^ct 
lepi^ums, they that have practised evil. — E. and T. 

' Buttmann denies we can trace the affinities of ihiyKfii: Lidd. and Scott 
connect it with Asyw. — E. and T. 

28a ST JOHN III. 23-27. 

own accord, whilst Jesus was baptizing : but still lie now in a less 
degree invited [he did not to the same extent invite] them. 

23. Ahm, JEnon) from pj?, a fountain.— roi) The article in the 
masculine gender points to some^ region. — iroXkd, many [waters]) 
So the rite of immersion required. 

24. Oww, not yet) Here the Evangelist takes for granted, what 
the others [Matthew, Mark, and Luke] had written concerning the 
imprisonment of John the Baptist.— ya^, for) Therefore John 
ceased to baptize, when he was cast into prison ; not before. 

25. oh, Accordingly) There is reference to ver. 22 ; comp. ver. 
26, "They came unto John and said, Eabbi, He that was with thee 
beyond Jordan," etc., "the same baptizeth," etc. — ^^t-jjc/s) A ques- 
tion, a temperate .one : not a quarrel. — 1%, on the part of) The ques- 
tion was mooted by the disciples of John. — /isra 'louSa/wi/) with the 
Jews, those who now no longer resorted to John, but to Jesus ; 
whilst the disciples of John were contending, that purifying ought 
to be sought from John. — xa^af/c^oD, purifying) from sins. Mark 
i. 4, " John did baptize," etc., " and preach the baptism of repent- 
ance for the remission of sins." Comp. Eph. v. 26, "That He 
might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word." 
A word of frequent use among the Jews. Comp. Heb. ix. 13, 14, 
" If the blood of bulls and goats," etc., " sprinkling the unclean, sanc- 
tifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood 
of Christ," etc., " purge your conscience ;" 2 Mace. i. 36, Nsp^af, 8 
diipf/^rtviuera,! Ka6af'igfj,6s; ii. 16, ayeiv rhv xa6afiie/ji,6v. John nowhere 
employs the terms, a baptism, a baptizing [baptisma, baptismus], the 
Baptist ; see ver. 5, " be born of water" [not, be baptized] ; nay, even 
to express Levitical baptism he uses the term, purifying, ch. ii. 6. 

26. '''HXhv, came) The disciples of John were not so constantly 
with him as the apostles were with Christ. — og, who) They do not 
name Jesus ; they speak of Him as one, who as yet was far less 
known than was right. 

27. Ou dvmrai, cannot) How can I dare, saith he, to bind men to 
me ? — avSpu'TToc, a man) I, saith John, who am but a man. — Xafi^amiv) 
to take to himself. — ohbU, nothing) much less the name of Messiah.^ 

' Particular, well-known. — B. and T. 

2 By very many proofs it was evident that John was not the Christ. For 
instance, I. John \ia.&. no forerunner, but himself acted the part of a forerunner, 
such as was becoming [to go before] Christ the Lord ; wherefore, as well in birth, 
as in entrance on his ministry, and in his departure, he preceded Christ. II. 
John wrought no miracle : Christ very many. III. John, as well as his baptism, 
was restricted to the Jordan ; whereas Christ shone as a light [illuminated all 

bl JOHN III. 28-31. S83 

— h rou oupavov, from heaven) i.e. from God. These Metonymes 
[substitutions of the general for the definite expression] imply mo- 
desty [humility]. 

28. " Efi'irpoaiiv exsivou, before Him) Him, concerning whom ver. 
.26 treats. So vei-. 30, "He must increase, but I must decrease." 

John did not openly term Jesus the Christ : but however he spake 
so concerning Him, that He might easily be recognised. 

29. 'O £%wi') He who hath, or whom the bride follows. All come 
to Jesus : hence it is clear, that Jesus is the Bridegroom. See the 
Song of Solomon.— p/Xos, the friend) Dear to the Bridegroom, loving 
the Bridegroom. The derivation of John accords.'- It is the part 
of a friend to rejoice. — o ierrixui, who standeth) as His attendant. 
—axovm) hearing Him speaking with the bride, ver. 32, 34, " Wbat 
He hath seen and heard, that He testifieth ; — He whom God hath 
sent, speaketh the words of God." These two participles are part 
of the subject : the predicate is xa-ipii, rejoiceth. — ^avriv, the voice) by 
which the Bridegroom testifies His presence, ver. 32. This voice 
sweetly attracts the bride. — ri %a?a, joy) without sadness and envy. 

30. AuS,dniv s>MTTov(!6ai, increase: be diminished) so that all are to 
come hereafter, ilot to me, but to Him : Josh iv. 14, " The Lord 
magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel ; and they feared him, as 
they feared Moses." T^i, rju^rjni Kvpiog riv 'irisouv havnov -TravTog yhoug 
'ispafiX. Not even death was about to hinder the increase of Christ ; 
for which reason the Evangelists speak concerning His death far 
otherwise thaii they speak concerning the death of John. 

31. 'O avuhv, He who is from above) These words, and on to the 
end of the chapter, the Evangelist seems to have appended, as in 
congruity with the feeling of the Baptist : comp. notes, ch. i. 7. 
Moreover this proposition. He who comes from above is above all, [al- 
ready] evident by means of those conjugate terms, amh\i, litam, from 
above, above, is presently made [still more] clear by means of the 
opposite, he who is of the earth. — siram wdvruv, above all) in dignity, 

things] in Judea, G-alilee, ^nd the regions situated beyond Jordan. IV. John, 
after being for a considerable time detained in bonds, was at length slain^ in 
prison : Christ, without imprisonment up to His very death, nay, even bemg 
bound, and especially on the very day of His execution, in the sight of the 
world, did and spake all that became Him. V. John was beheaded: Christ's 
body, though piteously afflicted, was yet not mutilated, but remained preserved 
in that state which would be suitable to His resurrection about to take place 
on the third day. — Harm., p. 166, etc. ^ 

1 Viz., with this character, as friend of the Bridegroom. John in Hebr. — the 
fnvour of God. 

284 ST JOHN III. 32-34- 

excellence, and speech. Therefore [He is] also above John. John 
ailswers to that expression, all [men come to Him], ver. 26. — o c5v h 
rni ync, In rrig yni ssti, who is of the earth is earthly) There is a Ploce 
[a word used first literally, then to express an attribute of it] : the 
former being understood according to natural birth, the latter ac- 
cording to disposition and state ; which latter is followed by a cor- 
responding style of speech. The antithetic proposition forthwith 
corresponds, consisting also of three members. It is not said, He 
that Cometh from the earth : because He was also on the earth ; but 
it is said. He who cometh from above, loho cometh from heaven, to wit, 
to the earth : for previously He was in heaven. — Ix rrn yni earl, is of 
the earth) The antithesis to this is, is above all. — Ijc r^e yni 'ka'ktT, 
speaketh of the earth) for which reason the inhabitants of the earth 
the more readily hear him. The spiritual excellence of a teacher is 
not to be measured by the pleasure of the audience. 

32. Mafirupi?, He testifieth) That is much more weighty than He 
speaks \\aXiT, ver. 31]. — ovSik, no man) So ardently does John desire 
that Christ should obtain universal authority, that instead of that, 
which his [John's] disciples say, all [men come to Him], ver. 26, 
John says, no man [receiveth His testimony] : comp. ch. xii. 38, 
" The saying of Esaias fulfilled. Lord who hath believed our report?" 
etc. — Xafi^dvii, receiveth) A form of faith. There must be a receiving, 
not a mere bodily coming. 

33. 'O XocjSdv, he that hath received) as John did. — eeppdyigsv) hath 
set his seal to, and as it were subscribes his name to that very fact, 
he acknowledges for himself and hath avowed to others, that God, 
in whose word he puts his faith, is truthful ; and to Him he assigns 
the glory : Eom. iv. 20, Abraham " staggered not at the promise of 
God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God:'" 
comp.' 1 John v. 10, " He that believeth on the Son of God, hath 
the witness in himself; he that believeth not ^ God, hath made Him 
a liar, because he believeth not the record that God gave of His 
Son." See as to sealing, Nehem. ix. 38, " Because of all this, we 
make a sure covenant and write it ; and our princes, Levites, and 
priests, seal unto it." It is called o,ttoXoy/a, profession, in the Epistle 
to the Hebrews [ch. iii. 1, iv. 14, x. 23]. A metaphor from con- 
tracts. — ©so?, God) whose word is the word of Messiah : see the 
following verse : ch. xii. 44, " Jesus cried, He that believeth on Me, 
believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me." 

34. ' A-TriffTiiXiv) hath sent from Himself. — ou yap Ix /iirpov, for not 
by measure) The giving of the Spirit is one, and that, made to Christ} 

ST JOHN III. £6, 86. 285 

under which we are contained, to whomsoever a measure is imparted, 
Eph. iv. 7, " Unto every one of us is given grace, according to the 
measure of the gift of Christ;" John i. 16, "Of His fulness have 
all we received, and grace for grace." In order that we might he 
ahle to receive a measure, it was befitting that there should be some 
one, who would take, and in the first instance receive' [the fulness 
of grace] without measure, being about [being thereby qualified] to 
baptize all the others with the same Spirit : nay, even we shall here- 
after have it without measure : 1 Cor. xiii; 10, 12, " When that 
which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done 
away ; — Now I know in part, but then shall I know even as also I 
am known." Christopher Cartwright : The Hebrews observe, the 
Spirit was given to the prophets in measure ; Even the Holy Spirit, 
say they, which rests on the prophets, does not rest save in measure. 
Even the words of the law, which was given from above, were not given, 
save in measure. Mellif. Hebr. on this passage. Further, since 
Christ received the Spirit without measure, he expresses the words 
of God most perfectly. 

35. ndvTo,, all things) See ver. 29, 36. To Christ belongs both the 
Bride (ver. 29, He that hath the bride is the bridegroom), and the 
Life (ver. 36, He that beheveth on the Son, hath everlasting 
life). — fv Tri x^'P'j ^'"'^'^ -^** hand) He, therefore, who does not come 
into the hand [does not bow^under the authority] of the Son, does 
not either receive through faith fi-om the hand of the Son ; he does 
not experience the grace of the Son. The same expression occurs, 
ch, xiii. 3, "Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into 
His hands." Subsequently [the expression is] under His feet : 1 Cor. 
XV. 27, " He hath put all things under His feet." 

36. "E%£/, hath) The present, the future being included. See on 
ch. V. 24, " He that heareth My word, and believeth on Him that 
sent Me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; 
but is passed firom death unto life." — oix 'i-^irai, shall not see) Future, 
in which the present is included. — opyri, wrath) For he has no ex- 
perimental sense of the love with which the Father loves the Son, 
and those alone who believe in the Son. — fiivn) Others read /^msT 
[Fut. So the old Lat. b ; Memph. and Syr. Versions : but KSDacd 
support /j.hii^'] ; but see ver. 18, " He that believeth on Him, is not 
condemned ; but he that beheveth not, is condemned already," etc., 

1 Which reading, in the margin o/the Larger Ed. being marked with the sign 
y, afterwards more decidedly, in Ed. 2, was reckoned among the readings less to 
be relied on ; in which the Obs. Gnomon and Vers. Germ, agree.— Et. B. 

28C ST JOHN IV. 1-4. 

j)'S>j xixpirai, is already judged; the wrath of God abideth on him : 
there is no need that it should at last come [on him]. 


1. "'Eyvui, knew) even though none told Him the fact. — '^nxo\j<sa,y, 
heard) Comp. ch. iii. 25, 26. — o'l ^apiaaToi, the Pharisees) who were 
likely to be displeased at it : ch. i. 24, " They which were sent to 
John, were of the Pharisees :" for the Pharisees' wish was, that dis- 
ciples should join themselves : Matt, xxiii. 15, " Ye compass sea and 
land to make one proselyte." — •rrXcioia,;, more) See again, ch. iii. 26, 
" All men come to Him." 

2. ' It] got);, Jesus) So the [Vulg.J iai. 'ineoug auro's is the reading of 
the Greeks [B : also of the old Lot. ab : Avtos 'Itjg. is that of AD : and 
K inserts 6] ; aMg i 'IjjmCc, Chrysost. — om l^aTri^iv, did not baptize) ■ 
To baptize, a ministerial action: Acts x. 48, "He, Peter, commanded 
them to be baptized " [sc. by subordinate ministers]; 1 Cor. i. 17, 
" Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Gospel." John, 
being a minister [subordinate to Him], baptized with his own hand ; 
his [John's] disciples, as it seems, baptized none. But Christ 
baptizes with the Holy Spirit.^ 

4. Aiip-xfgSai) In the very passing through He did great things. — 
dia. Trig 'Sa/iapiiag, through Samaria) An admirable arrangement 
[economy], especially at that early period. What Jesus afterwards 
forbade the disciples, Matt. x. 5, " Into any city of the Samaritans 
enter ye not," He Himself avoided in this place. The Samaritans 

1 Kipio;, the Lord) Hoxv it has happened that in this passage the Germ. 
Vers, departs from the margin of both Editions, preferring the name Jesus to the 
appellative Lord, it is not indeed easy for me to judge. I suspect that there is 
beneath it rather a lapse ofmemort/, than a change of Ms critical opinion. E. B. 

'' «X7v' 01 fia^YiTul dvTov, but His disciples) It is dehghtful to observe in this 
passage, in what way the Saviour gradually led on His disciples to the discharge 
of ministerial duties. Their first province was that of baptizing (after the man- 
ner, as it were, of deacons), in this place : then also to announce the kingdom o 
the heavens (Matt. x. 7, " The kingdom of heaven is at hand ") : at length they 
were bound to publish abroad everywhere the full i^ocirme, concerning Jesus 
Christ the Son of God, and His passion and resurrection. — Harm., p. 170. 

Ver. 3. «(fi^x£, He left) for the purpose of fortifying the disciples, as yet weak, 
against the stumbling-block [to their faith] about to arise from the opposition of 
the Pharisees. — V. g. 

ST JOHN IV. 5, G. 287 

went out to Him, ver. 30 ; nor, except when besought, did He 
give them two days, ver. 40. Nay, even He so guided His con- 
ference with the Samaritan woman, that it was only at her earnest 
request He imparted His grace to her ; ver. 15, " Sir, give me 
this water, that I thirst not." [He adopted a similar method towards 
the Gentiles: Matt. xv. 21, etc. (The woman of Canaan); Mark 
vii. 24, etc. [The same woman, termed a Greek (or marg., a Gentile), 
a Syro-Phenician]. — Harm., p. 171.J 

5. l\)yji.f) Formerly called Sichem ; subsequently, by the change 
of a single letter, Sichar, nae* (according to Hiller's Onomasticon) 
reward [wages'], namely, that of Jacob's expedition : Gen. xlviii. 22, 
"I have given to thee (Joseph) one portion, which I (Jacob) took 
out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword." On this account 
Jacob was able to bequeath to Joseph this region, in respect to the 
land divinely promised [to his seed. See Josh. xvii. 14]. To 
this derivation, ver. 36 seems to allude, //,i(si(r, [He that reapeth, 
reoe^veth] wages. For neither is such an alVasion to a derivation 
despised elsewhere : ch. ix. 7, " Siloam, which is by interpretation. 
Sent." — 'iduKiv, gave) Jacob had dwelt thera, ver. 12 ; and had given 
it as an estate to Joseph, owing to his spr^jial love for him. 

6. 'Ex rrii o8omop!a.5, owing to the journey) He had made a long 
journey on foot. — ouraic) So, as the convenience of the place, such 
as it was, admitted of, without pomp, alone, as one who was not 
ostensibly showing an expectation of the Samaritan woman, bat 
was wishing, on accoimt of mere weariness, to take rest. The 
popular character of Jesus' life is worthy of all admiration, as also 
His fellowship [with humanity in all points] ; the very feature in 
Him which the early Christians imitated. See Macar. Apophth., 
pp. 247, 248, concerning the simplicity [openness] of Macarius in 
his daily intercourse with others. It was also fitting that at that 
time, not more openly, but as it were by chance, Christ should 
present Himself to foreigners [i.e. those not Jews] ; Matt. x. 5, 
" Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the 
Samaritans enter ye not ; " xv. 23, etc. [the woman of Canaan]. 
O'liTui;, so, to be explained by the word to which it is attached, as 
ch. viii. 59, " Going through the midst of them, and so passed by " 
[in the Rec. Text. But Vulg. BDabc Grig, omit all these words. 
ACLX have them] ; Acts xxvii. 17, " They strake sail, and so were 
driven;" olirws Jps/joi/ro : 2 Pet. iii. 4, "All things continue as they 
were from the beginning of the creation ;" oilrw? dia,u,ivei : Sir. 
xxxii. 1, xal oDrw xdiieov sit so at the banquet, as to be engaged 

388 8T JOHN IT. 7-10. 

about nothing else. So in this passage, He sat so, as He sat. 
Chrysostom explains it, avXSis xat ug 'iry/j, simply as it comes to 
pass. — ewi) upon (the well was enclosed with a wall or bank) ; or 
at least, near: as Mark xiii. 29, i^l Siipais, [nigh, even] at the doors. 
— tiffs/ ixTvi, about the sixth) Mid-day [This was] the cause why 
Jesus was wearied ; and why the woman was seeking water, the 
disciples bread. 

7.' 'Ex rtjg, of) Construe with ywfi, a woman. — ^d's /io/ ir/E/v, give 
Me to drink) At precisely the seventh subsequent alternation [vicissi- 
tudine] in the conference, until the disciples come, reckoning from 
this address, which would seem to be indifferent, Jesus wonderfully 
brings on the matter to that crowning point, lam the Messiah, 
ver. 26; a point, to learn which the apostles required so long a 
time [ch. xvi. 31, "Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe?"] 
In fact the tree takes longer to grow than the ear of corn. So also 
He led on the nobleman to faith by but two utterances ; ver. 48, 
50, " Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe :" and, 
" Go thy way, thy son liveth." 

8. Tap, for) Had the disciples been present to have drawn for 
Him, Jesus would not have asked the woman. — ^iVa) That they 
might buy food. When afterwards sent to teach, for the sake of 
teaching, they did not enter the Samaritan towns. 

9. nws, how is it) Her manifest simplicity shines forth from the 
very first words of the Samaritan woman. — 'lou&aTog, a Jew) From 
His dress or His dialect she inferred that He was a Jew. — oO yap, 
for not) A parenthesis of the Evangelist, expressing the cause why 
it seemed. strange to the Samaritan woman. The Rabbinical maxim 
accords with this : To eat the bread of a Samaritan man, and to 
drink his wine, is unlawful. — SMyyjmTai, use together [have friendly 
dealings witli^ What is denied is, not all intercourse between the 
Jews and Samaritans (comp. the previous verse ; " His disciples 
were gone away unto the city to buy meat"), but intimacy. 

10. E/ Ihig, if thou hadst known) Ignorance is a hindrance ; but 
the disclosure of her ignorance shows the compassion of the Lord, 

1 'ipx^Txt yvvii, there cometh a woman) The external opportunities [conven- 
iences] of every-day life subserve the progressive advances of the kinsdom of 
God.— V. g. ® 

2 fiaSvrul airoS, His disciples) The Twelve were not at that time yet chosen; 
yet it is likely they were with Him in this journey. Not merely two, but all 
entered the town; the novelty of which circumstance seems to have stimulated 
the men, the more readily in consequence, afterwards to give ear to the woman. 
-V. g. 

ST JOHN IV. 10. 889 

and kindled a longing desire in the woman's heart. — rfsv daipfdv, the 
gift) The gift is the living water. — rig ieriv, who it is) He speaks in 
the third person, modestly. It is the prerogative of Him, who saith 
this, to give the living water. Subsequently He discloses, who it is , 
ver. 26. — eii Slv frnaag — xa/ iboiii.iv av) thou wouldesi ask — and He 
would give : or rather, thou wouldest have asked, and He would have 
given, i.e., not only would you not wonder at my asking, but even 
you of your own accord would have asked of Me. The pronoun 
ffi), thou, employed in this place in particular, rather than with the 
verb fjdeis, hadst known, forms an emphatic opposition to that ahiTc, 
dost thou ask ? [ver. 9]. John is wont to put the imperfect tense 
with the particle av, where the sentence requires that very time : 
iiridTiljiTi av, Tjya'jra.ri av, oix av i'lyin, i(piXii av, riyuvi'tovTO &v, ch. v. 
46, viii. 42, ix. 41, xv. 19, xviii. 36. But the Aorist has the same 
force as the Pluperfect, oux av sTiSvfjxsi, ohx av a-TreSave, ch. xi. 21, 32 ; 
though in Eph. i. ch. ii. 19, he employs the Pluperfect itself, fn/jbi- 
vfixsisav av. The passages therefore may possibly seem doubtful in 
meaning ch. xiv. 2, 28, and here, ch. iv. 10 : s/Vov av : ilmv av, I would 
say, or I would have said ; s^dfnTs av, ye would rejoice, or ye would have 
rejoiced ; 'firr^aag av, 'idcaxiv av, thou wouldest seek, and He would give ; 
or, thou wouldest have sought, and He would- have given. But, how- 
ever, since he might have written, and yet he does not write tXiyov, 
hyaifiTi, priig, edidou ; we understand the Aorist as a Pluperfect, as 
also at ch. xviii. 30, [ii iJ.r\ |v ouroc xaxoiroihg, ahx av aoi Tapeduixaf/yiv auTov'], 
we would not have delivered Him up : Gal. iv. 15; sSuJuare av, ye 
would have given. The Lord then saith. Thou wouldest have asked 
from Me, before that I said to thee. Give Me to drink. And, He 
had said. Give Me to drink, that, conversely, the woman might 
learn to ask from Himself the living water. — 'i&'jixiv av) This av de- 
pends on the former particle av being previously brought into action. 
— 'idciip, water) In a similar way Jesus takes an allegory from bread, 
ch. vi. 27, etc. [Having fed 5000 with a few loaves, and being 
therefore followed by the crowd, He proceeds, "Labour not for 
the meat that perisheth, but for that meat, which endureth unto 
everlasting life, which the Son of Man shall give unto you,"] etc. : 
and from light, ch. viii. 12 " I am the light of the world :" [an 
image suggested perhaps by the sun then rising : comp. ver. 2], 
" early in the morning" : which things are in nature the first, the 
most elementary, necessary, common to all and salutary. — l^uv) 
which is living, and thence life-imparting ; ver. 14 ; " The water 
that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up 

290 ST JOHN IV. 11-14. 

into everlasting life:" ch. vii. 38; "He that believeth on Me, as 
the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of water." 
The expression living water, is here used in a more exalted sense, 
than at Lev. xiv. 5, D^n CD, Uc^p ^Siv, [the priest commanding the 
bird to be killed " over running water"J. 

11. Kipii, Lord) Previously she had not called Him Lord: now 
she so calls Him, inasmuch as speaking piously about God, 
though as yet unknown to her, ver. 15, " Lord, give me this water : 
[Engl. Ver. of K{jp,e is ' Sir'] 19 "Lord, I perceive that thou art a 
prophet." So ch. v. 7 [The impotent man], a man, who knew not 
Jesus, calls Him Lord. They had a feeling in some way or other 
of His dignity. 

12. Miit,tav, greater) as being one, who demandest, or can make 
good greater things. Comp. ch. viii. 53 " Art Thou greater than 
our father Abraham, which is dead ? Whom makest Thou Thy- 
self?" — TTUTphs jj/iwK /axu/3, than our Father Jacob) So the Samaritans 
had persuaded themselves : but falsely. Matt. x. 5, " Into any city 
of the Samaritans enter ye not ; but go rather to the lost sheep of 
the house of Israel." — 'laxu)l3, Jacob) who was most thoroughly 
skilled in the things of pastoral life and the procuring of water, and 
was most successful in i;he concerns of his household [in managing 
his property]. — ri/j,Tv, to us) in the person of Joseph ; ver. 5, " the 
parcel of ground, that Jacob gave to his son Joseph." She speaks 
thus on that false hypothesis [prevailing among the Samaritans] as 
to Jacob being their father. — £*i£, he drank) The patriarchs used 
water rather than wine. The woman means this : The patriarch 
himself was content with this water, nor did he ask for better 
water. — xal t& 6pi/i,fia,Ta, and his cattle) oxen and sheep. Of course 
the men-servants and maid-servants, who generally feed the cattle, 
also drank of it. The well therefore was abundantly supplied and 
of ancient date. 

14. Ou /ifi di-'\'ri(Sri iig rhv aiuva, to all eternity shall not thirst) Is then 
he, who once has drunk the water, which Christ gives, free from all 
thirst ? Truly that water, as far as it depends on itself, has in it an 
everlasting virtue ; and when thirst returns, the defect is on the 
part of the man, not of the water. But the drinking of elementary 
water is able to allay thirst subsequently, only for some hours. — 
aXXa, but) Comp. ch. vi. 27, " that meat, which endureth unto 
everlasting life." — yivrigirai) from being water shall become a foun- 
tain, as a tree from a sucker. The fountain has no thirst. — ffJiyi), 
fountain) The antithesis to rtiyri is ppiap [an antithesis lost by the 

ST JOHN IV. 15-18. 291 

Eng. Vers, translating both welf] the well, ver. 11. In believers 
there is a spring : the Roman Pontiff is not that spring, from whom 
in particular is to be derived faith, holiness, blessedness, and the 
ratification [validity] of every ftmction in the Church. — ufcros aXXo- 
ILsvov, of springing water) The abounding fruitfulness of behevers. 
' AXXeadai, to spring up, said of water, a delightful expression. — e!g, to) 
All things [pome] from God, [and tend] to Grod—^'u^v, life) Life 
eternal (concerning which comp. ver. 36, " He that reapeth re- 
ceiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto Hfe eternal," the con- 
fluence of such fountains ; nay, the ocean. May I attain unto it ! 

15. Ao'ff /id/, give me) The woman asks for the water, as the Jews 
asked bread, ch. vi. 34, " Lord evermore give us this bread," for 
the support of the body. By this time the matter is come to that 
point, that the woman says, give ; to whom before the same word 
had been addressed [by Jesus] " Give Me to drink," ver. 7. — ivSads, 
hither) with toil. She wishes to have at home that fountain. 

16. A'eyii, He saith) Now He makes an avenue for giving to the 
woman, who begs for water, a better kind of it, than that which 
she had begged for. — avSpa,, husband) The woman seems to have 
supposed, that the reason why she is desired to call her husband is, 
in order that he may help her in taking up and carrying home the 
water, ver. 15, promised [by Jesus], ver. 14. But Jesus by this 
address throws open the inmost conscience of the woman, and 
causes repentance, and elicits confession, ver 29.' Nor does He say 
that " Go, call thy husband," altogether abruptly ; but those words, 
and that I come not hither, ver. 15, and the words here, ver. 16, Come 
hither, correspond to one another. In that place, which the woman 
thinks to avoid hereafter, there is given to her the living water. 

17. KaXug) well, i.e. truly. There is the utmost gravity in the 
Lord's speech combined with the utmost courtesy. This plain 
assertion altogether convicted the. Samaritan woman. 

18. JlsvTi, five) Five marriage connexions embraced almost the 
whole life of the woman ; and by the mention of them He clearly 
recalled to the recollection of the woman her whole life. — avSpag) 
He means husbands, as is evident from the subsequent antithesis. 
Whether they all died, or whether the woman lost some of them by 
other ways also, her own conscience, stirred up by the Lord, was 
suggesting. — oux hri, is not) This sixth marriage was not a lawful 
one,, or else not consummated ; either desertion, or some other im- 

' " Come see a man which told me all things that ever I did." A con/mion 
of her guilt, and a, profession of her belief in Christ. — E. and T. 

299 ST JOHN IV. 19-21. 

pediment, arising from one or other of the two parties, had occurred 
to prevent it. The woman is not at all said to have renounced the 
man, at ver. 28. 

19. ©Ew^w, I perceive) from Thy knowledge about the most secret 

20. O/ irar'speg r}fi,Zv, our fathers) The woman forthwith brings 
forward on this occasion a difficulty, which she seems to have felt 
somewhile before on a religious point, and is eagerly desirous to be 
instructed by the prophet. The Lord meets such minds [with light 
and encouragement]. A desultory question is not always to be 
censured. By our fathers, the woman means not merely nearer 
ancestors, but even the patriarchs. For even against the Jews 
themselves the Samaritans relied on antiquity. Again in their turn 
the Jews were wont to appeal to the Fathers, ch. vi, 31, " our 
Fathers did eat manna in the desert." — rourw, in this) The woman 
[in saying this] was pointing to Mount Gerizim. — 'irpoasxivncav, 
adored [worshippedj) The whole of religion can be reduced to ado- 


21. Xilgriuaov /jloi, believe Me) Christ often said to the Jews and 
His disciples, /say unto you, ver. 35. In this passage alone, to the 
Samaritan woman. He says. Believe Me. They were more bound to 
believe than she. The formulae employed follow this proportion [i.e. 
are proportioned to their degree of religious privileges respectively]. 
— £pa) It is called the hour, not because that whole time is short, but 
because its beginning is nigh : ch. v. 25, " The hour is coming and 
now is when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God," xvi. 
2, " The hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he 
doeth God service."— cure, outs, neither, nor) He does not say, both 
there, and here ; but, neither there, nor here. The Samaritans were 
not compelled to go to Jerusalem, Acts viii. 14, " When the apostles 
at Jerusalem had heard that Samaria had received the word of God, 
they sent unto them Peter and John :" and what need was there 
subsequently of the Cruciati r What need is there o£ pilgrimages ? 
Here all distinction of places is clearly aboKshed— a distinction which 
the ancients had strictly observed : Num. xxiii. 27, " Balak said unto 
Balaam, Come I pray thee, I will bring thee unto another place; 
peradventure it will please God that thou mayest curse me them from 
thence;" 1 Tim. ii. 8, "I will therefore that men pray everywhere, 
lifting up holy hands," etc. If distinction there still be, these words 
' The crusades to rescue Jerusalem were called from the French croises or 
cross.bearers, each soldier wearing r. cross on his right shoulder.— E. and T. 

ST JOHN IV, 22, 23. 288 


intimate that our worship ought to be anjrwhere else rather than at 
Jerusalem. — -jrposxmfjgiri, ye shall worship) ye Samaritans and Jews. 
He fittingly speaks in the second person, not in the first ; and there is 
a mpokpamia [anticipatory caution], and, as it were, correction of His 
subsequent speech, which Is firamed in the first person, in order to 
suit the apprehension of the woman. — ts, Uarpl, the Father) He 
admits the woman most familiarly into the stronghold of the faith. 
Comp. Matt. vi. 9, " After this manner pray ye, Our Father which 
art in heaven." The antithesis to this is ver. 20, 21, " Onv fathers 
worshipped in this mountain : Art thou greater than our father 

22. "O om o'liari) Ye know not what. He shows under how great 
ignorance they labour ; wherefore He also adds, rffl Uctrpi, the Father, 
which the woman had not added. Although S, what, inasmuch as 
it is not repeated in the subsequent member of the sentence, does not 
seem to denote the object of worship, but the form ; in this sense, Ye 
know not what worship ye practise ; we know, what is our worship. 
— ilf^iTg, we) He speaks as an ordinary Jew ; inasmuch as not being 
yet known to the Samaritan woman. — ^ aurripia. Salvation) Truly 
so ! The very derivation of the name Jesus, whom the woman calls 
a Jew, ver. 9. Comp. ver. 42, [The Samaritans] " We know that 
this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world." — isriv, is) For 
such was the promise: that the Saviour and the knowledge of Him 
would originate firom the Jews, and that from the Jews that know- 
ledge would be extended to others. [Jesus speaks of the Jews in more 
glorifying terms when addressing foreigners than when addressing Jews. 

-V. g.] 

23. 'AXX', but) Jesus does not account it enough to have preferred 
the Jewish worship, knowledge, and religion, to Samaritanism, but 
further He shows this, that a worship superior not merely to that 
which was practised on that mountain, but even to that which was 
practised at Jerusalem, is at hand.— ica/ vuv igrlv, and now is) This 
[which was not added at ver. 21] " The hour cometh, when ye shall 
neither in this mountain," etc, is now added, lest the woman should 
think that in the meantime she must seek a settlement in Judea. It 
was presently afterwards fulfilled, ver. 39, 41, " Many of the Sama- 
ritans of that city believed on Him for the saying of the woman, etc. : 
many more believed because of Hisown word." — o/ akriSml vpogxutiviTa!, 
the true worshippers)¥or instance, the Samaritans, ver. 41. — h mid/x.aTt 
xal akrihicf, in spirit and in truth) There is contained herein a testi- 
mony as to the Holy Trinity. The Father is worshipped in the 

294 ST JOHN IV. 24-28. 

Holy Spirit, and in the Truth accomplished through Jesus Christ. 
They who worship the Father, as sons, in, Spirit and Truth, these are 
placed above mere considerations of localities, and of all circum- 
stances of that kind. — ZririT, seeks) for they are rare to be met with. 
The same word occurs, Ezek. xxii. 30, " I sought for a man among 
them that should make up the hedge," etc., sl^rouv If aurSn 

24. TlnZfia, a Spirit) When God is called a Spirit, we must not 
merely think of a Being separate from body and place, but also one 
having spiritual qualities, truth, wisdom, holiness, power, etc. To 
this nature of God ought to correspond our worship : and to the 
living God living gifts ought to be offered : Heb. ix. 14, " How much 
more shall the blood of Christ, etc., purge your conscience from dead 
works to serve the living Godi" Rom. xii. 1, "I beseech you, 
brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a liviufi 
sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service." 
He holds a profound and striking conversation with an ordinary 
woman, whom He had scarcely seen. He did not commit to His 
disciples more lofty truths. 

25. Asyii, [the woman] saith) with joy at the truth which shehaa 
come to know, and with earnestness and hope of coming to the full 
knowledge, concerning Messiah Himself. — 6 Xsy6/j,ivo; Xpiaroi;, who is 
called Christ) The evangelist adds this, as an interpretation. 
Chrysost. on the passage, Whence was it, that the Samaritans were 
expecting the Christ, seeing that they admitted the authority of Moses 
alone ? It loas from Moses himself. 

26. Aiyii, saith) He hastened to say the whole before the coming 
of His disciples. John did not hear the conversation. But after- 
wards, at the dictation of the Spirit, he wrote it out, ch. xiv. 26, 
" The Comforter, the Holy Ghost, shall teach you all things and 
bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto 
you." — lydi, I) Nowhere did He Speak of Himself more directly, 
even to the disciples themselves. 

27. 'Eir/ rourw, upon this) Most opportunely there was time suffi- 
cient for the colloquy. — Ual/j^aaav, wondered) Wonder whets 

[sharpens, tends to promote] progress. — /jLira. ymanoi) with the 
woman in that place. — ri t,r}reTg, what seehest thou %) They could not 
easily suppose that Jesus had conferred a spiritual benefit on a 
Samaritan woman. 

28. 'Afirixiv, left) either about to fill her water-vessel afterwards, 
or forgetful of lesser things, through joy ; also being thus about to 

ST JOHN IV. 29-33. 295 

run the less encumbered. The woman treats the water as Jesus 
treated bread, as a secondary consideration, ver. 32, [To His dis- 
ciples, urging Him to eat] " I have meat to eat that ye know not 
of" [^Without delay, and iy a spontaneous effort, faith, and the joy 
and certainty of it, are brought to bear in leading others also to the 
chief good, when once discovered. — ^V. g.J 

29. Uavra, all things) These, no doubt, the woman explained to 
her feUow-citizens with a candid confession, although most of them 
were even known to them previously. — fit; n, is not) She herself 
has no doubt ; but she invites the citizens to make acquaintance 
with Him, until [they also at last] say, [this is] indeed [aXjj^Sf, the 
Christ], ver. 42. 

30. ''E^ijXhv, they went out) They readily assented to the woman, 
or [some perhaps] even left their dinner. Others might have 
thought it beneath them, so readily to go forth from their home and 
their city gate. [And they would have had many objections which, 
not without show of reason, they might have started ; Was it to be 
thought likely, that precisely at that point of time, and in that very 
place, the Messiah, so long expected, has appeared to such a woman ? 


31. 'Ei/ rS [LiTo^xi, meanwhile) Between the departure of the 
woman and the arrival of the Samaritans. 

32. 'O bi, but He) He therefore dispensed with dinner. His spiritual 
ardour taking away hunger. — oiix o'lhan, ye know not of) This 
tended to increase their wonder and eagerness to learn. A most 
sweet enigma ! 

34. BpZ/ia, the meat) with which my appetite is satisfied. — riknusu, 
that I may finish) Not yet had Jesus reached the middle of His time of 
action, and yet now He is thinking of the end [the finishing worlc\ : 
so earnestly did He act throughout. The same verb occurs, ch. v. 
36, " The works which My Father hath given Me to finish'' Con- 
cerning the thing meant, comp. ch. vi. 38, 39, at the end : " I came 
down from heaven not to do Mine own will, but the will of Him 
that sent Me ; and this is the Father's will," etc., " that of all which 
He hath given Me, I should lose nothing, but raise it up again at 
the last day." — rb 'ipyov, work) a work, one, great, and which em- 
braces Israelites, Samaritans, and all nations. 

35. Terpd/i/ivog, four months) Very few copies have nrpd/iriyov.^ 
TiTpd/iti'D; is used in the common gender, as iifi^nvog, ', i^dfirivo; ; 

' The reading of Rec. Text. But Tirpafivos ABCD Orig.— E. and T 

290 ST JOHN IV. 3i5 

see Scapula on fi.v- Also Glassius in this passage so reads. Msri 
TV riTparifiipov, Arist. 3 polit. ii., p. 214.— eV; rsrpd//.ms Isn, xal o 
hpieij,oi ipxirai, as yet there are four months, and the harvest eometh) 
xal, and, is equivalent to until : as ch. vii. 33, " Yet a little while I 
am with you, and I go unto Him that sent Me;" xiv. 19, "Yet 
a little while, aw(^ the world seeth Me no more;" Gen. xl. 13, sV/ 
rpeTg ri/jApai, xal //ivrisSrigsrai 0apa(i, etc.; Jon. m. 4 let forty 
days and Nineveh shall be overthrown." These are the four 
months, Nisan in its latter part, the whole of Jjar, the whole of 
Sivan, and Thammuz in its earlier part. \_Coresponding to our 
April, May, June, and July. — ^V. g.] The wheat harvest, which is 
called actually the harvest, differs from the barley harvest. The 
beginning of the one was about the time of Passover : that of the 
other was considerably subsequent ; Exod. ix. 25, 31, 32, " The 
barley was smitten, for the barley was in the ear ; but the wheat 
and the rye were not smitten ; for they were not grown up ;" to wit, 
in Palestine, about the time of Pentecost, Exod. xxxiv. 22, " Thou 
shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the first fruits of wheat-harvest." 
Moreover, the harvest was later in Galilee than in Judea. And so 
the feast ordained by Jeroboam was later [than that in Judea], 1 
Kings xii. 32, " Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on 
the fifteenth day of the itionth, like unto the feast that is in Judah ;" 
comp. Lev. xxiii. 34, " The fifteenth day of the seventh month shall 
be the feast of tabernacles." And they were generally Galileans, 
to whom the words were addressed. Do ye not say ! Finally, in 
that year in which these words were spoken, the first day of Tham- 
muz was the 13th of June, which was very speedily [early], for on 
the following year, the 6th day of June had Pentecost itself in fine 
[i.e. Pentecost was not till the 6th of June], the time when wheat 
harvest commences."^ In fact, therefore, the wheat harvest of the 
Galileans, in the fourth month after this discourse, began quickly 
enough [to meet the requirements of the case] in the month Tham- 
muz. Eead in addition, Harmon. Evang. § 21.^) — Xiyu I/jm, I say 

' What Beng. wishes to prove is, that Thammuz, this year, was the month of the 
Galilean harvest ; for the first of Thammuz this year was the 13 th of June, which 
was very soon for Thammuz commencing, inasmuA as, on the following year, even 
Pentecost itself (seven weeks after Passover, or the 15th of Nisan ; i.e. early in 
Sivan) did not occur till 6th of June : so that Pentecost (early in Sivan) which 
was the harvest-time, being the 6th of June, Thammuz would be considerably 
later. But in the year when o\ii Lord speaks, Thammuz comes soon enough for 
the late harvest of Galilee to have occurred in it. — E. and T. 

2 Whoever desires a further vindication of this view, may be referred to nw 

ST JOHN IV. 36, 37. 297 

to you) This formula indicates in this passage, that His speech is 
figurative. The antithesis to the words here is, i/j,iTi X'lyire, ye say, 
who look more to external things. . So ver. 32, " I have meat to eat 
that ye know not of." — r&g ;^wpas, the regions [fields'] ) The Samari- 
tans are described as ripe for believing, ver. 39, " Many of the Sa- 
maritans believed on Him, for the saying of the woman," etc., who 
were at the time being seen on the plain [sc. coming towards Him] ; 
ver. 30, " Then they went out of the city, and came unto Him." 
The natural, though in progress, is at a greater distance than the 
Gospel harvest. 

36. Kai) and now accordingly. The time of the New Testament 
is the harvest. — o hplt^aiv, he who reapeth) The harvest itself follows 
at a very brief interval the whitening of the fields.— ^/(t^ok, reward 
[wages']) namely, the fi:uit itself : great compensation for one's 
trouble, great ^am : Matt, xviii. 15, "If he shall hear thee, thou 
hast gained thy brother." — Xafn^dvei, receiveth) already, at the pre- 
sent time. — xap'nov, fruit) many souls. — o amlpm, the sower) The 
sowing in Israel drew after it a harvest in Judea, in Samaria, and 
over the wliole earth. — o/j^ou, together) in the same life eternal : not 
the one without the other : Heb. xi. 40, " God having provided some 
better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect." 

37. ' O Xo'yos, the saying) The Subject ' is. The true saying : the 
Predicate, sarh, There is extant [or is apparent], A proverb which 
also was current among the Greeks. — aXXoe, one) Most wisely a 
succession has been instituted in the Divine economy : sowing time 
in each case is [comes] first, in relation to the harvest that is to 
follow. Often the sower and reaper are one and the same person. 
But by reason of the period that intervenes, the same person be- 
comes in some measure distinct fi:om himself. Certainly each one 
is a sower in relation to his successors, and a reaper in relation to 
his predecessors ; but the distinction chiefly referred to here is that 
between ministers of the Old and of the New Testament. — «X- 
Xog, another) Do not ask, why Messiah did not come sooner. The 

Beleuchtung der Erinnerungen, etc., § 29, p. Ill, etc., and especially p. 116, 
etc., where there is brouffht forward from Harm. Ev., Ed. ii., that more recent 
conjecture of the departed Author, by which he believed, there was intimated in 
the speech of the Saviour rather that harvest (the barley harvest) which claimed 
the month Nisan to itself, than that which claimed Thammuz. In which case 
this is the sense of the ivords : You disciples, mth the rest of men, when sowing 
time is past, are wont to say, Still there are four months, and harvest cometh : 
but truly the spiritual liarvest, however long delayed, even immediately succeeds 
the sowing time. — E. B. 

SnS ST JOHN IV. 38-42. 

reply is ready at hand. The sowing time goes before by a long in- 
terval : the harvest quickly gathers [the fruit]. The Divine eco- 
nomy has its delays exactly answering the end contemplated. 
Comp. Eom. v. 6, — " When we were yet without strength, in due 
time Christ died for the ungodly,"— notes. 

38. 'Eyii, T) The Lord of the whole harvest. — a'^snTeiKa, I sent) 
I have begun to Send (ver. 2) you to the Jews, intending hereafter 
to send you through the whole earth. — aXXoi, others) the prophets. 
— u/is/j) He does not say, we, but t/ou. Christ is the Lord. — xomi, 
their labour) the results obtained by their labours: Neh. v. 13,"I shook 
my lap, and said. So God shake out every man from his house, and 
from his labour (the fruit of it), that performeth not this promise." 

39. 'Emariusav, believed) Wonderful openness to conviction ! 
They had not yet seen Jesus ; comp. ver. 40, " So when the Sama- 
ritans were come to Him." Her testimony must have been given 
by the woman with great efficacy and power [among those sotils, which 
were athirst, and had never before experienced such things. — V. g.J 

40. MeTtiai, to abide [to tarry]) always, or at least a long time. — 
'i(i.tinv, He abode) We do not read that the Samaritans were then 
baptized. Nor was then the time as yet for the Church being re- 
gularly and permanently established outside of Judea. It is pro- 
bable that many of them were subsequently baptized ; Acts viii. 16, 
[under Philip's preaching] " They were baptized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus." — b\jo r}fj>epag, two days) He once therefore jiassed 
the night there. They were supplied with one draught of the living 
water unto everlasting life ; ver. 14, " The water that I shall give 
him shall be in him a well of water, springing up unto everlasting 
life." The same was the case with the Ethiopian eunuch, Acts viii. 

41. AvTou) Of Himself . 

42. OuK 'in, now no longer) The true progress of faith is here 
evinced. — avrol, ourselves) Augustine admirably remarks on this 
passage: At first it was by the report of others, afterwards by His 
own presence [the men were led to believe]. This is the way in 
ichich those who are abroad, and are not yet Christians, are dealt with 
in the present day. Christ is announced as having come, through 
Christian friends ; that woman as it were, that is, the Church, an- 
nouncing the tidings. Men come to Christ, and believe, through that 
report. He remains with them two days, i.e. He gives them the two 
precepts of charity :^ and far more persons, and more firmly too, be- 

1 To love Christ, and to love one another. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN IV. 43-40. 299 

lieve in Him, that He is indeed Himself the Saviour of the world. 
Hence it is evident in what sense that hackneyed quotation ought 
to be understood : / indeed would not believe the Gospel, did not the 
authority of the Catholic Church admonish (others read, move) me to 
do so : Contra Ep. fundamenti, Chap, v.^ Inasmuch as in this pas- 
sage Augustine is not teaching, but is opposing the Manicheans.^ — 
Tou xodfiou, of the world) not merely of the Jews. Faith frees from 
party zeal : they believe in Jesus, since He is the Saviour of the 
world, having laid aside their boasting of their fathers,^ ver. 12, 
" Art Thou greater than our father Jacob," etc. 

43. 'M^riXhv, He departed) The departure of Jesus was useful to 
the Samaritans, considering what were their customs, inasmuch as 
in many respects they were alien to those of the Jews. 

44. liarpldi. His own country) John presupposes it as a fact 
known, from ch. i. 46, [Nathanael] "Can anything good come 
out of Nazareth?" xix. 19, [the inscription over the cross, which 
would be well known] " Jesus of Nazareth," etc., and from the 
other evangelists, that Nazareth was the country of Jesus ; and 
hence he infers, from the testimony of Jesus, the reason why 
He went into Galilee at large, and not to His own country, 

*46. "O'TTou, where) By that very miracle the flame of faith was 

' " The authority of the Church" is here not her infallibility, but 'hec faithful 
testimony/. — E. and T. 

' The Edition of E. B. and Steudel caused me great difficulty by a misprint, 
" Non docet Augustinus, sed ManichoBMs adversum tenet." The large Ed. of 
1759 solved it by the true reading, ' Manichtei*.' Calvin, Inst., lib. i., ch. vii. 3, 
answers the argument drawn by Romanists from the words of Augustine, here 
quoted, by saying, that Augustine, in the passage referred to, speaks of himself 
as a Manichean ; viz. that he means that, when a Manichean, he was moved by 
the authority of the Church to believe the Scriptures. So also Musculus, who 
considers ' crederem ' and ' commoveret ' to be equivalent to ' credidissem ' and 
' commovisset.' Augustine, in the words immediately following, says, " Those 
■whom I obeyed when they said to me. Believe the Gospel, why should I not obey 
when they tell me, ' Believe not Mani ?' " Whence it is plain, he is speaking of 
himself as an unbeliever, and is informing us how he was first converted from 
being a Manichean to be a Catholic Christian, namely, by listening to the voice 
of the Church. But that voice is the voice of testimony, not the voice of infalli- 
ble authority. — E. and T. 

' The Vers. Germ, is more clearly in accordance with this observation, as 
omitting along with the larger edition, New Testament, the reading 6 X/iwto? ; 
than the Ed. 2, Gr., which leaves the addition 6 Xpiaros to the reader to decide 
upon.—'E. B. 

* ri/t^n ovK ixu, hath no honour) Jesus was solicitous, not about His own 

800 ST JOHN IV. 47-49. 

kindled in the nobleman ; [else courtier. One either of royal descent, 
or having obtained some rank, from which he was called ^aeiXmog, or 
as being attendant of a king. — Euthym. and Chrys. Probably the 
sense of the word in Josephus is the one here. He uses the term to 
distinguish the courtiers, and other officers of the kings, from those of 
Rome, B. J. vii. 5, 2 ; Ant. xv. 8, 4. So this man would be an 
officer in the court of Herod Antipas.j — oS 6 u'log, whose son) His 
only son, as the article seems to imply. 

47. ':ex Trig 'lovhaiag, put of Judea) The nobleman also, without 
doubt, had seen or heard the things that Jesus had done at Jeru- 
salem : ver. 45, " The Galileans received Him, having seen all the 
things that He did at Jerusalem at the feast." — xara^ri, that He 
would come doiori) Cana was situated in a higher position. 

48. 'Eaii /J,-/!, unless) Jesus implies, that He can give life to the 
nobleman's son, even though the patient be absent : and He requires 
the nobleman to believe it, and not to require that Jesus should 
set out with him-, as being himself about to see at the bedside of the 
sufferer the cure wrought on him. — 'idriTs, ye see) ch. xx. 29, [Jesus 
to Thomas] " Because thou hast seen Me, thou hast believed ; 
blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed." — ou /ii] 
•naTidenri, ye will not believe^ i.e. A disease has fallen upon thy son, 
that an opportunity might be afforded Me for rendering miraculous 
aid, which, as ye have not seen, ye do not believe : comp. ch. xi. 4, 
[Jesus as to Lazarus] " This sickness is not unto death, but for the 
glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby," 
wherein the address, ch. xi. 40, is given, somewhat in inverse order, 
as compared with that to the nobleman, [Jesus to Martha] " Said I 
not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the 
glory of God f There was something of the Judaic feeling, which 
was eagerly intent on miracles, in the nobleman, who seems to have 
been a Jew. This is marked by the use of the second person plural. 
But at the same time a miracle is promised, and faith is also first re- 
quired on the nobleman's part ; and whilst it is being required, it is 
awakened by Jesus : comp. ch. x. 37, " If I do not the works of My 
Father, believe Me not." The reply, compounded of a kind of out- 
ward appearance of repulse, and a tacit promise of aid, is in conso- 
nance with the feeling of the suppliant, compounded as it was of 
faith and weakness. 

49. Kard^nSi, come down) The weakness of the supphant is two- 
honour, but about the salvation of men. How can the man, who lightly esteems 
Jesus, be saved ? — V. g. 

ST JOHN IV, 50-54. 301 

fold, as though the Lord had need to be present, and could not 
equally revive the dead. And yet even before that the parent went 
down, his son was restored to life. 

50. Z^, livetli) In antithesis to, before that he die, ver. 49. 

51. "h5j), now) He was therefore hastening, in order that he 
might see those things which he believed : yet the trial of his faith 
lasted till the following day. He believes even his servants before 
that he sees. — o'l doiJXoi, servants) who themselves also subsequently 
believed. — avrivrrisav, met) Because the patient had so quickly be- 
come convalescent, they were desirous of knowing what had hap-- 
pened, and of gladdening their master by the tidings of his son's re- 
covery. Their joy was mutual. Without doubt the servants said, 
At this very seventh hour our masl;er spake with Jesus [and so in- 
ferred, the cure was due to His miraculous power]. — ^jj, liveth) 
They announce the fact in the same words which Jesus had spoken 
[ver. 50]. 

52. Tjiv iipav, hour) The more carefully the Divine works and 
benefits are considered, the more nourishment faith acquires. — b "jupi- 
Tos, the fever) This disease, under ordinary circumstances, is slow in 
its retiring. — xofM-^onpov, better) [lit. more adorned] A delightful word 
to use of one becoming convalescent, especially a boy. He was 
supposing that it was only the risk of death that had been overcome ; 
but there follows an account of the fever having been entirely re- 
moved [lit. quenched], 

'54.^ Aiiinpov, the second) He had wrought miracles at Jerusalem, 
ch. ii. 23. This, therefore, is the second, which was wrought in 
Galilee, when He had come thither out of Judea. [This it seems 
is the method of John, that he moves in a ternary way [selecting inci- 
dents by threes]. He relates three miracles accomplished in Galilee: 
first, at the marriage, ch. ii.; the second, on the nobleman's son, in this 
passage ; the third, in feeding five thousand men, ch. vi. Three also 
in Judea : the first at the feast of Pentecost, on the impotent man at 
Bethesda, ch. v. ; the second, after the feast of tabernacles, on the 
blind man, ch. ix.; the third, on the dead man Lazarus, before the 
Passover, ch. xi. So also after the Ascension, he has described in all 
three appearances, in which the Saviour exhibited Himself to the dis- 

1 s/3So'|Ku», the seventh) Immediately after mid-day. And one cannot suppose 
that either the nobleman or his servants delayed : therefore he had set out a long 
journey to Jesus. — V. g. 

^ Ver. 53. x«) i oix.i» airou ohn, and his whole house) What can be imagined 
more gratifying than such an announcement ! — V. g. 

302 ST JOHN V. 

ciples : cli. xxi. 14, " This is now the third time, that Jesus showed 
Himself to His disciples, after that He was risen from the dead."— 
Harm., p. 174, etc.] 


1. 'Eoprri, a feast) The following authorities recognise this feast to 
be Pentecost: Epiphanius, Chrysostora, Cyiil, Euthymius, Theo- 
phylact, the old Gospel harmony pubhshed by Ottomarus Luscinius, 
Lyranus, Stapulensis, Erasmus in his paraphrase, Maldonatus, 
Calvin, Piscator, Bullinger in his Acts, p. 4 ; comp. Hunnius and 
E. Schmidius, also Brochmand Syst. T. i. fol. 339. Add. Pfiacher. 
And that this was Pentecost, I have proved, as I hope, in my Order 
of Times, p. 252 [Ed. ii., p. 219]. 

2. "Esti, there is) John wrote before the destruction of the city. 
There is, saith he, not there was, a pool. Even then there was re- 
maining with His hearers a recollection of the treasury, a place in 
the temple : ch. viii. 20, " These words spake Jesus in the treasury, 
as He taught in the temple." In agreement with this are those of 
the ancients, who set down this book as edited 30, 31, or 32 years 
after the ascension of our Lord. — ml rri ■TrpofSanxfj) Many understand 
mKri : and indeed ^ ^liXjj rj <!Tpo^ari%ri occurs, Neh. iii. 1, 32, xii. 39. 
But though fi-equent mention is made in the books of the Old Tes- 
tament of the gates of Jerusalem, and in Roman history of the gates 
of Rome, yet nowhere or seldom is the noun •iruX?), gate, omitted. 
Nonnus has h hhifUfi -Trpopanx,'/! ; where irfoBariyiri, with the penultima 
lengthened, is equivalent to a substantive. Camerarius understands 
Xf^P^i or some such word. So Chrysostom, in B. ii. concerning the 
Priesthood, ch. iv., § 120, uses Tr\v voi/juavTixriv, which we express by 
Das Pastorat Germ., [the Pastorate]. It is credible, that near the 
sheep-gate was the pool, equally by itself called from the sheep ; for 
often sheep bathe in a pool : Song of Sol. iv. 2, " Thy teeth are like 
a flock of sheep — shorn, which came up from the washing." Thus 
xo'Av/i^r.ipa, kvi rfj 'rpo^arixyj, which the Greek Text has [ABCD. 
But many MSS. of the Vulgate have probatica piscina, in nomin. 
and without super ; so ^thiop. Version, Euseb. Athanas. Chrysost. 
also Tpo^ccTixt}], the order of the words being elegantly varied, is 
equivalent to M>.vu^r}Spa vpo^armn, as the Versions and Fathers ex- 

ST JOHN V. 3-7. 303 

plain it. In our language the former would be ein Teich hey der 
Schaefferey [a pond near a sheep-fold] ; the latter, ein Schaf-Teich [a 
sheep-pond]. — xoXu/j,l3ridf>a, apooi) About baths there is frequently the 
Qiioii, something of divine help vouchsafed. — 'E^paier!, in the Hebrew 
tongue) This book, therefore, was not written in Hebrew ; otherwise 
this adverb would be redundant. They were therefore Hellenists,^ 
for whose sake John wrote in Greek, and perhaps sent this book 
from Jerusalem to Asia [Minor]. Comp. ch. i. 38, 41, 42, ch, ix. 
7 [in which four passages Greek explanations are given of Hebr. 
words]. — srodg, porches) built by [i.e. by direction of] the impotent, 
or on their account, near the pool. 

3. KaTsxsiTo, lay) Therefore many were there during thei whole 
time :^ such at least was the case with this impotent man whom the 
Lord healed ; for he had no one [to put him in], ver. 7. — xhtien, the 
moving) by which the mud was stirred up. 

4. "AyyiXos, an angel) To many without doubt that event has 
seemed purely natural [not supernatural] ; because it took place 
xard xaipov. — xara, xaipov, at certain times) Were these times at equal 
intervals ? Were they especially about the time of Pentecost ? Who 
knows ? — xari^amM, used to go down [went down"]) Past time. There- 
fore this phenomenon had ceased before that John wrote. — hrapaaeiTo, 
was troubled) By the passive verb is expressed the phenomenon as 
it presented itself to the eyes of all, although they knew not the 
angel's action.' — wpunc, the first) To him that hath, it shall be given, 

6. Kara;c£/]a£K)i', lying) He seems by this time to have habitually 
given up the attempt to get before others. — yvoug, knowing) though 
no one informed Him. — Xiyii, He saith) of His own accord. Christ 
gives both a handle for His seeking aid, and the help itself. 

7. 'A'lrixplSti, answered) He gives no answer as to His wish to be 
made whole. The surer and the nearer the hope is, the greater is 
the vsdsh : when the hope is small, the wish becomes dormant. — ovx 
£^D>, T have not) He was a man very needy, and, as it seems, un- 
tutored. See ver. ll,<notes. — |8aX>j, to put [mittat]) having taken 
me up quickly to let me down gently. — irph i/ioii, before me) It would 
have been the part of love, that all the other sick men with one con- 
sent should have conceded the first place to him in particular ; but 

' Greek-speaking Jews, who clothed Hebraistic idioms with Greek words. — 
E. ahd T. 

" Of their infirmity.— E. and T. 

* They could not positively know that it was the doing of an angel, but they 
judged of the cause from the effects. — E. and T. 

80i ST JOHN V. 8-16. 

all were eager to be made whole themselves. [Would that there were 
as great an anxiety for the healing of the soul ! — ^V . g.j 

8. "Eyeipai, rise) Jesus heals the sick man, without entering th« 
pool. He was therefore greater than the angel. — ^pov, take up) This 
work, which was the more conspicuous on the Sabbath day, tended 
to the greater glory of God in Jesus Christ ; lalso it tended to remove 
the error of the Jews, especially of their doctors, concerning the Sab- 
bath.— 5arm., p. 182.] 

10. "EXiyov, began saying) An unseasonable interruption. 

11. Khiv, said) and indeed, as the fact showed, He had a right 
to say it. Jesus, along with healing, gave discernment to the man 

13. Obx fidii) knew not, being intent on carrying his bed, and per- 
plexed by the interruption on the part of the Jews. — l^svivsev, with- 
drew) The Septuag. use this verb to express TiD and rufi. Jesus 
shunned noise. Matt. xii. 16, etc., " He charged them that they 
should not make Him known ; — He shall not strive, nor cry, neither 
shall any man hear His voice in the streets." — oj^Xou, a multitude) 
Many were witnesses of the healing. 

14. M^'ra, raura, afterwards) either on the same or another day, 
or a Sabbath. — h rffl hpa, in the temple) The participation in public 
Divine worship more affects him, who had been a long time ill, than 
it does all the rest. — fj-'/jxin, do not hereafter) Therefore the man had 
been previously a sinner; nor was he free from great danger oi' 
faUing into sin again. Comp. ch. viii. 11, [To the woman caught in 
adultery] " Go and sin no more." This admonition, now that some 
interval had elapsed since his healing, was the more necessary. — 
X^/pov "j something worse) some heavier calamity than the infirmity 
even of thirty-eight years' standing. — yhrirai, befall) owing to anew, 
and that a heavier visitation of God's wrath. 

15. ' Ar/iyyeiXi, reported) He wished to please the Jews, who had 
asked him the question, ver. 12 : nor however did he bring them 
back word with bad intention ; for whereas he had said at ver. 11, 
mfjsa'c fii \iyiri, He who made me whole, and also sJttev, apov, He said, 
Take up, of which statements the former was favourable to Jesus, 
the latter might seem to His prejudice ; and whereas the Jews had laid 
hold rather o( the latter of these, ver. 12, "What man is that, which 
said unto thee. Take up thy bed and walk," the man himself rather 
dwells on the former in his report to them. 

16. 'Edluxov) they attempted to thrust Him out [began to persecute]. 
—xai IZriTow aMiv amxriiva,/) More modern copies have inserted this 

ST JOHN V 17, 18. 305 

here from ver. 18 .^ The attempt to hill is opposed to persecution, pro- 
perly so called. 

17. 'O narrip //,ou, My Father) In what sense Jesus said, My 
Father, even the Jews themselves understood better than the Photi- 
nians : ver. 18, " The Jews sought to kill Him, because — He said 
that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God." 
Here is set down the main point of the discourses of Jesus, which 
John subsequently records : and especially those statements are to 
be observed, which Jesus sometimes of His own accord has put 
forth as a kind of text to the fuller discourses which follow ; for 
instance, ch. vi. 27, " Labour — for that meat which endureth unto 
everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you ;" vii. 37, 
" If any man thirst, let him come unto Me and drink ;" viii. 12, 
" I am the light of the world." — sag cipn, hitherto) all along from 
creation, without any Sabbath intermission. For He is not bound 
by the Sabbath : He lacks not perpetual rest. If He were not to 
work, where would be the Sabbath itself? — epydl^iTai, worketh) An 
excellent speech as to the Divine works. — xdyci, and /) The Father 
works not without the Son : the Son not without the Father : 
ver. 19, " The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth 
the Father do." It is this proposition that is explained from ver. 19 
to 30 (whence ver. 19 is repeated at ver. 30, " I can of mine own 
self do nothing"), and is contirmed and vindicated, ver. 31, etc. 

18. A;a TouTo) on account of this, on account of which they ought 
to have been satisfied. They turn His very defence into a ground 
for greater accusation. — /i&KXov, the more) There is a gradation : 
lately they were persecuting Him ; now further they seek to kill 
Him. — 'iXut, He was breaking) by act, ver. 8, " Take up thy bed ;" 
and by word, ver. 17, " My Father worketh hitherto, and / work." 
— id/ov "sov. His own : equal) His own Father's own Son : Horn. viii. 
32, " He that spared not His own Son." The Only-begotten alone 
can say. My Father : of the Only-begotten alone the Father saith. 
My Son. Not only has Jesus most fi-equently repeated the names 
of Father and Son, but even has mentioned the intimate equality 
and unity of the Father and Himself: and I [work] : ver. 17, We 
2re in unity, etc. ; ch. x. 30, 38, " I and My Father are one ; — the 
Father is in Me, and I in Him." All these declarations conjointly 

1 BCDL Vulg. and Memph. Versions omit it. A and Hilary, however, have 
it.— E. and T. 

And so also the margin of Ed. 2 sets aside this clause more decidedly than 
the Ed. Maj., and the Germ. Vers, has altngelher omitted it. — E. B. 


806 ST JOHN T. IS. 

the Jews assailed. — 'iXiye, was saying) In reality Jesus did say that 
which the Jews were now supposing He said ;^ but that they, sad to 
say, esteemed as blasphemy. 

19. ',r]v, afitiv, Xiyu ii//,Tv, verily, verily, I say unto you) This affir- 
mation is thrice used in this discourse, ver. 24, 25. — a<p' lavrou ovdi«, 
nothing of Himself) This is matter of glory, not an imperfection. 
It cannot happen, that the Son should do anything of Himself, or that 
He should judge, will, testify, or teach anything separately from the 
Father, ver. 30, etc. ; cK vi. 38, " For I came down from heaven, 
not to do Mine own will, but the will of Him that sent Me ;" vii. 
16, 17, 28, " My doctrine is not Mine, but His that sent Me. If 
any man will do His will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it 
be of God, or whether I speak of Myself. — I am not come of My- 
self, but He that sent Me is true ;" xii. 49, " I have not spoken of 
Myself; but the Father which sent Me, He gave Me a command- 
ment, what I should say, and what I should speak ;" xiv. 10, " I 
am in the Father, and the Father in Me : the words that I speak 
unto you, I speak not of Myself; but the Father, that dwelleth in 
Me, He doeth the works :" or that He should be believed in, and 
seen separately from the Father ;" ch, xii. 44, " He that believeth 
on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me." These 
declarations proceeded from His intimate sense of unity, by nature 
and by love, with the Father. The Lord defended the work, which 
He had done on the Sabbath, by the example of His Father, from 
which He does not depart. So concerning the Holy Spirit, ch. xvi. 
13, " The Spirit of truth — shall not speak of Himself: but what- 
soever He shall hear, that shall He speak :" where also an anti- 
thesis follows, most closely resembling this passage. But the devil 
speaketh of his own, ch. viii. 44 : and it is a characteristic of a false 
teacher to come in his own name, and to speak or act on the 
promptings of his own heart : ch. v. 43, " I am come in My 
Father's name, and ye receive Me not : if another shall come in 
his own name, him ye will receive;" Num. xvi. 28, [Moses to 
Korah, Dathan, etc.] " The Lord hath sent me to do all these 
works : for I have not done them of my own mind ;" xxiv. 13, 
[Balaam] " If Balak would give me his house full of silver and 
gold, I cannot go beyond the commandment of the Lord, to do 
either good or bad of mine own mind ; but what the Lord saith, 

1 As for instance two men, of whom the one is father of the other, are of an 
equal nature : so that One, whose own Father peculiarly -the supreme God is, and 
who is own Son peculiarly of the supreme God, is equal to God. V. g. 

ST JOHN V. 20-22, 307 

:liat will I speak." — ruura) these things all, and these alone : [which 
ire not at all liable to be slandered. — V. g.] — i/iolug) likewise, forth- 

20. (^iXiT) He who loves, hides nothing [from the object of his 
love]. — &i!xvugiv, showeth) in heaven. Comp. jSXst?;, seeth, ver. 19. 
He showeth that [the Son] may do so also. This showing is the 
part of intimate unity. They compare with this the passage of the 
Psalm xlv. 5, Thy right hand shall show [Engl. Vers., ver. 4, teacK\ 
thee wonderful \ten'ible\ things. — auro's) Himself. — hii^ii) shall show, 
by doing them. The Father at once showeth and doeth, and the 
Son seeth and doeth ; not at different times. — 'ipya, works) Jesus 
more often calls them works than signs, because in His own eyes 
they were not miracles. — ha) even to that degree that. — u/^iTg, ye) 
who now hate, will honour with admiration and belief. This effect 
was wrought especially at the resurrection of Lazarus [John xi. 43, 
45, Many of the Jews, which had seen the things that Jesus did, 
believed on Him]. 

21. Tap, for) He declares what are those greater works : quicken- 
ing and judging. From His judicial power flows His unlimited 
authority in quickening whom He will, and at what time He will. 
Weigh well the yap, for, ver. 22, " For the Father judgeth no 
man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son." But the 
quickening of the dead is a proof of His judicial power, which does 
not as yet come before men's eyes. Weigh well the y&p, for, ver. 
21 : and so quickening the dead raises men's admiration in a greater 
degree than judging does. These two, quickening and judging, are 
set before us at ver. 21, 22 ; and, in inverse order by ^las/Log, 
at ver. 24 is discussed the exemption of believers from condemna- 
tion, which itself presupposes a judgment : at ver. 25 is discussed 
the restoration to life of some of the dead ; marvellous indeed, but 
however so as that the general resurrection, ver. 28, is to exceed 
this marvel. — syilpei, raiseth up) This double-membered sentence has 
this force : Just as the Father raises up the dead (whom He will), 
and quickens them : so also the Son (raises up the dead) whom He 
will, (and) quickens them. — KXfoxjg, the dead) in body : for the death 
of the body is properly opposed to disease [alluding to the infirmity 
of the impotent man], ver. 5 : and life eternal, into which an en- 
trance is gained through the resurrection of the body, is opposed 
to the judgment, ver. 22.— oSj S'tXn, whom He will) Never does the 
effect fail to follow His will. A universal assertion, as ver. 22, 23. 

22. OuSe, neither) The Father does not judge alone, nor without 

3(18 ST JOHN V. 23-25. 

the Son : yet He does judge ; ver. 45, " Do not think I will accuse 
you to the Father ; " Acts xvii. 31, " He hath appointed a day, in the 
which He will judge the world in righteousness by that Man whom 
He hath ordained ;" Eom. iii. 6, " God forbid : for then how shall 
God judge the world?" Nor is the word di&mi, He hath given, 
in this passage, opposed [to the Father's judging] : comp. ver. 26, 
" As the Father hath Hfe in Himself, so hath He given the Son 
to have life in Himself," with ver. 21, "For as the Father raiseth 
up the dead, and quickeneth them : even so the Son quickeneth 
whom He will." — yap, for) The Son decides by His own judgment 
whom He pleases [wills] to quicken. [And for that end the dead are 
raised up, that they may be judged. — V. g.] — ahhiva., no man) To 
this refer -rravTii, all men, in the ver. following. 

23. navng, all men) Rom. xiv. 11, "As I live, saith the Lord, 
every knee shall bow to Me, and every tongue confess to God." — 
riiiadi, should honour) either willingly, escaping judgment through 
faith : or unwillingly, feeling the wrath of the Judge .^ 

24. Adyov /iou, My word) This double-membered sentence is equiva- 
lent to this : he who hears (the word of Him that sent Me, and) 
My word, and believes (on Me, and) on Him, that sent Me, etc. — £;^e/, 
hath) Jeremiah, the patriarch of Constantinople, in his letter to the 
people of Tubingen, writes : He hath eternal life, and doth not come 
into judgment. Dost thou see ? He hath this immediately, and not 
merely, he shall have. MeTajSslSrixev, He hath passed over [is passed], 
agrees with this. As to the unbeliever, he is already condemned ; 
ch. iii. 18. — EJt — t'li, from — into) A great leap. 

25. 0/ vixpol, the dead) Used literally, in the body, as Jairus' 
daughter, the young man at Nain, and Lazarus : ch. xi. 23, etc. ; who 
all were raised up after that these words had been spoken : comp. 
Matt, xxvii. 52, etc., " The graves were opened ; and many bodies 
of the saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves after 
His resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto 
many." There follows a gradation : all, ver. 28 ; in which verse 
the words [added to] the hour, the time that " now is " [jca/ nDv lerh], 
are not repeated ; [but there is added mention of the graves, which, 
since Jairus^ daughter and the young man were not yet in the grave 
f when restored to life), is in this ver. omitted. — V. g.] — Axovsovrai) 
Middle : also at ver. 28 ; a rare form. 

i Pniv. xvi. 4, " The Lord hath made all things for Himself, yea, even the 
■wicked for the day of evil." — E. and T. 

ST JOHN V. 26-31. 309 

26. "'S.'/tiv h laurS), to have in Himself) Ch. i. 4, *' In Him was 
life, and the life was the light of men." 

27. "On r'lhg avSpumu) No article is added in this passage : because 
He is Son of Man, power has been given Him of judging. He, a 
man, saves men : He, a man, judges men : Dan. vii. 13, etc., " I saw 
in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with 
the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days — and there 
was given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom." Acts xvii. 
31 ; Heb. ii. 5, etc., " Unto the angels hath He hot put in subjection 
the world to come — but — ' what is man, that Thou art mindful of 
him ? or the son of man, that thou visitest him ? Thou madest 
Him a little lower than the angels ; Thou crownedst Him with glory 
and honour, — Thou hast put all things in subjection under His feet.'" 

28. M)] dau//,dt,iTi TouTo, marvel not at this) They are great things 
which He spake all along from ver. 21, and worthy of marvel ; but 
greater and more marvellous are the things which follow : touto, 
this, is to be referred to what goes before. Jesus knew the feehng 
of wonder which had been just now raised in the mind of the Jews. 
— apa, the hour) See note on ch. v. 21. [It is termed an hour, not 
because that whole time is short, but because its beginning is near.j 
— (paivrig, the voice) 1 Thess. iv. 16, " The Lord Himself shall de- 
scend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, 
and with the trump of God." 

29. ' Avderadiv ^w^s) the resurrection of life, ordained to live.' ' 

30. JlonTv, do) Understand, and judge. — xaSiig axouu, as I hear) 
from the Father. Comp. ver. 19, " The Son can do nothing of 
Himself, but what He seeth the Father do ; "seefh : [ch xvi. 13, 
The Spirit of truth shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever 
He shall hear, that shall He speak.J — xpim, I judge) Understand, 
and do. — aXXci rb ^iXr}/^a, but the will) which is a just will. 

31. 'eAv syui) if I alone. A condition impossible to occur ; 
comp. ch. viii. 1 6, " Yet if I judge. My judgment is true ; for I am 
not alone, but I and the Father that sent- Me," with ver. 13, "The 

1 Tii (pau'KiXi evil) Dost thou desire to know whether thy portion shall be in 
the resurrection of life or of condemnation ? Then sift thoroughly thy course of 
action, whether it is good or bad ; but remember to examine thine accounts, not 
according to thine own fancy, but according to the truth of the case. — V. g. 

^ avauntatv Kpiata;, the resurrection of condemnation) It would be inappro- 
priate to term it the resurrection of death : but yet it is opposed to the resurrec- 
tion of life. Therefore sinners indeed shall rise again, hut from death to d^ath ; 
their resurrection shall not be a regeneration [Matt. xix. 28. — E. and T.], but 
an abortion. — V. s. 

mo ST JOHN V. 32-34. 

Pharisees said, Thoubearest record of Thyself; Thy record is not 
true." — aMSris) true witness, i.e. sure, incontrovertible. 

32. "AXTvo?, Another) concerning whom, see ver. 37, " The Father 
Himself, which hath sent Me, hath borne witness of Me." The 
pkirality of persons is here shown. Comp. the expressions, that 
Being, and this One [IxiTvoi, rouTu ; " whom He hath sent, this one 
— Him—je believe not"], ver. 38 ; and another, used of the Holy 
Spirit, ch. xiv. 16, "/will pray the Father, and He will give you 
another Comforter." — /laprvpiT, beareth witness) in the present ; ch. 
viii. 18, " I am One that bear witness of Myself, and the Father 
that sent Me beareth witness of Me." 

33. ' TfiiTg, ye) He shows how the Jews labour to fix their hopes 
anywhere, rather than on Christ Himself. I. Ye, saith He, having 
surmised that John is the Messiah, have sent to him, inquiring as 
to the truth : and truly John, when that opportunity was afforded 
him, bore witness to the truth, that not he, but I am the Messiah : 
but, etc. n. Ye, the same persons, think that you have in the 
Scriptures eternal life, and that nothing more is needed : on this 
account you are wont to search them ; and not without good reason ; 
for indeed they are they which testify of Me : but, etc. Here the 
Lord approves the things worthy of approval, both concerning John, 
and concerning the Scriptures ; but He shows, that error and abuse 
on the part of the Jews were mixed up therewith ; and He openly 
testifies, that His own authority, and that of His Father, is of itself 
greater, whereas the testimony of John and of the Scripture con- 
cerning Himself, the Christ, is only a subsidiary thing. The simi- 
lar form of both paragraphs is to be observed : 

ver. 33, etc. ver. 39, etc. 

ye : ye : 

and he bare witness : and . . . which testify 

but I ... [ver. 34] : [!]••• honour [ver. 41] 

but : but ... [ver. 42] 
ye were willing for a season ye will not [ver. 40 : answering to 

[ver. 35]. "ye receive Me not," ver. 43]. 

Nor is the paragraph as to Moses, ver. 45-47, dissimilar in con- 
struction : Ye have your hope placed in Moses : but this very person 
is on My side against you, 

34. Tlapa avSptivov, from man) even though it be John. [The 
matter is not to be referred to man, as the ultimate arbiter. What- 

ST JOHN V, 35-37. 311 

ever lam, lam so, independently of the favour of human authority. — 
V. g.] — rijv /lapTvplav, testimony) doing Me honour (comp. ver. 41, 
" I receive not honour from men"), in regard to you. — raura, these 
things) concerning John. — ha, that) His earnest will regarding the 
salvation of men is hereby expressed. — v/iiTi, ye) who made so much 
of John. In antithesis to, /; it is your own interest which is at 

35. 'O Xu%vos, lamp llightj) The article amplifies, and alludes to 
the prophecies in the Old Testament concerning John. Comp. 
Ecclesiastic. xlviii. l,xa! avierr) 'HX/ag '!!po(fY}rr\i wj <irup,xai o Xoyos auroD 
iig Xa/irds sxakro [Elias — arose as fire, and his word burned as a 
tordi]. Otherwise this appellation is a weak one, [to be applied] 
to the Christ Himself. — xaio/Mvog) blazing vehemently (comp. the 
passage quoted above concerning Elias), and quickly burning 
out. — xal ipalvciiv, and a shining) xai also denotes concomitancy : 
whilst the light blazed, it shone ; no longer. — ayaXXiaaSrimi, to exult) 
without penitential mourning, and without making any approach 
towards Myself. A choice word to express the thought. They 
ought to have used, not enjoyed [made their chief joy], John. The 
Jews treated that which was but a mean, as if it were an end. 
They are grossly mistaken, who seek in the word and ministers of 
God only the gratification of their outward or inward senses, and 
not Christ Himself, [ — who, when they are delighted with the gifts 
of ministers, seem to themselves religious and devoted, and yet do not 
follow their instruction. — ^V. g.J — nhXrieari Tpog oipat, ye were willing 
for a season) Your willingness was not of long continuance. — <puri, 
in the light) Ye were attracted by the splendour, not by the blazing 
ardour of him. — auroij, his) without proceeding forward to Me, the 
Light, the fountain o/ ^/o?/ ; ch. viii. 56, "Your Father Abraham 
rejoiced to see My day ; and he saw it, and was glad :" tiyaXXidsaro. 

36. Msil^di roxi 'luano-S) Greater, than that witness, which John 
gave me. The lamp does not lend light to the sun, when once he 
has arisen. — TiXiiuoiii, that I should finish) that I should do, even to 
the rlXos, end. — iaiiTo. ra ipya, these very works) A suitable and em- 
phatic repetition. 

37. Auto's) ^imse?/' [independently of, and, in weight of testimony] 
beyond the works. — /j,i/ji,apTiiprixi, hath borne witness) Past time. That 
testimony is recorded ch. i. 32, 33, " Upon whom thou shalt see the 
Spirit descending and remaining on Him, the same is He," etc. — 
OUTS, neither) In the beginning of verses 36 and 37 is described [the 
Father's] testimony concerning Jesus Christ : at the close of 37 

312 ST JOHN V. 38, 39. 

and in 38 is described the unbelief of the Jews. — iiio; alrou, His ap- 
pearance) This corresponds with the first chapter of Ezekiel, where 
there is described at large " the appearance of the likeness of the 
glory of God" [ver. 28], seen by Ezekiel, who presently after also 
heard the voice of God. And that whole chapter was the Haphtara 
[portion, or lesson of the Prophets, appointed for the day] of the feast 
mentioned in the first verse. {They had not seen or heard Him at 
any time, as the prophets (for instance Ezeh. i. 28), much less as the 
Christ had. Comp. John i. 17, " Grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ ;" vi. 46, " Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He 
which is of God, He hath seen the Father." — Not. Grit, and Y. g.J 

.38. "On, because) Therefore, those who believe, in hearing the 
Son, hear the Father ; ch. vi. 45, " Every man that hath heard, 
and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto Me ;" and in seeing the 
Son they see the Father ; ch. xiv. 9, [Jesus to Philip] " He that 
hath seen Me hath seen the Father ; and how sayest thou then, 
Show us the Father?" although previously they had not heard nor 
seen Him : " No man hath seen God at any time ; the only-begotten 
Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him;'' 
and they have abiding in them the Word of the Father, which is 
the same as the Word of the Son. 

39. 'Epiw&rs, ye search) Hafenrefier, in his edition of the New 
Testament, Greek and Latin, translates. Ye inquire into [inquiritis] 
the Scriptures. He thereby has guarded against any one under- 
standing search into [scrutamini] as an Imperative. Of the ancients, 
Athanasius also recognises it as an Indicative, Profecti in pagum, 
T. i., f. 989 : and Nonnus. For which reason Cyril need not have 
been afi-aid of being left alone in giving, or being about to give, that 
explanation. Brentius says, that there are interpreters of great 
judgment, who decide for the Indicative : and the whole structure 
of the discourse certainly confirms it : comp. ver. 33, etc., and espe- 
cially that clause, because ye think. Jesus approves of their search 
into the Scriptures, which they were not wanting in, inasmuch as 
at that very feast they read much of them in public ; just as He 
approves of the embassy to John, ver. 33, and their high estimation 
of Moses, ver. 45 ; but He adds, that none of these are enough by 
themselves. Wherefore this explanation is attended with no loss to 
the sense : and they are usually, to say the least, equally dihgent 
searchers of the Scriptures, who decide on the Indicative (which very 
lately has been adopted by Zeltner and Walchius), as those who de- 
cide on the Imperative. This clause, Ye search and ye will not comet. 

ST JOHN V. iO, 41. 313 

Paul has rendered by synonymous expressions, 2 Cor. iii. 15, 16, 
" Even to this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart. 
Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken 
away." Some one has demanded, that similar instances of the 
second person plural indicative, closing a period, should be brought 
forward. See therefore ch. vii. 28, xa^s o'liari, %a/ o'lban rrohn il/i,!; 
xii. 19 ; Matt. xxii. 29, xxiv. 6, xxvii. 65 ; 2 Cor. viii. 9 ; James iv. 
2, 3. On the other hand, the imperative occurs with i/ts/s, ye, 
Matt.- xxviii. 5, (jij^ fo^iTeh ifnTg ; Mark xiii. 23. The imperative, 
Search ye, " Seek ye out of the book of the Lord and read," Isa. 
xxxiv. 16. The hearers of Jesus Christ (though they had not heard 
the testimony even of John, who was greater than the prophet, and 
though they had not read the Scriptures^ might at that time have 
derived faith from the words alone of Jesus Christ. — rotg ypap&g, the 
Scriptures) of Moses, ver. 46, "He wrote of Me ;" and of the prophets. 
— tj/iiTg, ye) This is joined rather with the word think than with search, 
and contains the proof, and is put as it were by Anaphora [repetition 
of the same.word in the beginnings of clauses] : comp. the notes, ver. 
33. So also ye, ver. 45, " Moses, in whom ye trust." — ioKiTn ix'^n, 
ye appear to have) In antithesis to ha. sxi"} t^t 2/om niay really have, 
ver. 40, " Ye will not come to Me, that ye may have life." Akin 
to this is that clause, ver. 45, Ye have placed your trust in Moses. — 
Iv auraig, in them) By the mere fact alone, that you search them, ye 
think that you have life. — ^w^v, life) Why dost thou deny, O Soci- 
nian, that there was known to the ancients the hope of eternal life ? 
— xa! iKiiiiai — xal ou SiXin, and those — and ye will not) A double 
Epicrisis [an enunciation added to a sentence, to make the subject 
in hand the more clear] : the one, xal IxeTvai ihiv a'l /iapTupougai wipl 
i/iou, approves of the search and tri^st of the Jews ; the other, xat ou 
6sXtTs ixhn nrpig fit, etc., shows their defect. 'ExiTmi, those, subjoined 
to the avTuTg, in them, has in some measure the force of removing to 
a distance. Life is to be had more nigh at hand in Christ than in 
the Scriptures. 

40. 'KKhTv, come) in accordance with what the testimony of the 
Scriptures concerning Me demands.^ 

41.^ napoi av&puvuv, from men) even from those by whom the 

• "va ^aiiv hvn, that ye might ham life) What follows below is more severe : 
If ye believe not that I am Re, ye shall die in your sins, ch. viii. 24. — V. g. 
' 2 5o'|a», fflory [honour]) Jesus in this passage had spoken great things con- 
cerning Himself. Now he states why He does so ; namely, that He might bring 
poor souls to the blessed knowledge and love of God. — V. g. 

314 ST JOHN V. 42-45. 

Scripture was written : comp. ver. 34, " Ye sent unto John, and 
he bare witness unto the truth, but I receive not testimony from 
man," concerning John, who was greater than the prophets ; and yet 
Jesus did not receive testimony even from him. 

42. "Eynwxa hfiai, I have you in my knowledge [I know youj) By 
this ray of hght He penetrates the hearts of His hearers. He 
means this : / know [novi, o73a] the Father, ver. 32, " There is 
another that beareth witness of Me, and / know that the witness 
which He witnesseth of Me is true ;" and / have known [cognovi, I 
am aware] that you are strangers to Him. Jesus spake this with 
great compassion. It is not for My sake, but for yours, He saith, 
I grieve. — d/airjiK, the love) by which I am recognised as the Son 
of the Father's love, ver. 20, " the Father loveth the Son," and 
which would teach you to seek glory from God alone. [Things 
divine are not distinguished from things alien to God, save only hy 
this love : ver. 43, " I am come in My Father's name, and ye receive 
Me not ; if another shall come in his own name, him ye will re- 
ceive." — V. g.] — h sauToTs, in yourselves) This expression has an 
emphasis, and contains the cause why the Jews need to be sent 
back ' [referred] to the men, who in Scripture testify concerning 

43. Ou Xa/i^dviT! /j,s) ye receive Me not, through [in] faith. — 
aXkog, another) Any false Christ and Antichrist that may arise. 
From the time of the true Christ down to our age, sixty-four 
false Messiahs are reckoned up, by whom the Jews were de- 
ceived. See John Jam. Schudt, JiXdische Merkwurdigkeiten, L. 6, 
c. 27, § 30. 

44. Aof ail ijrapa aXXn^oiv, glory from one another) Each one of you 
thinks that he is righteous, in accordance with what you mutually 
think of yourselves : and ye do not labour, that you may be ap- 
proved of in the sight of God alone. Comp. Rom. ii. 29, " Circum- 
cision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; 
whose praise is not of men, but of God." — -/.ai rriv io^av, and the glory) 
that which is the portion of the sons of God, ch. i. 12, " As many 
as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of 
God, even to them that believe on His name." — irapii, roO laoVou ©sou, 
from Him who is God alone [but Engl. Vers. " from God only"]) 
ch. xvii. 3, " Thee, the only true God." — ou ^jjT-e/rs) This is con- 
nected with the article o/, which is implied in "KoLf^^amTn, i.e. oJ' 

45. Mn doxstri, do not think) A new argument against the unbelief 

ST JOHN V. 4C, 4r.-TI. 1-3. 3J5 

of the Jews, and one most suitable to establish His conclusion. — 
eyu, I) in particular and only, just as if Moses were on your side. 
/ am a reconciler [not one come to condemn]. — u/j,uv, you) who do 
not beheve in Me. — Mwffijf,' Moses) i.e. the writings of Moses. Luke 
xvi. 29, [Abraham to the rich man] "They have Moses and the 
prophets" [i.e. their writings]; 2 Cor. iii. 15, "When Moses is 
read." — el; h I/jlsT; riXmxari, in whom ye have placed your trust) 
ver. 39. 

46. 'E«ff«ijsr6 Mv, ye would have believed) It did not help the Jews 
to say. We believe, that all things, which Moses has written, are 
true. There was need of explicit faith.^ — 'iypa-^iv, He wrote) There 
is no part of his writings where he did not. 

47. VpafjiiJjoi,(!iv, his letter [writings]) In antithesis to pfi/iasi, words. 
Often more readily is belief attached to a letter previously received, 
than to a discourse heard for the first time. — l/ioTg, My) speaking 
heavenly things, as compared with Moses. 


1. Msroi raura, after these things) John intimates, that here the 
history of many months is to be sought from the other Evangelists. 
[The feeding of 5000 men is the only miracle between the baptism and 
passion of Christ, which John describes in common with the other 
Evangelists ; by this very fact confirming their narrative. • However 
he presents to our view some things, not noticed by the rest, ch. vi. 
22—70 ; and indeed, especially, the intimation of the intervening Pass- 
over (ver. 4), which if neglected, the leap from the preceding Pente- 
cost to the following Feast of Tabernacles would have been too great 
{namely, it would have flown over an interval of a year and a half), 
nor would the possibility have been given of any harmony of the 
Evangelists being constructed. This is the one and only feast of the 
Passover, betiveen the Lords baptism and His passion, in which 
He did not go up to Jerusalem, John vii. 1, 2, etc. — Harm., p. 
•331.J — rng) The Sea of Galilee, expresses the whole sea : the Sea 
of Tiberias, a part. 

3. 'AvriXk, went up) Not after the arrival of the people, but in the 
' And not merely of implicit faith, which took Moses' writings in the mass, and 
not in detail. — E. and T. 

S;« . ST JOHN VI. 4-12. 

meantime, whilst the people were approaching. — IxaSn-ro, He was 
sitting)' He did not desire the people to come to Him ; but He 
graciously received them [when they came]. 

4. 'Ey/uj, nigh) There was a great concourse of men at that time 
of the year : ch. xi. 55, " Many went out of the country up to Jeru- 
salem, befor-e the Passover, to purify themselves." 

^ 5. "Bpx^'rai, Cometh) Whilst the people were coming, Jesus already 
provided the food for them : comp. ver. 6, " He Himself knew what 
He would do :" moreover He fed the people, immediately before 
sending them away : Matt. xiv. 15, " The disciples came to Him, say- 
ing, This is a desert place, and the time is now past ; send the multi- 
tude away." — (^iXivrnv, Philip) It is the part of a good teacher at 
times to appeal to some one, who needs it, out of the whole band of 
His disciples. Perhaps also Philip was the one among the disciples 
who had the care of the supply' of provisions. 

7. Bpa^u Ti, a little) Septuag. fipayp /xiKi, 1 Sam. xiv. 43. 

8. 'O a^EXjBos, brother) Peter, therefore, at that time and place in 
which John wrote, had been better known than Andrew, either 
because he was older, or because he survived Andrew. 

9. UaiSdpiov, a lad) Therefore the load was not a heavy one, con- 
sisting of five loaves, especially as there were fishes in addition. — 
'iv, one [So Ac Vulg. But BDLaS omit sV]) There was no other 
source of supply. — xpi6mvi) Barley loaves seem to have been smaller 
than wheaten loaves. Judges vii. 13, [The Midianite's dream] " A 
cake of barley bread tumbled into the host of Midian," etc. There 
is no doubt but that the taste of barley bread was perceived by all 
who then were eating. — H Isrn, what are they) A form of depre- 
ciating. — ring ieri ; viho are ye ? [The evil spirit addressing the sons 
of Sceva] Acts xix. 15. 

10. UoirigaTi am'Tnain, make to sit down) The faith of the dis- 
ciples and of the people is put to trial. — %of ro^, grass) A conveni- 
ence for sitting down. — o; avSpsg, the men) The number of them was 
counted, without the women and children. — Biiduxi, distributed) by 
the hand of the disciples. — oVov, as much as) This refers to the 
loaves and to the fishes. — ^h\ov, they were wishing) Comp. Ps. cxlv. 
16, "Thou openest Thine hand, and satisfiest the desire of every 
living thing." 

12. "iva /xij ri aw6XriTai, that nothing be lost) The Lord easily 

' TO ^aax*> *^* Passover) Preceding His passion by the interval of a year. — 


ST JOHN VI. 13-25. ai7 

makes ; but yet He does not will it, that the things He made should 
go to losH without cause. 

13. K\a(!u,a,Tuiv) fragments. 

14. ^rjfisTov — vpo(f>fiTni, miracle — the Prophet) Ch. iii. 2, [Nico- 
demus to Jesus] " No man can do these miracles that Thou doest, 
except God be with him;" ix. 17, [The restored blind man to the 
Jews] " He is a prophet." 

15."^ 'AfTa^s/i/, to carry off) by force. — /Satr/Xsa, a king) To malie 
Him a king, was the prerogative of the Father, not of the people ; 
nor was it as yet the time. [And this very circum.stance is perhaps the 
cause, that nowhere do we read that Jesus, whilst He was sojourning on 
the earth, entered Bethlehem, the native town of David, even though 
that town was very close to Jerusalem. — Harm., p. 333.] Jesus, in 
order to avoid the people, already at that time often changed from 
place to place. — -^rdXiv, again) Comp. ver. 3, " Jesus went up into a 
mountain." — alrh; ij,o\io(, Himself alone) having desired t]ie disciples 
to cross over. Aurof is elegantly redundant, -TrapiX-nu. Ch. xii. 24, 
xoxjco; rou tf/Vou, — auros /Mvog fiivii. 

19. "H, or) The Holy Spirit knew, and could have told John, how 
many furlongs precisely there were ; but in Scripture He imitates 
popular modes of expression. 

^ 2l."Hh'KovXa^iTv, they were willing to receive [they wilhngly re- 
ceived]) A concise mode of expression : there is to be understood, 
and received. — luSetas, imm,ediately) A new miracle. 

22. 'ibiiv, having seen) This is repeated with some slight change of 
the words, after ver. 23 (which does not depend on or/, but forms a 
parenthesis), at ver. 24, and is connected with the word Jvs/Sjjuav, they 
embarked in. 

23. 'Eyyug rod roVou) nigh unto the place. 

24. AuToi, themselves) In antithesis to Jesus, whose route the 
people observed directly ; that of the disciples indirectly.' — TXora, 
ships) These same just before the apostle termed, 'jrXoidpia,, small 
vessels [boats, ver. 23]. Both appellations are true. — Kavepvao-J/j,, 
Capernaum) ver. 17 [whither the disciples had sailed]. 

25. XloTi, when) [They ask in astonishment, How could He ac- 

^ ip'jCiaSa.i, to come) The turning aside from a spiritual movement to temporal 
things is an easy transition. — V. g. 

2 Kxl lipo/3^^w7«», and they were a/raid) The night dark, the wind violent, 
the sea stormy, and the nearness of the spirit, as they supposed it to be, were 
striking terror into them. — V. g. 

' ue. Their immediate object of search was .Jesus. — E. and T. 

SIR ST JOHN VI. 2te, 27. 

complish] in so short a time, so long a way ? The question as to 
time includes the question as to the manner. 

26. Aeyw, I say) The people themselves did liot know their own 
true character so well as Jesus now exhibits it to them. Up to 
this time Jesus had collected mere hearers ; now, in the midst of the 
time of His ministry, He begins to make a selection, by means of His 
figurative discourse concerning His passion, and the benefit to be 
derived from it through faith. — ou% or/ I'lbiri eiriiJ.i7a, not because ye 
saw the miracles) They had not as yet been led by the miracles to 
faith : ver. 29, etc. : otherwise faith, and not the desire of food, 
would have prompted them to seek Jesus. — irri//,iTa, miracles) in the 
case of the sick, as also in the case of the loaves : ver. 2, 14, " A 
great multitude followed Him, because they saw His miracles on 
them that were diseased ; — Then those men, when they had seen the 
miracle that Jesus did — (in feeding the 5000) — they said. This is 
of a truth that prophet." — ipdyiTi, ye did eat) The people, anxious 
about food, were wishing that they might daily receive it in the same 
way ; and they were now no longer, as before, ver. 2, attracted to Him 
by the mere sight of His miracles, but rather by tlie desure of being 
fed. Comp. Matt. xiv. 20, note [the fragments were on that occasion 
gathered up for future use as food, not, as the manna, merely for a 
memorial : the people were not to carry any away as a curiosity]. 
The barley harvest was immediately after the Passover ; and immedi- 
ately before the harvest, the price of provisions is usually dearer. 
Therefore, at that season of the year, His benefit conferred on the 
five thousand had been especially appropriate. 

27. 'Epydl^iffk, [tractate] trade in) So riiv &a.Xaiseai ipydf^egda.!, Rev. 
xviii. 17. Devote your exertions [labour for, Engl. Vers.], saith Be, 
to the everlasting food : just as you are now seeking Me with great 
earnestness for the sake of bread. Jesus gives no reply to the When 1 
of the Jews [ver. 25, When earnest Thou hither?] : and so often in 
His discourses He has regard rather to those things which the series 
of circumstances and the state of souls require, than to the unsea- 
sonable interruptions of the speakers.— /iii, not) Very similar thino-s 
are opposed to one another : ch. iv. 10, [Jesus to the woman of 
Samaria] '' If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith 
to thee. Give Me to drink ; thou wouldest have asked of Him, and 
He would have given thee living water."— r^v ««XX.^Iv^v,' that 
pensheth) ver, 12, " Gather up the fragments— that nothing be lost- 
MMra. :" 1 Cor. vi. 13, "Meats for the belly, and the bellv for 
meats ; but God shall destroy both it and them." The food of the 

ST JOHN VI. 28-30. 319 

body perisheth ; therefore it confers not immortality. — r/v) ^pSisiK 
Ye ought not, saith He, ask from Me nutriment for the body, but 
for the soul. First it is set before us as food [meat], ver. 27 ; next 
as bread, ver. 32, " The true bread from heaven ;'' then in express 
terms, the Jlesh and blood of Jesus Christ, ver. 51, 53, " The bread 
that I will give, is My flesh, which I will give for the life of the 
world : — ^Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His 
blood, ye have no life in you." — doJaei, toill give) ver. 51. — yap, for) 
This Etiology [enunciating not merely the proposition, but also, at 
the same time, the reason and cause of it] appertains to the /j^ivovaav, 
which endureth. — d Uarfip o ®e6g, God the Father) Therefore Jesus 
Christ is the Son of God.— Isipfdyisev, hath sealed) Hath pointed out 
and distinguished Him by this very miracle, ver. 14 [as the anointed 
Prophet : " Those men, when they, had seen the miracle that Jesus 
did, said. This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the 
world"] ; as also by His whole testimony, which in its turn needed to 
be sealed by the faith of the hearers : ver. 29, " This is the work of 
God, that ye believe on Him whom He hath sent ;'' ch. iii. 83, " He 
that hath received His testimony hath set to His seal that God is 
true." By a seal, that which is genuine is stamped with commenda- 
tion, and all that is not genuine is excluded. 

28. Tl miu/iiv) What are we to do; what work do you desire us to 
work? ver. 27, "Labour — for the meat which endureth to everlast- 
ing life." — r& 'ipya rou 0iou, the works of God) The works approved 
by God, and which unite us to God. 

29. Th 'ipyov ro\J &io\J^ the work of God) That work which is ap- 
proved by God : comp. ch. iv. 34, [Jesus said] " My meat is to do 
the will of Him that sent Me, and to finish His work." Jesus op- 
poses the singular number to the plural of the Jews, who had said, 
the works of God, ver. 28. He retains, however, their term. In 
another sense, rJ 'ipyov rosj Qsou, the work of God, is used Rom. xiv. 
20.^ — mgrivariTi, that ye believe) The thing is expressed plainly, and 
afterwards is described successively in metaphorical and in plain lan- 

30. 2u, Thou) So they speak in antithesis to Moses, who gave 
them the manna, and had this sign [to show in proof of his mission] ; 
and they demand from Jesus something greater and more imme- 
diately from heaven ; which they do not think can be given by Him, 
nor do they recognise Jesus as one greater than Moses. — ffjj/i£«)v, sign) 

1 "For meat destroy not the work of God," i.e. the spreading of the Gospel. 
— E. and T. 

S?0 ST JOHN VI. 31, 'i-J. 

Tlie seal, which is mentioned at verse 27, " Him hath God the 
Father sealed," they do not recognise. — "bufj^u, we may see) that Thou 
hast been sent by God. And yet they had seen, ver. 14, " They 
had seen the miracle that Jesus did" [the feeding of the 5000] ; 
26, 36, " Ye also have seen Me, and believe not." — <soi, Thee) Jesus 
had said, ver. 29, " That ye beheve on Him whom God hath sent," 
p.e.J on Me. It is often all the same to say, I believe in Thee, and / 
believe Thee : but here the Jews lower the sentiment of the Lord.' — 
Ti £fyd,Z,ri, what dost Thou work) They reply to the Lord, retorting 
His own word, to work [jpydZ^ieii, ver. 27]. Thou desirest us, 
say they, to work [labour, ver. 27] : what then dost TIiou work 

31. "Eipayov, did eat) They appear to speak more moderately than 
if they were to say : Moses gave u^ [a sign], therefore our fathers be- 
lieved him : do Thou also give, and we will believe Thee : camp. ver. 
foil. — a^roi/ ix. tou cupavou idoixiv auroTg <payiTv) Septuag., Exod. xvi. 4, 
cipTouc BX, TOU oupavou^ ; Ps. Ixxviii. 24, aprov oipavou ediaxiv auroTg ; Exod. 
same ch. ver. 15, 'iduxs fiayin. If that 'Kt'HTov [Septuag. Exod. xvi. 
14 ; "a small round thing," Engl. Vers.], small thing, was true 
bread, (Num. xi. 7, " The manna was as coriander seed,") why should 
not also circular loaves [as the five, with which Jesus fed the 5000] 
be true bread? — ex. rov oupavov, from heaven) Heaven, as opposed 
to the earth, is taken in the widest sense in the psalm ; whence 
manna is also called the bread of angels, or of heavenly beings : but 
Jesus opposes to the heaven from which the ancient manna came, 
the highest heaven. It is with reference to this that the Lord Him- 
self seven times saith, that He has come from heaven : ver. 32, 33, 
38, 50, 51, 58, 62. 

32. 'Af/^no ai^n' Xeyia ufiTii, verily, verily, 1 say unto you) This asser- 
tion has, especially in this passage, great force, when the Jews had 
objected to Him, that it was written, ver. 31. — ou Musra deSa>x.eii ifi^h 
Tov &PTOV £x TOU ohpavov, Moses gave you not the bread from heaven) Un- 
derstand here also Th akn6m\i, the true. It was not Moses who gave 
you or your fathers the manna ; and the manna was not that true 
bread fi-om heaven, which is incapable of corruption. Exod. xvi. 
20, " Some left of the manna until the morning, and it bred worms 
and stank." — SlSuisiv, giveth) In antithesis to diduxsv, gave. Now the 
bread was present : comp. ver. 33, " The bread of God is He, which 
Cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world." — rb> 

1 Impair it by using the less forcible (roi, instead of il; ai. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN VI. 83-3B. 321 

aXn^mv, true) whicli, whosoever tastes, he will no longer seek any 
other sign : for the taste in the bread is of itself a sufficient crite- 
rion ; and the truth of it shall hereafter be made manifest : ver. 39, 
" This is the Father's will, that of all which He hath given Me, I 
should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day." 
The truth and the life are often here mentioned. 

33. ' O xara^ahav, which cometh down) Repeat, aprog, the bread : 
comp. ver. 41, " I am the bread which came down from heaven," 
58. — rjB xotf/iw, unto the world) not merely to one people, or to one 
age, as the manna fed one people of one age : ver. 51, " I am the 
living bread which came down from heaven. If any man eat of this 
bread, he shall live for ever : and the bread that I will give is My 
flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." 

34. Kvpii, Lord) They fepeak with some degree of reverence, as at 
ver. 25 [Rabbi] ; and even faith itself might have arisen in them 
from ver. 35, " I am the bread of life : he that cometh to Me shall 
never hunger; and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst:" 
but presently they start back again from faith : ver. 36, 42, " Is not 
this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know ? 
How is it then that He saith, I came down from heaven?" Those 
declarations are especially to be observed, by the' hearing of which 
the Jews were inclined to believe : ch. vii. 40, " If any man thirst, 
let him come to Me and drink ; he that believeth on Me, as the 
Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." 
" Many of the people, therefore, when they heard this saying, said, 
Of a truth this is the Prophet :" viii. 30, " He that sent Me is with 
Me ; the Father hath not left Me alone, for I do always those things 
that please Him. As He spake these words, many believed on Him." 
— iravTOTi, evermore) To this is to be referred the following verse, at 
its close, " never hunger — never thirst." — tm &frm toUtov, this bread) 
They still suppose that His speech is concerning the nutriment of 
the body ; and it is this that they seek : ver. 26, " Ye seek Me — 
because ye did eat of the loaves." 

35. 'E/w e/jm/I, lam) To those who seek Him, He offers Himself 
immediately. — rrji Z,mc„ of life) Both living, ver. 51, and life-giving, 
ver. 54, " Whoso eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, hath eter- 
nal life." — ip-^ofijivoc Tpog u.s, he who cometh to Me) So ver. 37, 44, 
45, 65. The parallel expression to it follows presently, o -Kiariljiiiv ilg 
s/i'i, he who believes on Me [ch. vii. 37, 38, quoted above]. — ov firi 
tisivagji, shall not hunger) Understand «rwTor£, ever, from the end of 
the verse. — ou /i)) Si-^/riar}, shall not thirst) He touches on that, which 

VOL. II. 3C 

322 ST JOHN VI. 3C, 37. 

subsequently He handles more fiilly, as to drink, ver. 53, etc. : " Mv 
blood is drink indeed" [ver. 55]. 

36. E«rov 6/i/V, T said unto you) He said so, ver. 26, " Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, ye seek Me, not because ye saw the miracles, 
but because ye did eat of the loaves." As I said that you were, 
saith He, such ye still are : Ye [alsol both have seen Me, (and have 
not beheved: ye see,) anc? (yet) believe not. Hereby is refuted 
what they had said at ver. 30 : Do [some sign] that we may see it, 
and we ivill believe. 

37. nav) all. A most weighty word, and, in comparing with 
it those things which follow, most worthy of consideration ; for, 
in the discourses of Jesus Christ, what the Father hath given to 
the Son Himself, that is termed, both in the singular number and 
neuter gender, all [omne'] : those who come to the Son, Himself, are 
described in the masculine gender, or even the plural number, 
every one [omnis'], or they [illi]. The Father hath given, as it were, 
the whole mass, in order that all whom He hath given, may be 
a unity funum'] : that whole the Son evolves individually [one by 
one], in the carrying out of the Divine plan. Hence that expression, 
ch. xvii. 2, that all which [foiv S, omne quod^ Thou hast given 
Him, HJE SHOULD GIVE THEM [aJro/£, eisj eternal life. In the 
Greek style of the New Testament, especially of John, wheresoever 
fastidious minds would say the construction was a solecism, an 
elegance truly divine, which to the Hebrews never seemed harsh, 
is usually found to lie beneath. That remark especially holds good 
of this passage. It is owing to it that this 37th verse has two 
members, which are presently handled, the same words being re- 
peated ; and indeed the former of the two, at ver. 38, 39, where 
the all [_ira,v d'sduKt, omne, etc.] is mentioned in conjunction with 
the Father ; the second member, at ver. 40, " This is the will of 
Him that sent Me, that every one which seeth the Son, and be- 
lieveth on Him, may have everlasting life ;" where the every one 
[_Tag, omnis'\ is mentioned in conjunction with the Son. The former, 
by means of the on, for [ver. 38], and the latter, by means of the 
yap, for [ver. 40 : di is the common reading ; but yap, ABCDabc 
Vulg.], are connected with ver. 37. — Siduai /io/, giveth Me) by means 
of that drawing, ver. 44, " No man can come unto Me, except the 
Father, which hath sent Me, draw him." The present tense. 
Afterwards the past, ver. 39, " This is the Father's will, — that of 
all which He hath given Me, I should lose nothing," with reference 
to their preservation. The Father giveth to the Son : the Son 

ST JOHN VI. 38, 39. 303 

chooseth, i.e. gives as it were to Himself; ver. 70, "Have I not 
chosen you twelve?" Believers are given ; it is given to believers ; 
ver. 32, 65, " My Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. — 
No man can come unto Me, except it were given unto him of My 
Father." — T^is e/j,s) The emphasis rests on this ; in other places it 
is usually written •Trpo; /ii. — )5§s;) shall come. It is only that all 
[which the Father giveth Me] whijh shall come unto Me. Jesus 
speaks those thmgs, which [such — as] if the Jews would receive, 
they would be believers in reality : and, after their- unbelief has 
been brought home to them, He now offers them faith : and what 
He had before spoken under a figure, He now declares plainly.- — 
ou ft,^ ix^dXca s^M, / will not cast out) This signifies not merely the 
first reception, but the lasting preservation, through all changes 
and progressive steps in their course, even up to the resurrection — 
that goal, which takes for granted all things anterior to it ; ver, 
39, 40, " This is the Father's will, that — I should lose nothing, but 
raise it up again at the last day ; — that every one which seeth the 
Son, and beheveth on Him, may have everlasting life ; and I wiU 
raise Him up, etc. ; " ver. 44, 54. There is a Litotes [the meaning 
IS stronger than the literal words] : / will not cast him out, but by 
all means will preserve him ; ch. x. 28, etc., " They shall never 
perish, neither shall any pluck them out of My hand. My Father, 
which gave them Me, is greater than all ; and none is able to pluck 
them out of My Father's hand:" a passage which closely corresponds 
to the passage here. Comp. sfw, out, ch. xv. 6, " Cast forth as a 
branch, and is withered;" l/3x^^?) sga. 

38. KaTa/3£/3>ixa, / came down) This speech in many things flows 
from His personal union with the Father. For His descent from 
heaven refers to the nature which He had, prior to His birth from 
Mary according to the flesh. 

39. As, moreover) The will of the Father, mentioned in ver. 38, 
is more fully declared in this ver. — roD 'nif^-^awos /^e TlaTfog — 40, 
-oD Tlarphi row •jtiiJ,-\ia,vToi /jli, of Him who hath sent Me, even the 
Father — of the Father, who hath sent Me) Such is the oldest reading. 
"Da Vulg. and Rec. Text read rou wifi-^anrog /jli TLarpoc, at ver. 39 ; 
but ABDTLc Hilar. 238, omit Uarpog. At ver. 40, BCDLT read 
roD Harpog /Mti : A and Rec. Text read roD ■7ri/i,-^avr6g /is. Vulg. as 
Beng. reads both : patris mei, qui misit me.] At ver. 39, mention 
is made of His being sent ; and at ver. 40, the name of the Father 
is appropriately placed first : for in ver. 39, on comparing it and 
ver. 38 together, the sending properly corresponds to the will of tho 

324 ST JOHN VI. 40. 

Father ; but at ver. 40, the name of the Father, and the name of 
the Son, properly refer to one another. [The correlatives are, at 
ver. 39, the sending {of the Father), and the care of Christ (to lose 
nothing of all given to Him) ; and at ver. 40, the ivill of the Father, 
and salvation in the Son.— Not. Crit.] The chief varieties of 
readings noticed in the introduction do not aifect the main argument 
of this note.^— tSi/, all) See note on ver. 37. — hiimi (hoi, hath given 
Me) They are given to the Son, to whomsoever faith is given. 
Comp. the following ver., " Every one which seeth the Son and 
believeth on Him." — i^^ aitoXisa, I should not lose) To this losing 
[loss of the soul] is opposed everlasting life, ver. 40 : ch. iii. 15, 
etc., " That, whosoever beheveth in Him, should not perish, but 
have eternal life."—i^ avroZ) of it, of all that, which the Father hath 
given to Me. — dvaarrigm, raise it up again) to life, ver. 33, " He that 
— giveth life unto the world." So ver. 40, 44, 54. This [the 
resurrection] is the ultimate limit, beyond which there is no danger. 
The Saviour engages to guarantee all things anterior to it. He 
gives a sign in this ver. and ver. 62, " What and if ye shall see 
the Son of man ascend up where He was before 1" but a sign that 
was to be hereafter, whereas the Jews were importuning Him for 
a present sign ; ver. 30. The resurrection, which presupposes death, 
is often here mentioned, because the Lord Himself was still about 
to die and rise again : comp, note, ch. xi. 25, "I am the resurrec- 
tion and the life," etc. But afterwards the apostles set before be- 
lievers rather His glorious coming again. 

40. ToDro yap — Uarpoe, for this — of the Father) See notes on 
ver. 37, 39. — i Siupuv xa! -aianhm, who seeth and believeth) The 
Jews were then seeing, but not believing, ver. 36, "Ye also have 
seen Me, and believe not." Those who beheld Christ had a great 
opportunity for believing ; and those of them who believed had a 
pre-eminent degree of blessedness. Matt. xiii. 16, " Blessed are 
your eyes, for they see."- — ^u'^v alwviov, everlasting life) even before 
the last day, of which the mention here follows immediately subse- 
quent : as also at ver. 54, " hath eternal life ; and I will raise him 
up at the last day." Human reason transposes the order of these 
two. — ava<STri<su, I will raise up again) The Future, as at ver. 44, 
and ch. xv. 8, " bear much fruit : so shall ye be My disciples." — ■ 

' For at the margin oi Ed. 2 (to which the Germ. Vers, corresponds) il in 
recommended that, in ver. 39, the word ■a-arpii should be omitted, and, at ver. 40, 
that the reading Trmrpog firv should be substituted for the reading tow mft^pati/ros 
^!.— E. B. 

ST JOHN VI. 41-44. 826 

iydi, I) This pronoun, which was not employed at ver. 39, is now 
employed : there the preceding verb is also in the first person [that 
of all — /should lose nothing] ; but here, in the third person [that 
every one which — ^beheveth — may have everlasting life], as ver. 44, 54. 

41. ''KyoyyuZfiv, began to murmur) Jesus however was aware of it 
[though not spoken aloud] : ver. 43, " Murmur not among your- 
selves." — 6 (Lproi, the bread) They take hold of the language of 
His, that was allegorical : they neglect the explanation, which was 
added in plain words. 

42. 0'18a/isv) we are personally acquainted with [novimusj, or 
rather, we know about [scimus]. Joseph was dead ; but the remem- 
brance of him remained. — vSig, how) So ver. 52, "How can this man 
give us His flesh to eat?" — out, then) On this very account they 
ought to have thought, that there was in Jesus something higher 
[than what outwardly appeared]. 

44. OuSs/s, no man) Jesus is wont, before that He removes error 
out of minds, to convict the perverse disposition itself of those who 
so err. This is His aim, ver. 44—46 : and at the same time, after 
having passed without notice that which was unseasonable in the 
interruption on the part of the Jews, and having stilled their mur- 
muring, ver. 43, He in continuation discusses those very truths, 
which He spake at ver. 40. Nor, however, does He omit to con 
firm His descent from heaven : He only does not reply to the 
question. How? — ohhig ibvarai, no man can) The Jews were re- 
lying on their own powers : this Jesus refutes, and teaches them ot 
the need of observing the drawing of the Father. — skhni /Kpog /n, 
come to Me) To come to Christ, is, by faith to attain to and recog- 
nise His heavenly mission, and to commit one's self to Him. — 
sav /A)}, unless [except]) He therefore doeth aright who cometh to 
Me, saith Jesus : for by the very fact of coming, He is following 
the drawing of the Father. — IXxvor;, shall have drawn) The Father 
hath sent the Son to us ; and draws us to the Son, by the power of 
His love making us hear and see. See following rer., " Every man 
that hath heard and learned of the Father, cometh unto Me;" and 
65, " No man can come unto Me, except it were given him of My 
Father." [It is one and the same thing, the expression which is used, 
to give us to the Son, or to give to us (grace) that we may come to 
. the Son, ver. 39, " All which He hath given Me." — V. g.] An 
instance of such a drawing is given in the case of Peter, ver. 68. 
" Lord, to whom shall we go ? Thou hast the words of eternal 
life :" in the case of Paul, Gal. i. 15, " It pleased God, who sepa- 

32(; ST JOHN VI. 45-49. 

rated me from my mother's womb, and called me by His grace." 
The same word occurs in the Septuag., Song of Sol. i. 4, (iXxvudv ei, 
[Engl. Vers.] " Draw me, we will run after Thee ;" Jer. xxxi. 3,^ " I 
have loved thee with an everlasting love, therefore with loving- 
kmdness have I drawn thee" [in Septuag. eh. xxxviii. 3, iik%M6a ei 

45. Tiypctfifilvov, written) He refutes the Jews who abused Scrip- 
ture, ver. 31, " Our fathers did eat manna, as it is written," etc. — 
xai 'iaawai rravTsg didaxrol rou 0£oD) Isa. liv. 13, Septuag. mvTag 
Toic vkhc ffou didanrovg 0eoD : " All thy children shall be taught of the 
Lord," [Engl. Vers.] — vdvrsg, all) Hence is inferred presently after 
the every one [mg, that hath heard, etc.] — diSaxro! roD ©soD, taught by 
[of] God) Comp. presently after, ■?rapd, ' from' [of]. The correlatives 
are, every one who hath heard and learned ; and [all] taught. The 
former implies the act [of learning] : the latter, the habitual state 
resulting from the former. — irag, every one) and he alone. — 'jra.pd.) 
from [of\ the Father, concerning the Son. Matt. xi. 27, "No man 
knoweth the Son, but the Father ; neither knoweth any man the 
Father, but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him." 

46. Ohx oTi, not that) By the addition of this declaration it is inti- 
mated, that the Father is heard then only, when the Son is heard ; 
and that He is seen then only, when the Son is discerned : eh. xiv. 9, 
[Jesus to Philip] " He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father." — 
iiiipaxiv, hath seen) Understand, and hath heard. Comp. the pre- 
ceding verse, who hath heard (and hath seen). But because to 
see is a more intimate perception than to hear, the seeing is with 
elegant propriety ascribed to the Son, the hearing to the believers. 
Comp. ch. i. 18, " No man hath seen God at any time ; the only- 
begotten Son, etc., hath declared Him." — 6 ulv vapa roD ©eoD, He who 
is from God) So ch. vii. 29, " I know Him, for I am from Him, and 
He hath sent Me." 

47. "Ep^s;) hath. Present. Where the bread of life is, there life 
is ; even before the last day, ver. 40. 

49. O/ <!raTepig, your fathers) concerning whom ye have spoken, 
ver. 31, " Our fathers did *eat manna," etc. — ifiuv, your) Your, He 
saith, not our : by which very expression He shows, that He has a 
higher descent than they had supposed ; ver. 42, " Is not this Jesus, 
the son of Joseph.?" — i^ayov rh ii^dna h Tfj spri//,tii, did eat manna 
in the wilderness) Their own very words are retorted on the Jews ; 
see ver. 31 . — xai amSam) and yet they died, and that hj a terrible 

ST JOHN VI. 50. Bl. 327 

50. olnc, this) namely, bread. — rig, a man) any one who pleases. 
— xal ij,r\ a-jroSavj], and may not die) namely, in a spiritual sense, as 
this food refers to spiritual life : there being attached thereto also 
the resurrection of the body. 

51. 'O ^wv, tlie living) This participle acts both as a means of 
giving increased weight to His speech, and as a declaration, by 
which it is shown that His speech is not concerning ordinary bread. 
— hoisa, I will give') ought to be read. — ^ edp^ /iov, My flesh) A new 
step in the discourse. The bi i-TriraTixov [intensive], indeed, and the 
/ will give in the Future, are in accordance with this : for hereto- 
fore there had been no mention made in this discourse of flesh ; 
then at ver. 53, also of blood. The Father giveth the true bread, 
ver. 32, which is Christ Himself : ver. 35, " I am the bread of life." 
Christ giveth the living bread. His own flesh. The portion of the 
discourse concerning the bread is rather allegorical, in accommoda- 
tion to the miracle that precedes it : that concerning the flesh and 
blood is literal. — iiffsp 5;^s toD x.6e/j,ou Z.ii>ni, for the life of the world) 
and so, for many, Mark xiv. 24, " This is My blood of the New 
Testament, which is shed for rnany.^' Jesus framed His words so 
skilfully, that immediately at the time, and at all times subsequently, 
they would indeed apply in their strict literal sense to the spiritual 
enjoyment of Himself; and yet that afterwards the same words 
should by consequence be appropriate to express the most august 
mystery of the Holy Supper, when that should be instituted. For 
He applied to the Holy Supper'' the thing itself which is set forth 
in this discourse ; and of so great moment is this sacrament, that it 
may readily be thought possible that Jesus, as He foretold the 
treachery of Judas at ver. 71, and His own death in this ver., so 
also foretold, one year before, the institution of the Holy Supper, 
concerning which He most surely thought within Himself whilst 
speaking these words : and with this object, in order that the dis- 
ciples might afterwards remember His prediction. The whole of 
these words concerning His flesh and blood have in view the pas- 
sion of Jesus Christ, and along with it the Holy Supper. Hence 
arises the separate mention of the flesh and of the blood so invariably : 

' However both the margin of both Editions, and the Germ. Vers, implj/ that 
the reading %v iya "huau is of dmibtful origin. — ^E. B. BCDTaic Vulg. omit 
it. Rec. Text has it, with Orig. l,2iide: but Orig. elsewhere omits it. — E. 
and T. 

2 " Contulit in S. Cacnam ;" He conferred on the Holy Supper in the case of 
the worthy receiver the actual partaking of Himself spiritually — E. and T. 

328 ST JOHN VI. 52-69. 

for in His passion the blood was drawn out of His body, and the 
Lamb was thus slain. 

52. 'E/ia^oiTo, began to strive) They now did not merely murmur, 
as at ver. 41. — o/'IouSaToi, the Jews) The successive steps are to be 
observed : the Jews, in this place ; the disciples, ver. 60, 66, " This 
is a hard saying ; who can hear it ? — ^Many — went back and walked 
no more with Him ;" the apostles, ver. 67, [Jesus to the Twelve] 
"Will ye also go away?" — •a-Ss, how) The How they repeat here 
again : comp. ver. 42, " How is it that He saith, I came down from 
heaven 1" To neither the one nor the other how does Jesus reply, 
but proceeds whh His own discourse, and saith. Thus it must he : 
ver. 53, " Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, etc., ye have 
no Kfe in you."— tjjw sapxa, the flesli) Again they fasten on that 
statement, as being the one which seemed to them especially hard. 

53. 'Eiiv ij,n, if you do not) The Jews were questioning as to the 
possibiHty : Jesus replies as to the necessity : for in fact the latter 
infers the former. 

55. 'AXrjdui;, truly) This afBrmation is opposed to the doubt of 
the Jews. — ^pueir irosiz) Food, drink, by which the believer is as 
truly fed, as food and drink feed the bodies of men, ver. 56, at its 
close, " He that eateth My flesh, etc., dwelleth in Me, and I in him.''' 

56. 'O rpuym, he who eateth) He who eateth, and that which is 
eaten, in very deed are intimately joined together. 

57. ' A.'jieru'ki fii, hath sent Me) To this is to be referred the 
fcorresponding clause in the Apodosis] xat 6 rpuyuv i/.i, so also he 
who eateth Me, through faith. The meat of Jesus was to do the will 
of Him by whom He was sent, ch. iv. 34 ; the meat of the believer 
is, to eat Christ, and to feed on Him, by the will of the Father. — 
xayti, and I) The as has its Apodosis in that clause, so also He who 
eateth Me. — 8ia rhv Tlaripa, on account of the. Father [Engl. Vers. 
< by,' not so correctly]) For I am in the Father. — xa/) So also.— 
6 Tpuiyoiv //,i) He who eateth Me, who live [^S] ; [this he does] 
through faith : ver. 29, " This is the work of God, that ye believe 
on Him whom He hath sent ;" 35, " He that cometh to Me shall 
never hunger, and he that believeth on Me," etc. ; 40, 64. In this 
point of view, inasmuch as the Father hath sent His Son, we eat 
His flesh and believe in Him. 

58. Ouros, this) that is, I Myself, ver. 57.— o a/ros, the bread) 
His discourse goes back to those things which were set forth in ver. 
32, " My Father giveth you the true bread from heaven." 

59. E;Vs> — diddaxiiv, He spake — teaching) Comp. ch. viii. 20, 

ST JOHN VI. 60-C3. 329 

" These words spake Jesus, as He taught in the templ^' [as here in 
the synagogue] ; vii. 28. 

60. ^xXr}p6g, hard) There are no doubt many things 'which the 
carnal nature cannot but shrink from in this discourse, which is, if 
considered by itself, a most delightful one. His discourse is diffi- 
cult, not hard [harsh] : whereby the evil are deterred ; but genuine 
disciples are proved, disciplined, and established. Hardly any- 
where can you see a passage where the Lord spake more sublimely, 
even when apart from the multitude with His apostles. Let us 
receive it with pious admiration ! — tI; biivarai, wJio can) Very 
differently Peter thought, ver. 68, " Lord, to whom shall we 
go? Thou hast the words of eternal life." — auroD, Him [Engl. 
Vers. it\) They seem to mean this : who can hear Jesus ? Comp. 
ch. X. 20, " He hath a devil, and is mad. Why hear je Him?" 
This is the head and crowning point of their misery, to refuse to 

61. 'Ev savTip, in Himself) without any external informant. — 
TouTo i/ias axavSaXl^ii ; does this offend you ?) Enallage [change of 
form of expression] : that is [He means], whether are ye offended at this 
truth ? The passion of Christ was " to the Jews a stumbling-block." 

62. 'eAv ouv, if then) sdv, if, has as the Apodosis to be understood, 
what shall be ? [Engl. Vers, what and if, etc.] That is, there are far 
greater things, which will follow : if ye do not believe this, how 
would ypu believe those things, if I were to tell you them ? (A si- 
milar passage occurs, ch. iii. 12, " If I have told you earthly things 
and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you of heavenly 
things ? ") And yet, when ye shall see that, ye will acknowledge 
that the things which I have spoken are true ; and ye will wonder, 
not at My doctrine, but at your own slowmess of comprehension : ch. 
viii, 28, " When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye 
know that I am He, and that I do nothing of Myself ; but as My 
Father hath taught Me, I speak these things ;" Matt. xxvi. 64, 
" Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand 
of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven." — am^ahovra, as- 
cending) See on ch. iii. 13, note, " No man hath ascended up to 
heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of 
man, which is in heaven." — tJ vporepov, previously) before that He 

63. To 'Trnvfia, the spirit) It is not the Godhead alone of Christ, 
nor the Holy Spirit alone, which is meant, but universally the Spirit, 
in contradistinction to thejlesji. That, which is spirit, is life-giving. 

330 ST JOHN VI. C4. 

— )) edp^, the flesh) His speech is not in this passage concerning the 
corrupt flesh, concerning which no one doubts, but that it profits 
nothing': nor yet does Jesus take away from His own flesh the 
power of giving life ; otherwise He would set aside His whole dis- 
course, just delivered, which for certain refers to His flesh, ver. 51, 
53-56, as also the whole mystery of the incarnation : but the sense 
is, mere flesh profltefh nothing, namely, such as the Jews were 
supposing that flesh to be, of which Jesus was speaking. Comp. 2 
Cor. V. 16, " Though we have known Clirist after the flesh, yet now 
henceforth know we Him no more." He speaks supposing a condi- 
tion, and that supposed condition an impossible one, if He were 
mere flesh ; as also He speaks [supposing a contingency impossible 
to arise], ver. 38, as to His own will, " I came not to do Mine own 
will, but," etc. Comp. note on ch. v. 31, 19, 22. The flesh is the 
vehicle of all Divine life-giving virtue, in the case of Christ and of 
believers ; and Christ, after He was put to death in the flesh, and 
quickened in the Spirit, especially put forth His efficacious power ; 
1 Pet. iii. 18, " Christ suffered for sins — that He might bring us to 
God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit ;" 
John xii. 24, " Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, 
it abideth alone ; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit ;" xvi. 7, 
" If I go not away, the Comforter will not come ; but if I depart, I 
will send Him unto you." — oix upiXiT ohdiv, proflteth nothing) for 
quickening. Where the life is not from God, there no real profit is 
derived. — rdt, prtiLara) Ci''"i2iny the words, and the things comprehended 
in them. The correlatives are, the words and to believe : ver. 64, 
" Some of you — believe not." — XtXaXrjxa, I have spoken) He does not 
say, I speak, but I have spoken [Engl. Vers, loses this, "I speak"]. 
For already they were disaffected towards [turned away from] Him, 
ver. 60, 61. — ■jn'sD/ia, spirit) although they [the words] speak of 
the flesh.— ^xai, and) and so therefore. 

64. 'AXX' e;V;'v, but there are) With yourselves rests the blame. — 
ring, some) who also disturb the faith of others. — ou man-juvm, do not 
believe) and so therefore distort into 'a carnal sense what has been 
spoken in a spiritual sense. — Ig afx?S; from the beginning) The very 
time of this discourse is marked, although Jesus, even before that 
time, had always known what was about to be. This discourse was 
dehvered a year before His passion ; but the choice of the twelve 
apostles did not precede this discourse by a whole year. Therefore 
it was at that time a beginning. — rlnc, who in particular) out of 
the larger number of His disciples.— xa;' r/,-, ar^d who) out of tlis 

ET JOIIK VI. 65-CS. 331 

;welve disciples. Judas therefore was then already cherishing that 
annatural feeling, from which subsequently his treachery took its 
nse. Even then he did not believe, and, along with many other 
lisciples, took oflFence at the discourse of Jesus. The bad are soon 
bad; the good are soon good.' John has dihgently marked the 
successive steps in the deadly wickedness of Judas, ch. xii. 4 [His 
jovetous objection made to the pouring out of the ointment on the 
Lord by Mary] ; xiii. 2, 27, " Satan entered into him ;" xiv. 22 ; and 
entertained an especial antipathy towards him. 

65. Asdo/Lsvov, given) by the drawing of grace. 

66. UoXXoi, many) By this means their number was cleared of the 
unworthy, and made the more select [and this, m the very place 
{Capernaum we may suppose) in which He had sojourned previously 
for the'longest time. — Harm., p. 337]. A promiscuous multitude is 
not of so much consequence as is sincerity. [This was a most severe 
purification. — V. g.] 

67. ToTg bMi-na, to the twelve) John takes for granted their names, 
and the very appellation Apostles, as known from the other evangelists. 
— /jiii xa! v/iiTg, whether will ye also) It was not far from being so. It 
was well that it [the decision] rested on [was confined to] this point 
of time. Otherwise Judas might have carried away the rest with 
him. — ^sXiTi, will ye ?) Jesus compels no man, and by this very cir- 
cumstance attaches His own the more closely to Him. 

68.^ 'P>ifi-aTa, the words) The disqiples, even though as yet they 
do not comprehend the special principles of the discourses of Christ, 
yet hold the general foundation. A most noble instance of implicit 
faith, involved in the explicit faith [faith involved in the faith 
evolved].' The whole of the phraseology, the words of eternal life — 
we have believed — the Son of God, is repeated from ver. 63, 64, 65.* 
So Marthd, ch. xi. 27, upholds her faith in Jesus Christ, although 
she did not as yet perceive the grounds and bearings of the resur- 
rection. [In answer to Jesus, " I am the resurrection and the life," 
etc., she replies, " I believe that Thou art the Christ, the Son of 
God, which should come into the world."] 

' i.e. Good and evil soon develop themselves in their respective characters.^ 
E. and T. 

* irpos Ti'vct, to whom) It is a blessed thing for that man, into whose mind, if 
even it should see the door open, nothing whatever else glides in. — V. g. 

' i.e. Universal faith implied in the faith expressed by Peter. 

* To which therefore Peter alludes, contrasting the Twelve with the unbe 
licvers. — E. and T. 

S32 ST JOHN VI. 69-71. --VTI. ' 

69. 'H/i-eTg, we) whatsoever others may determine on. — 'Tremari-j- 
xa/isv xa! lyvwxa/isv, we have believed and known [" are sure," Engl. 
Vers.]) From the words of Jesus, knowledge follows faith : 2 Pet. 
i. 5, " Add to your faith virtue, and to virtue knowledge." They 
are astray who demand knowledge first : it follows faith and obe- 
dience : ch. vii. 17, " If any man will do His will, he shall know of 
the doctrine." We have known, that is, we have it as a sure and 
certain truth. 

70. Toi); &u&ixa) The article has great force. — I^O.i^d/irjv, I have 
chosen) Th&e is therefore a kind of election, from which one can fall 
away. — ig i/^Zv, of you) from among so few. — sTg, one) This indefi- 
nite disclosure excited all the others, and proved the truth of their 
confession, as made by Peter, but excluded Judas, although not 
contradicting that confession. Here was the point where Judas 
ought to have repented. \_The wretched man had been offended, 
ver. 61, (Jesus had said to the murmuring disciples) " Doth this 
offend you ? " Wherefore that exclamation of Peter, " To whom 
shall we go 1 " did not after this square with his views. He did no 
doubt go, but it was to the chief priests. — V. g.J — didBoXfg, the devit) 
not merely evil to himself, but even dangerous to others. 

71. 2//iwv(is, of Simon) The other evangeHsts are silent as to what 
name the father of the traitor bore : John supplies it. The article 
is opposed to the reading, 'lexapiuirjjv : for in that case it would be 
'louSav 2//i'*ivos rhv 'isxapiitirriv, not rhv 'loudav 'Slfiuvog 'lexapiiariji. The 
article is placed between the name and surname. I have mentioned 
at Matt. X. 4, but not approved of, the derivation given by Jjudo- 
vicus de Dieu. Both Judas and his father had the surname of 
Iscariot. [BCL read rlv 'loMav lifiuvoi 'Isxapiurou : Rec. Text, 'Imo- 
piuiTr}v, T)ab has 'SxapitaS.'J 


1. nipiivdrii, was walking) for several months after His second 
passover [mentioned at ch. vi. 4]. — oi 'lovdaToi, the Jews) who believed 
not. — drnxTeTvai, to kill) [through the hatred which they had conceived 
against Rim, from as far back as the Pentecost of the previous year 
(ch. V. 18, " because He had not only broken the Sabbath, but said 
also that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God"), 
and which revived at this feast of Tabernacles, and subsequently 

ST JOIJN vn. 3-7. Bsa 

biased out more furiously. — Hann., p. 352] ; ver. 1 9, " Why go ye 
about to kill- Me?" 30, 44 ; viii. 40, 59, " Then took they up stones 
to cast at Him ; but Jesus hid Himself." 

3. O/'\(pol, His hrethren) cousin-germans. — jUTa^n^i, [depart} 
pass over) to sojourn there. — hnuhv, hence) from this obscure place 
in GalUee. — e/s d^v louiaiav, into Judea) They send away the Messiah 
from Galilee to Judea; and then, from Judea to Galilee, ver. 52.' — 
xa/ 0/ fiairtral sou, Thy disciples also) By this very expression they 
show, that they are not His disciples, ver. 5. There were many dis- 
ciples of Jesus in Judea, especially at the feasts. — "himprtaoiei, may 
see) at the feast, in Jerusalem. 

4. Keel trinT, and seeketh) An affirmative assertion, as is clear from 
the verb manifest [Thyself], which is inferred from this clause. iVb 
man includes in it every man and not : every man belongs to both 
parts of the sentence : not, to the former part ; in this sense, Every 
man, who doeth anything, doeth it not in secret, but so as that he 
seeks himself to be known openly. Kal, and, for but [and yet], as 
frequently. The figure Diasyrmus [teasing, as if He managed 
His affairs carelessly]. — aires,) himself; in antithesis to that, which 
he himself doeth : so, corresponding to this, (naurov. Thyself, follows 
in the next clause. — £/", if) This particle often has more, not less 
weight, than when? — Taxjra) these miracles, which Thou doest. — ra 
y-oa/jLu, to the world) to all. Seek a larger theatre of action, say 
they, especially at the feast time. 

5. Oli5e) not even : so few they were that believed ! Not except 
by Divine succours was faith in Jesus of Nazareth estabhshed : the 
very members of His family were opposed to Him. 

6.' UdvTOTi, always) There is no need that your time should 
come at last. 

7. 'O x6s,u,og, the world) concerning which [they had said], at ver. 4, 
" Show Thyself to the world." — ii//,a;, you) as being of the world. — 
i/i£. Me) Comp. v. 1, " The Jews sought to kill Him." — f/^iaiT, it 
liateth) So also men regard the followers of Christ either with the 
greatest love, or else with the greatest hatred. Those who please 

1 " Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." Beng. means, that after first requir- 
ing Him to go from Galilee into Judea to prove His Messiahship, when He had 
gone there, they sent Him back to Galilee, rejecting His claims, just because He 
had come from Galilee. — E. and T. 

^ Since, ti, joined to the Indicative.— E. and T. 

' oi/Tni), not yet) Jesus was aware that at the commencement of the feast, the 
hatred would be besides more violent than after an interval of some days.—Y. g. 

384 ST JOHN Vll. 8-12. 

all men at all times, ought deservedly to look on themselves with sus- 
picion.— /ia^rupS, / testify) The especial work of the Christ. It was 
thus He had testified, ch. v. 33-47.— ro^v«, evil) springing from 
the Evil One ; 1 John v. 19, " The whole world lieth in wicked- 
ness." [That the works of the world are evil, the men of the world 
themselves all confess ; hut there is no one that does not try to except 
himself. There is to he added the detestahle evil, hypocrisy ; namely, 
they wish to appear very far removed from hatred towards Jesus 
Christ.— V. g.] 

8. Oux, not) I do not now go up with you (ver. 10, When His 
brethren were gone up, then went He also up), as you advise, that I 
may he seen in the highway and in the city. For which reason He 
abode [still in Galilee], ver. 9. 'Ava^alm, I go up, is to be taken strictly 
in the present. Comp. ovk, not [= not yet], at Matt. xi. 11 [oix 
iyriyiprai — fiii^m 'ludnou], where also the past tense, ought to be 
understood in its strict sense. So oii, not, for ou'rrai, not yet, Mark vii. 
18, " Are ye so without understanding 1 Do ye not (yet) perceive 
that," etc. ; o'u voiTn on : comp. Matt. xv. 17 [where Beng. with Rec. 
Text reads oww. But BDZ read ou KOErj-s ori]. He who was not 
present on the first day of the feast, was likely to be thought not 
present at all. The Lord afterwards went up to the feast, but as it 
were incognito, and not so much to the feast, as to the temple; 
ver. 10, " not openly, but as it were in secret ;" 14, " Jesus went 
up into the temple and taught." There was now but one going up, 
in the proper sense, set before the Lord, namely, that at the passover 
of His passion : it is concerning this that He speaks in an enigma- - 
tical way. — 6 -/.aipog, time [season]) Wisdom observes carefully the 
[right] time. His speech at ver. 6, " My time is not yet come," 
refers to His time for going up to the feast ; but in this verse, as it 
seems, it refers to His time of suffering : comp. v. 30, " No man 
laid hands on Him, because His hour was not yet come." This 
journey to the Feast of Tabernacles was His last journey but one 
to Jerusalem. 

9. "E/jLiiviv, He abode) He did not wish to go up with those who 
were not believers : He did not, however, avoid attending the feast 
itself on account of them. 

10. 'Hff, as) This particle has here the force, not of comparing, 
but of declaring. 

11. 'Exe/jos, He [emphatic]) Truly no feast is a feast without 

12. Toyyudfiog, murmuring) Their speech not venturing to break 

ST JOHN Yir. 14-17. 335 

out into open expression on either side [for or against Him], 
Comp. ver. 13, " No man spake openly of Him for fear of the Jews." 
The same word is used, ver. 32, " The Pharisees heard that the 
people murmured such things concerning Him." — Iv roTg 'iyXoii — tuv 
Ix^"^^ *™ turbo, — turbas. So the Latin, interchanging the plural and 
singular number. ['Ev roTi oyjKon is the reading of BT and Eec. Text ; 
tSi 'ix>^v of Dabc Vulg. TJv o-/\ov in BDT Rec. Text ; ' populum,' ahc ; 
' turbas' in Vulg.J The plural agrees with the fact, that there was 
much murmuring : on this and on that side there was a number of 
persons speaking concerning Jesus. The singular agrees with the 
opinion as to His deceiving the rabble [mob]. — o'l, nome) from Galilee 
most especially, as is evident from the subsequent antithesis, of the 
Jews [ver. 13]. 

14. Msffojffjis, in the middle) This Feast of Tabernacles is described 
at large : The beginning of it at ver. 10, etc., the middle of it in 
this verse, and the end of it, ver. 37, " In the last day, that great 
day of the feast." The feasts were good opportunities for edifica- 
tion. — av'slSr), He went up) The first day of the feast had been the 
11th day of October, as I have observed in the Harmon. Evang, p. 
85 (Ed. ii. p. 140), and so the third day of the week [Tuesday] ; for 
on that twenty-ninth year of Dion, the Sunday letter was B. 
Therefore the Sabbath fell in the middle of the feast ; and on a Sab- 
bath day the audience was a crowded one, beyond that on all the 
other days of the middle of the feast, and His speech concerning the 
Sabbath was seasonable, ver. 22, " Ye on the Sabbath day circum- 
cise a man. If a man on the Sabbath, etc., are ye angry with Me 
because," etc. — e/s rJ hp6)i, into the temple) straightway, so as that He 
did not turn aside anyVhere else first."^ 

15. VfaiJ^ii^aTo., letters) i.e. [literary] studies. For He was teaching, 
ver. 14. — (i,^ /i£/ia^>jxu;, without having learned) He had had no occa- 
sion for a school. It was the very characteristic of the Messiah.^ 

16. Oux 'ieriv sfii}, is not Mine) not acquired by any labour on My 
part in learning. — roD •jri/jj-^avros /ji,e, who sent Me) For this reason, saith 
He, that I should learn after the manner of men : The Father 
hath taught Me: ch. viii. 28, "As My Father hath taught Me, I 
speak these things." 

17. 'Eau Tig, if any man) A most reasonable and most joyful con- 
dition. Understand therefore. The doctrine of the Father and the 

^ He made straight for the temple first of all. — E. and T. 
2 To teach and preach, without human "learning," as the anointed Prophet 
— E. and T. 

S?fl ST JOHN yii. 17. 

doctnne of the Son are one and the same. He, then, who is con- 
formed to the will of the Father, shall know of the doctrine of the Son. 
— 3eX^ — aiXjj^a, wills — the will) A sweet harmony. The heavenly 
will first stirs up [awakens] the human wUl : then next, the latter 
meets the former. — "hiXnf^a,, the will) known from the prophetic Scrip- 
tures. — mmv, do) A most solid method of gaining the knowledge of 
the truth.^ — yvasirai, he shall know) he wUl exert himself to know; 
or rather, he will attain to this, that he shall know ; comp. ch. viii. 
12, " He that followeth Me, shall not walk in darkness, but shall 
have the light of life ;" 28, 31, 32, " If ye continue in My word, 
then are ye My disciples indeed ; and ye shall know the truth ;" 

^ I cannot in this place but make some reply to those remarks which the celebr. 
D. Ernesti makes in the Bibl. tk. Noviss. T. II. p. 130, etc. No one truly ever 
denied that some knowledge of the truth is required in him whose will is to be bent 
to better things. For instance, in this very passage, which is at present under 
discussion, Christ appeals to His doctrine, which had been set before the Jews. 
But what, I would ask, was the cause that they were not able more fully to know 
and embrace it as divine ? Either I, for my part, have no discrimination at all, 
or else their perverse will was the hindrance that prevented them from, being able 
to progress farther in the knowledge of the Divine truth. I confess that I feel in 
no small degree distressed when I find that abuses are attributed to that sentiment, 
whereby it is believed that the knowledge of the truth is promoted by the exist- 
ence of a good will [to obey it]. Cceteris paribus, the will is no doubt emended 
by the knowledge of the truth. But that, in its turn, a more intimate access to 
the truth is thrown open by the obedience of the will, both this very declaration of 
the Divine Saviour, and the whole of Scripture besides, openly testify. That most 
established axiom, that " the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," is 
superior to all the subtlety of all the learned. Nor can I think that their design 
IS one to be laughed at, who profess that they are engaged in this or that style of 
writing with the view rather of bending the will (fiirs Herz, for the heart) than 
of informing the understanding (fiir den Verstand,/or the intellect). A greater 
or less degree o/" knowledge, to wit, being supposed, it is altogether possible to hap- 
pen, nay, even it ought to be the result, that the foolish in mind should he stirred 
up to weigh the momentous realities of truth, of which they were not altogether 
ignorant before, and to overcome in faith the obstacles in the way, by that declara- 
tion, " To Him that hath it is given." He who so lays out the first, as it were, 
stamina of knowledge, that he establishes it as a fixed principle with himself to 
obey God, will soon outstrip in the knowledge of the truth, so far as it con- 
duces to salvation, many who, however extensively learned, are unwilling to give 
themselves up as servants to God. Comp. not. on John vi. 69, x. 38. Nor 
am I ashamed to repeat that saying of Ambrose, "Do not understand, in order 
that you may believe, but believe, in order that you may understand. Under- 
standing is the reward [wages] of faith." Moreover with these remarks it will 
be of use now for the reader, who reverences God, to compare the remarks which 
our illustr. Lord Chanc., D. Beuss, has briefly hut spiritedly written in the Elem. 
Theol. Mor. c. v. § 23, etc E. B. 

ST JOHN VII. 18, 19. ,<537 

xii. 35, " Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon 
you ; for he that walk'eth in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth ;" 
45, X. 14, " I know My sheep, and am known of Mine ;" Matt. vii. 
24, " Whosoever heareth these sayings of Mine and doeth them, I 
will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock ;" 
1 Cor. viii. 3, " If any man love God, the same is known of Him." 
To know the ways of the Lord is the privilege of tho&e alone, who do 
righteousness. Isa. Iviii. 2, " They delight to know My ways as a 
nation that did righteousness." Comp. the future middle ■puieo/iai, 
ch. viii. 28, 32, xiii. 7, 35, xiv. 20 ; Eev. ii. 23. — ■:repl rng Ma-y^z, 
concerning the doctrine) The article has a relative force at ver. 16 
[)5 £/iii tida^^j the doctrine, which is Mine) ix, nu &io\j) from God and 
of God, ver. 16. 

18. 'o) Most sure characteristics. A syllogism; He who speaks 
of himself, seeketh his own glory, being untrue and unrighteous ; 
but Jesus doth not seek His own glory, but truly the glory of the 
Father, by whom He was sent. Therefore Jesus doth not speak of 
Himself, but is true and worthy of belief. — dSd So'^av roD '!ri/j,-^avTo;, 
the glory of Him, who sent) Two things are here included ; that He 
was sent ; and that He seeks the glory of Him, who sent Him. The 
latter is the test of the former. — olrog) he, and he only. — dX^j^^s) 
true, and to be esteemed as true. — aSixia, unrighteousness) falsehood ; 
comp. ver. 24 [Judge righteous judgment], true, righteous. 

19. Mudrig, Moses) whom ye believe. — ii/i/i', to you) not to me. — 
rh )i6f/,ov, the law) There is much mention of the Law made here ; 
ver. 23, 49, 51 ; appropriately so : for min nriDB', the joy of the law, 
completed in the public reading of it, is on the day following the 
last day of the Feast of Tabernacles.' The eighth day, according 
to the different points of view, in which it was regarded, was either 
part of the Feast of Tabernacles, or a distinct feast. The former 
is the view of it, which holds good in John : and in the same feast, 
every seventh year, the Law used to be read : Deut. xxxi. 10, " At 
the end of every seven years, in the solemnity of the year of 
release, in the Feast of Tabernacles, thou shalt read this law before 
all Israel, in their hearing." — oi^s/s, none) Ye assaU Me as guilty of 

1 This name, " The Joy of the Law," was given to the festival celebrated on 
the day after the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles. See Vitringa Synag. 
Vet. p. 1003. Comp. Nehem. viii. 17, 18. On the feast of tabernacles « there 
was very great gladness. And day by day, from the first day to the last day, he 
read in the book of the law of God. And they kept the feast seven days : and 
on tlie eighth day was a solemn assembly according unto the manner. — E. and T. 

VOL. II. "i' 

338 ST JOHN VII. 20-32. 

violating the law, ver. 21, etc. But yet ye all violate it. — rl [it, 
why me) as though I had violated the Sabbath. — ^yiriTn, ye seek) 
Ye seek to kill Me. Therefore ye fulfil not the law. Therefore ye 
do not the will of God. Therefore ye cannot reach the knowledge 
of My doctrine, because ye are altogether unlike Me, and hate Me. 

20. Ka;' ilite, and said) At Jerusalem there seem to have been 
some lying in wait to kill Him, and others to have known the fact ; 
ver. 25, " Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this He^ 
whom they seek to kill?" and those who speak here seem to have 
been farther removed from these, and yet not at heart better. Jesus 
shows that He has a deeper knowledge of them, and He penetrates 
them with this ray [of His omniscience]. — 8ai/i6viov sx^is, thou hast a 
demon) The foulest formula of revihng. Possessed, mad. They 
think, that the hidden design to murder Him could not have become 
known to Jesus Himself except through an evil spirit. 

21. "Ev, one) out of countless works, which ye know not [viz. tlie 
miracle in the case of the man at the pool of Bethesda. — V. g.] — 
ivolrioa, I have done) on the Sabbath, ver. 23. — xal, and) Involves a 
relative force ; I have done one work, which ye all wonder at. Since 
in the case of none other work of Mine ye perceive anything to 
censure ; ye ought to have formed a favourable opinion of this one 
work also. — ^aufjud^en, ye marvel) accompanied with doubt. Such 
a marvelling, as in Acts ii. 7, 12, " They were all amazed and mar- 
velled, saying — Behold, are not all these which speak GaUlseans? 
And — they were in doubt." 

22. Aid. TovTo, on this account) This is presently after explained by 
the 011-^ on, to wit, not because : Comp. ch. viii. 47 [Ye therefore hear 
not — God's words — because ye are not of God; dia, tovto-Sti] ; x. 17, 
" Tlierefore doth My Father love Me, because." A similar expres- 
sion occurs, Mark xii. 24, " Do ye not therefore err, because ye know 
not the Scriptures," when the force of the particle 6V; is hidden in 
the participle [/4^ i'lioTis]. — bibmiv, gave) Gen. xvii. [10 ; circumci- 
sion given as seal of the covenant between God and Abraham]. 
Ex. xii. 44, " Every man's servant — when thou hast circumcised 
him, shall eat of the passover. Lev. xii. 3, " In the eighth day the 
flesh of the foreskin — of every man-child, shall be circumcised]. — 
oup^ irl, not because) By this clause the dignity of circumcision is 
exalted, in respect to the Sabbath, than which it is older and there- 
fore entitled to take the precedence.'^ 

1 i.e. Than the Jewish Sabhath ; but the primitive Sabbath was instituted in 
Paradise, and is therefore ages older than circumcision. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN VII. 23, 24. 33« 

23. "Iva /i^, <7tai not) but that,^ so that the law maj not be broken ; 
or else, witbout the law being broken thereby. — i vofiog Moieiai;, the 
law of Moses) the law concerning the Sabbath, which is not violated 
by circumcision being performed on it. — J/io;', at me) as if I have 
broken the law concerning the Sabbath. — x"^"'") '^'"'^ V^ <^'"'9'''y) 
XoAos in Homer, as Eustathius observes, denotes also a lasting anger. 
This anger of the Jews had lasted- now for sixteen months ; but it 
blazed out with a new paroxysm, when they saw Jesus. — oXok, the 
whole [man, body and soul. Eng. Vers. diflPerently " every whit 
whole," oXov ;<'//»)]) It is not the whole body of the man, which is 
opposed to that part, which is circumcised ; for a consequence, in 
the case of an adibission, does not proceed from less to greater, in 
this way, It is lawful to circumcise a part, therefore it is lawftd to 
cure the whole body. But it is the whole man, body and soul, ch. 
V. 14," whose healing is a benefit much greater, and, so much more 
becoming the Sabbath and sanctioned by the law, than the external 
act of circumcision regarded by itself, or even circumcision, even 
though it should be regarded as a sacrament. For circumcision is 
a mean : healing of the soul is an end. [Besides circumcision is 
accomplished not without a wound ; healing therefore is more in 
accordance with the Sabbath. — V. g.] — JTo/jjifa, I liave made) auroxpu- 
Topmug, by supreme power. 

24. Mri -uphiTi y.aT o^)//!', aXKa Trii dixalav xplsiv xphare, judge not 
according to the appearance, but judge true judgment) On that Sab- 
bath, which fell among the days of the Feast of Tabernacles (the 
Sabbath moreover had fallen this year on the .fifth day of the feast), 
there used to be read the book Ecclesiastes, a great portion of which is 
this very precept as to avoiding superficial judgment and holding to 
right judgment. [It is also judging according to appearance, or 
{what is the same) according to the flesh ; ch. viii. 15, " Ye judge 
after the flesh," when the letter is taken independently of the (spiritual) 
sense. Christ Himself judges according to truth. Isa. xi. 3, 4, 
" He shall not judge after the sight of His eyes, neither reprove 
after the hearing of His ears. But with righteousness shall He judge 
the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth." — 
V. g.] — r^v) The judgment that is true, is one.' This is the force of 
the article. 

' Quin, " whereby not ;" to prfevent the law being broken. — E. and T. 
' "Behold thou axt maie whole ; sin no more." Implying a healing of tlie 
soul as well as body. — E. and T. 

' VVhilst false judgments are many, — E. and T. 

340 ST JOHN Vtl. 25-28. 

25. 'lipoiso\v,u,iTuv, of the people of Jerusalem) who knew what, was 
going on in the city. 

26. nappnala, freely) Ps. xl. 10, " I have not hid Thy righteous- 
ness within my heart ; I have declared Thy faithfulness and Thy 
salvation ; I have not concealed Thy loving-kindness and Thy truth 
from the great congregation." — aXjj^w?, truly) The people might 
have doubted, whether the rulers would affirm, that Jesus is the 
Christ ; but withdrawing themselves from this doubt, the people 
begin to affirm concerning that [supposed] affirmation. — 'iyvaeav, 
have they known) in mind, and by word of mouth. [The aXriSSi; 
before o Xpisrog in the Rec. Text is omitted in BDLTabc Vulg.] 

27. 'AXXa, [howbeit], but) They believed in human authority, in 
rejecting . Christ : they notwithstanding do not believe in human 
authority, in acknowledging Christ. Here may be observed the 
Jewish prejudices. The reasoning of the Jews was to this effect ; 
the Christ has an unknown parentage ; Jesus has not an unknown 
parentage : therefore Jesus is not the Christ. The Lord answers at 
ver. 28, " Ye both know Me, and ye know whence I am ; and I am 
not come of Myself," etc. — toZtov o78a/jbsv, we know this man) ch. vi. 
42, " Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother 
we know." — o'jdils, no man) That really happened in the case of this, 
the true Messiah. Foil, v., " He that sent Me is true, whom ye 
know not." Ch. ix. 29, " "We know that God spake unto Moses, but 
as for this fellow, toe know not from whence He is." For not even 
now did they know His country. Ver. 42, " Hath not the Scrip- 
ture said. That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the 
town of Bethlehem ?" when in fact Jesus was born at Bethlehem.^ 
l_Some one may fancy, that it is an idle question, whether the circum- 
stances of the birth of Christ be known or unknown ; but a false 
opinion on a very slight point was in fact sufficient to prove the 
greatest obstacle to faith. One may observe the same result in the case 
of various unsound maxims, by which the world suffers itself to be 
held in bondage. — V. g.J 

28. "Ex/!ag£v, cried) with great earnestness, for the salvation of 
men ; also on account of the great number of His auditors. Christ 
cried by no means often ; Matt. xii. 19, " He shall not strive, nor 
cry, neither shall any man hear His voice in the streets ;" For 
which reason the cries, which He did utter, had a weighty cause in 
each instance. See presently after ver. 37, " In the last day— of 

1 And no*, in Galilee as they supposed. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN VII. 29-32. 341 

the feast, Jesus stood and cried, If any man thirst, let him come to 
Me and drink ;" xi. 43, " He cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, 
come forth ;" xii. 44, " Jesus cried and said, " He that telieveth 
on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me ;" Heb. v. 7, 
" When He had offered up prayers and supplications, with strong 
crying and tears, unto Him that was able to save Him from death ;" 
Matt, xxvii. 50, " Jesus, when He had cried again with a loud 
voice, yielded up the ghost." — xa/^e, both me) There are persons, who 
suppose irony to be employed here : but you will never find an 
instance of our Lord having employed irony. The speech of the 
Jews had had two parts, this man and the Christ : in reply to which 
at ver. 27, the speech of our Lord has also two parts, the " both 
Me," " and [I am not come] of Myself." The former makes a con- 
cession, and leaves the question of knowledge concerning Jesus and 
His birth, regarded from an external point of view, in some measure 
where he found it ; for His wont is never Himself to bring it for- 
ward; comp. 2 Cor. v. 16, " Though we have known Christ after 
the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more ;" but He 
denies that they have a just [correct] knowledge of Himself as sent 
by the Father ; comp. ver. 33, etc., " I go unto Him that sent 
Me ;" and ver. 36, " What manner of saying is this that He said, 
Ye shall seek Me and shall not find Me, and where I am, thither ye 
cannot come ;" chap. viii. 14, " Ye cannot tell whence I come, and 
whither I go." — xat d-Tr" sfiavrou) and yet I am not come of Myself, 
as ye suppose. — aXriMs, true) This truth is of more consequence 
than that truly ; " Do the rulers know truly that this is the Christ 1" 
— 01) v/ji^iTs ovx o'i&are, whom ye know not) We must understand after 
this the clause which follows, that I am from Him, and that He has 
sent Me. The very demand of the Jews concerning Christ, ex- 
pressed at ver. 27, was reahzed in Jesus, " When Christ cometh, 
no man knoweth whence He is." 

29. nap' auTou i'lfii, I am from Him) This denotes eternal gene- 
ration ; from which follows as a consequence His mission [His being 
sent]. There are two points marked : . the first is to be refeiTed to 
[Ye know] both me, the second to the whence [I am]. / am, in this 
verse and in the preceding, is to be referred to the is, which occurs 
twice in ver. 27, " We know this man, whence He is, but when 
Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is." 

30. OMta, not yet) ch. viii. 20. 

32. o; ^apidam xal o'l apxi^pitg) See App. Crit.,Ed. ii. on this pas- 
sage, Tlie 45th verse refers to this ; where the Latin translator 

S42 ST JOHN VII. 33, 34. 

himself bas " ad pontifices et Pharisseos." [So BDLTXc "Vulg. 
here, ol apy^npiTg %a,l o'l ^apieaToi. But a has the reading of the Kec. 
Text.] The Pharisees are placed first [Beng. reading as the Eec. 
Text] in ver. 32 ; for these were more bitter, and it was by means 
of them that the chief priests were instigated. 

33. 'En, as yet) He continues the discourse, which they had 
interrupted after ver. 29. 

^34. ZnTha^ri ij,i, ye shall seek Me) Me, whom ye now see, and 
despise. These words are a kind of text, on which the discourses 
of this and the following chapter are built as a superstructure ; 
ch. viii. 21, "I go My way, and ye shall seek Me, and shall die in 
your sins ; whither I go, ye cannot come," etc. Such a text occurs 
also, ch. xvi. 16, "A little while, and ye shall not see Me, and 
again a little while and ye shall see me, because I go to the Father." 
— xat m-^^ eiprisiTi, and ye shall not find Me) Afterwards He speaks 
more sternly, " ye shall die in your sin" ch. viii. 21. — oorou, whither) 
namely, to heaven : ch. iii. 13, " No man hath ascended up to 
heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the Son of Man, 
which is in heaven." The Lord sometimes put forth a discourse of 
such a nature, as that a meaning of it, in some degree, was, for the 
time being, apparent to His hearers : the deeper meaning became 
so subsequently. ComJ). with this passage ch. xiii. 33, " Yet a 
little while, I am with you. Ye shall seek Me ; and as I said unto 
the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come, so now I say to you." 
Such a discourse also occurs, ch. xiii. 16, " The servant is not 
greater than his lord." Comp. ch. xv. 20. 

34, 36. Ef/x;, / go) Very many read £;>/, I am? By all means I 
grant, the Saviour says, iJwou £/>/' iyu, in ch. xii. 26, xiv. 3, xvii. 24, 
in which passages there follows larai, rin, usi. But here oVou iT/ii i/w 
ought to be read, because here there follow kXkTv, and mpsieeSa,!, and 
the Lord, in repeating [to His disciples] this statement, addressed to 
the Jews, saith wdya, ch. viii. 21, xiii. 33. Also tT/j,i is employed 
in prose, by the Septuag., Exod. xxxii. 26, /'™ cr^o's /is, Prov. vi. 6, 
'I'h nrph Tiiv /liip/itjxa. Plato has 'i(i>f/,iv in the Phsedrus, in the last part, 
and Chrysost. ■jrspl ilpag., 1. vi. c. 12, p. 348, ed. Stutg. Camerarius 
notes down instances from Thucydides and Xenophon, in his 

' fiixpou xpovou, a little time) It proved to be truly so ; for hardly the half of a 
year elapsed from this discourse to the time of His passion. — Hwrm., p. 356. 

2 Engl. Vers. "Where I am." The "Versions acd Memph. render it go: 

which ch. xiii. 33, oVou virayu, seems to favour. But Vulg. "ubisum." 

E. and T. 

ST JOHN VII. 85-37. 343 

Comm. utr. Linguae," p. 452. Add Herodian. It was necessary 
to make this remark, inasmuch as tlfLi is rejected, as a poetical 
form, by some. Nor indeed is this observation an unprofitable one. 
Whither I go, was the language of our Lord, when He was some- 
what farther off from the time of His departure : where I am, was 
His language, on the very week of His passion, among His very 
last words. All the passages lately pointed out prove this distinc- 
tion in the selection of His phraseology ; nor is the passage, John 
xiii. 33, 36 [where, though it was His last passion week, whither I 
go, and not where lam, is used], opposed to this view ; for at ver. 33 
His former speech to the Jews is quoted ; and at ver. 36 the refer- 
ence is to the question of Peter, Lord, whither goest thou ? 

35. llou, whither) More unseasonably they afterwards say, Wliether 
toill He Mil Himself? ch. viii. 22. — diaampdv) So the Septuag., 
Deut. xxviii. 25 [sap diasiroi>& h -Ttdeaig fiadiXiiaig rrig ym, thou shalt 
be a dispersion — a dispersed remnant — among all the kingdoms of 
the earth] xxx. 4.- — tuv ''EXKrimv, of the Greeks) in other words, the 
Jews outside of Palestine. They think that they will drag Him 
forth to the light by means of letters, wherever throughout the world 
He may take His dwelling among Jews. 

36. Ouros 6 Xliyog, this saying) They the more readily retain in 
memory His saying, as moulded in rhythm. Comp. ch. xvi. 17, 
The disciples, " What is this that He saith unto us, A little while, 
and ye shall not see Me, and again a little while, and ye shall see 
me ; and because I go to the Father." 

37. ' 'E.<!-)(arri, in the last) This was the seventh day : not the eighth, 
inasmuch as it was one which had its own proper feast. See F. B. 
Dachs, ad cod. Succa, p. 373 ; comp. p. 357, 405. This seventh 
day was an especially solemn one in the Feast of Tabernacles ; Lev. 
xxiii.^34, 36, " On the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto 
you ; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord ; it 
is a solemn assembly ; and ye shall do no servile work therein ;" 
Num. xxix. 12, " On the fifteenth day of the seventh month," the 
Feast of Tabernacles began, etc. ; Neh. viii. 18, " Day by day, 
from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the law 
of God ; and they kept the feast seven days, and on the eighth day 
was a solemn assembly." 2 Chron. vii. 8, " Solomon kept the feast 
seven days, and aU Israel with him, a very great congregation, from 
the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt ; and in the 
eighth day they made a solemn assembly," etc. Jesus also Himself 
made this day a great day; nor was there remaining before the 

344 ST JOHN VII. 87, 38. 

passion of the Lord another such day of so great solemnity, and 
celebrated by so large a crowd. He therefore availed Himself of 
the opportunity^).— fa'f ng ii-i^q., if any man thirst'^) An apposite 
expression, even [independently of other reasons] on account of 
that rite, when on that last day of the feast they were wont to draw 
water from the fountain of Siloah, and to pour it in libation upon 
the altar of the whole burnt-offering. See Surenhus. de Alleg., 
V. T., p. 354. [To thirst is the first distinguishing mark of a soul 
panting for salvation, and a most sure characteristic of such a one. — 
V. g.] — Ipx^sSa, let Mm come) Eev. xxii. 17, " The Spirit and the 
bride say, Come. — And let him that is athirst come. And whoso- 
ever will, let him take the water of life freely." 

°37, 38. 'Eav Tig di-^^, ip^esSca irpog /is, %al irhiru' o msriumv ii; s//^t, 
xa,diig iTirev fj yfapjj, -jroTa/ihi Ix Trig xoiXiag auTov pivsovsiv udarog ?^oJVTog) A 
new and plausible punctuation is proposed, idv Tig bf^a, IpyigSa ■irpog 
fiv xal muToi o 'iridTivuv I'lg s/i'e' xaSiig iTtsv, x.t.X. But the XiaBfuog 

' The antitypes to the Passover and Pentecost were realized in the sacrifice 
of Christ, and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at Jerusalem before the entire 
abolition of types. Thus also in this passage it is permitted to us to observe an 
antitype to the Feast of Tabernacles, which the Saviour enlightened with such a 
splendour of His own glory, repeating at Jerusalem that remarkable promise, 
Zech. xiv. (ver. 18, 17, which points to Jerusalem ; [the Lord will smite the 
heathen that come not up to worship at the feast of tabernacles ; whoso will not 
come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the 
Lord of Hosts, even upon them shall be no rain]), and soothing the minds of 
believers by the very abundant fulfilment of it, then to be so immediately looked 
for. — Harm., p. 354, etc. 

' There are not wanting persons who, in the present day, think that His speech 
in this passage refers to the miraculous gifts of those who received the apostolic 
doctrine. (See D. Ernesti Bibl. theol. Noviss. T. i. p. 791.) Nor truly can 
any one maintain with good reason that these gifts are not referred to : Oomp. 
ver. 39, etc., " The Holy Ghost was not yet given," etc. Yet I should be sorry to 
think, that this universal and most solemn promise should be so restricted, as 
that you must think, that those gifts of the Holy Spirit are excluded, which every 
soul that is weary of vanity thirsts for. In fact the passage Zech. xiv. 8, " It 
shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem," compared 
with xiii. 1, " In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of 
David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, /or sin and for uncleanness,'' not ob- 
scurely teaches, that those gifts of the Spirit are at least at the same time implied, 
of which every one hath need, in order that he may be brought to a real state of 
rest, and a better life. — E. B. 

2 x,a,\ irUiTic, and let him drinh) The whole matter must be brought to this 
deduction. Many cbme to Jesus ; but they are wanting to their own selves, so 
as to prevent their enjoying the most delightful fruition itself, which otherwise 
would follow upon their drawing nigh to Him. — V. g. 

ST JOHN VII. 38. 846 

would be rather harsh, let him that thirsteth come : let him that helieveth 
drink. In the present punctuation the sense remains unbroken, and 
flows spontaneously, thus : If any man thirst, let him come to Me, and 
He shall drink ; he that believeth on Me shall he fully satisfied out of 
My abundance. Comp. ch. vi. 35, " I am the bread of life : he that 
Cometh to Me shall never hunger ; and He that believeth on Me 
shall never thirst." An imperative after an imperative has the 
force of a future, as presently at ver. 52, epiuvrjuov 'Ihi, search and 
you shall see. Nor is the construction of the succeeding words 
thereby injured. The Subject is. He who believes on Me : the Pre- 
dicate is, As the Scripture hath said, Rivers of living water shall flow 
out of his belly. Only the copula, is, or rather shall be^ needs to 
be supplied, almost in the same way as at ch. vi. 39, xvii. 2, " As 
Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, that He should give 
eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him, so it is ;" Luke 
xxi. 6, roAjra, a. '^itapiTri, iXiligovTai rif/jipai b aJg, x.r.X. \i.e, " These 
things" are of such a kind " that the days shall come," etc.] But in 
this passage the sentence is continued by means of the Quotation, 
and the Believer is compared to the Lord Himself of believers, con- 
cerning whom the promise treats. 

38. 'O merihm lis s/^E; He that believeth on Me) To believe is not 
parallel to the verb, to thirst, but to the verb, to come ; ch. vi. 35. 
To this refer the they that believe of the following verse. — /atos ihit 
ri 'ypa,<pr}, as the Scripture hath said) Scripture hath many things 
as to the promise of the Holy Spirit, under the figure of water : 
Isa. xii. 3, " Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells 
of salvation ;" Iv. i. 3, " Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the 
waters — Incline your ear and come unto Me ; hear, and your soul 
shall live ;" Ezek. xlvii. 1, etc., " Behold waters issued out from 
under the threshold of the house eastward ;" ver. 9, " Every thing 
that liveth, which moveth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall 
live ;" Joel ii. 23, " Rejoice in the Lord your God ; for He hath 
given you the former rain moderately, and He will cause to come 
down for you the rain, the former rain, and the latter rain ;" which 
Jesus in this passage expresses in words adapted to the present oc- 
casion. But most especially pertinent to this passage is that one oi 
Zech. xiv. 8, s^iXiUiTai v6ap t,Zv Ig 'lipovsa-Kv/j,, x.r.X, " Living waters 
shall go out from Jerusalem :" for that very chapter of Zechariah 
had been read in public, as the Haphtara [portion selected for the 

1 " As the Scripture hath said," etc., so it shall be. — E. and T. 

:Hr ST JOHN VII. 39-45. 

Lesson], on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles, which Jesus, 
when He had come in the middle of the time of the feast, on the 
last day of it repeats at Jerusalem. He had not been present at 
the reading on the first day : He had not been taught letters, ver. 
15, "How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?" there- 
fore His quotation of the Lesson read ought to have had the more 
effect on His hearers. — ■■/.oiXlac, belli/) p3, the inmost recess, most ca- 
pacious and most fruitful. The allusion is to the large jars in which, 
on the last day of that feast, water used to be borne from the foun- 
tain Siloah through the city to the sanctuary ; for they had a large 
belly-like interior. — aurou, Bis) Messiah's. This is the fountain 
out of whose abundant y?oio believers receive, ver. 39. — vdarog ^ZvTog) 
vdup ?^uv, Zech. as quoted above. 

39. E;Ve, Me spake) Jesus. — o'u'?ra yap ^v, for not yet was) To be, 
for to be present : Matt. ii. 18, " Eachel weeping for her children, — 
because they are not" [i.e. are no more present with her'] ; Gen. xhi. 
36, " Joseph is not, and Simeon is not.'' Comp. by all means 2 
Chron. XV. 3.' The yap is to be referred to s/x,iXXov, and this to the 
future piuaouciiii. 

42. Ou^!, Hath not) And yet indeed this very prophecy was 
realised in the person of Jesus. Wliy had they not turned their 
attention to it ? especially as they were admonished of the fact. 
Matt. ii. 1, etc. Thirty-two years were not a time beyond memory, 
especially as there intervened in His twelfth year a new admonition, 
Luke ii. 42 [His sitting among the doctors in the temple, and asto- 
nishing them with His understanding and answers]. — a-rJ B^S\ii/i, 
from Bethlehem) This John takes for granted as known from the 
other evangelists respecting Jesus. 

43. 2x'V/ia, a division) So ch. ix. 16, "Some of the Pharisees 
said. This man is not of God, because He keepeth not the Sabbath 
day. Others said. How can a man that is a sinner do such mi- 
racles 1 And there was a division among them ;"' x. 19. A divi- 
sion is generally of a manifold character; on one dogma, or on 
many dogmas : and of good men from bad men, or else of the bad 
from the good, or of the good from the good, or of the bad from the 

45. 'Eximi, they the [former]) the chief priests, whom at ver. 47 the 
Pharisees interrupt. 

1 « Now for a long season Israel hath been without the true God," i.e. not 
that God was not with any one Israelite, but He was not speeiaUy and manifestly 
present with them. So as to the Holy Ghost here E. and T. 

ST JOHN VII. 46-52, 847 

4G. "cig, as) A characteristic of truth, convincing even ordinary 
unlearned men, rather than their masters. [Not seldom the more 
untutored come to feel the effectual power of Christ s word more rea- 
dily than the most sagacious. — V.g.] 

48. Mri Tig, whether has any) This is their inference : Men ought 
not to beheve in Him, in whom the rulfers do not behave. Zealots 
of the present day, especially the Eomanists, use a similar mode of 
reasoning and blustering. — i% rm OapisaTm, of the Pharisees) hnowing 
the law, they mean.' 

49. Ouros, this) This vi^ord is employed to express contempt. — • 
rlv vofiov, the law) Often the law denotes among the Hebrews what 
we express by the Bible ; 1 Cor. ix. 8, " Say I these things as a 
man 1 Saith not the law the same also f-^lmxardpaToi, accursed) 
The blustering on the part of these wretched men was great : 
whence arises the Metonymy of antecedent and consequent [substi- 
tuting the former, when they mean the latter : and vice versd^ : i.e. 
they are accursed ; [therefore it results that] they believe in Him, 
[and so] they remain accursed. 

50. Aiyei, saith) Often those who had been timid where there 
was no danger, in the very crisis of danger prove to be defenders of 
the truth. [Comp. ch. xix. 39 (after the crucifixion, when others 
stood aloof), " Then came Nicodemus, which at the first came to 
Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about 
an hundred pound weight."] — iTg lliv, who was one) This clause is 
connected with saith. 

51. 'O vo'/Aos) the law, which ye suppose that ye alone know: ver. 
49, " This people, that knoweth not the law, is accursed." — xpmi, 
iudge) that is, teach us to judge. — t6v av6pa'?rov, a man) any one what- 
ever, and this man.— ajcouff?;, it shall have heard) Understand, he 
luho judges. [This rule, that a man should be heard before he is 
^udged, has so strong evidence in its favour, that it is obvious even to 
a little child ; notwithstanding men of the highest authority frequently 
offend against it. A considerable 'part of the injustice with which 
the world abounds, if these considerations were rightly weighed, would 
he banished out of it. And truly nowhere are such considerations 
less attended to, than in cases where the cause of Christ is at stake. 

-V. g.] 

52. Mil, whether) They feel sensible of the equity of his address 
to them ; for which reason they make no reply to it : they only out 

' As opposed to this people, who knoweth not the law, ver. 49 — E. and T. 

548 ST JOHN VII. 53.-Yin. 1-11. 

of the conclusion itself create odium against Nicodemus, and they 
assail him, as though all the disciples of Jesus were Galileans, aud 
as if He had none from any other quarter. — /i)5 xa,l eii VaXiXaTog eT;) 
So the Lat. [Vulg.] : and that according to the mind of the Phari- 
sees. The more modern Greek copies seem to have fastened on in 
rrii TaXiXaiag, instead of TaXiXaTog, from the words following imme- 
diately after. [Vulg. and ac have ' Galilseus.' But BDT confirm the 
Rec. Text, Jx rJjs TaXiXala;.] — xal 'Ibi) and see, i.e. you will see most 
easily. They appeal to experience, which however was not uni- 
versal. [The hackneyed formula recurs to them afresh (comp. ver. 
27, " When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is") ; which, 
however unimportant it might seem, to be, when employed for sinister 
ends, was the occasion of causing them signal injury. Out of the 
amazing multitude of those who perish, you would hardly find any 
one who does not put a drag on the effectual working of saving truth 
in him,self, owing to his being carried away by one or other wptirio 
•vJ/euSe; (falsehood at the outset). — V. g.] 

53. Ka,i a<!rri\Sov 'ixaffrog iig rbv oJxov avrou) Ant. Blackwall de 
Classicis Sacris, p. 497, ed. Woll., is of opinion, that these words 
ought to form the beginning of the chapter next following. If any 
change is to be made, you might end the 7th chapter with rZv 'EXa/cJn 
[ch. viii. 1], of Olives, in order that the conclusions of the days in 
the action, and of the divisions in the text, may coincide. A matter 
of trifling moment ; but yet the ancient division is most conveniently 
retained, in order that the departure of Jesus to the mount of Olives 
may be connected closely with His entry into the temple on the fol- 
lowing day. 


1-11. 'Iijffous de — xa! /ijjxsr/ a//,dp7a\ii) The wisdom and effectual 
power which Jesus evinced in the history of the adulteress are so 
great, that it is strange this remarkable portion of the Gospel 
history should be accounted by many in the present day as un- 
certain. It is also omitted in the Codex Ebnerianus, but only from 
verse 3 ; and at the end of the Gospel according to John it is so 
supplied, and attached to verse 2, that it is readily apparent, that 
the transcribers removed only from public reading this portion. 

ST JOUN VIII. 2-S. 349 

which they acknowledged as genuine. In the book, Joh. Lami de 
Eruditione Apostolorum, describing the Florentine Greek manu- 
script of the four Evangelists, he says, ^ In the Gospel of John, 
Iambic verses were written in the end. There comes first an index of 
the nineteen chapters'. The tenth chapter had been omitted, and, out of 
the regular order, in the front, there was recounted mpl tLmyaXihoi, 
concerning the Adulteress, whose history is extant in the Gospel 
itself. The writing is of the twelfth century.^ — P. 230.^ — impiuiri, went) 
as one who had no ho7ne. Comp. ch. vii. 53, " Every man went 
unto his own house." — iSg to opog ruv 'EXalm, to the mount of Olives) 
to that mountain, in which they were afterwards about to take Him ; 
ch. xviii. 2, " Judas also, which betrayed Him, knew the place ; for 
Jesus oft-times resorted thither with His disciples ;" whereas they 
had only made the attempt, but in vain, at ch. vii. 30. 

2. napeyiuTo, was coming) as being expected. — i&l&aiSKiv, He was 
teaching) On this account His interrupters were the more intrusive : 
ver. 3. 

3. KariiKrif/j/iiVt))!) tJ'Sri, Septuag. xaraXa^jSai/s/i/* but at Num. V. 
1 3, and more frequently, evXXa/ijSavuv. 

4. AidadJiaXi, teacher [Master]) The reason [is implied in the 
title by which they address Him], why they require Him to give 
His decision. — kwauTopuipa), in the very act) Such scandalous acts are 
frequently perpetrated about the time offcasts. Comp. ch. vii. 37. 
What follows also confirms the truth of this history, as at ver. 12, 
the mention of the darkness, " He that followeth Me, shall not walk 
in darkness" when this verse is compared with it, inasmuch s^s 
treating of adultery, a work of darkness; and at ver. 15, concerning 
judgment, "T& judge' after the flesh, T judge no man," comparing 
with it ver. 11, '^Neither do I condemn thee." 

5. Adal^iiv, to stone) [D and the best versions read KiSal^nv, in- 
stead of XiSo^oXeTaSai]. Either this woman was betrothed, or else the 
expression of the Scribes and Pharisees is abbreviated, with this 
sense : Moses ordered, that adulteresses should be visited with capital 
punishment ; Deut. xxii. 22, etc., " If a man be found lying with a 
woman married, then they shall both die; — If a damsel — be betrothed, 
and a man lie with her, then — ye shall stone them with stones," etc. ; 
and our ancestors [elders] have defined that punishment to be 

1 The passage is omitted by ABCT MSS. of the oldest class, LXA ; by the 
Old Latin Cod. Vercellensis, the Peshito Syriac, the Memphitic, and Thebaic ; 
by Origen and Chrysostom. D is the oldest MS. that has it ; also the Old Latin 
Cod. Veronensis ; the "Vulgate ; the .Slthiopic— E. and T. 

350 RT JOHN vm. 6. 

stoning. See Grot, on this passage. — olv, therefore) This particle 
exhibits their question as more framed to entrap Him, than if they 
had openly said, but. 

6. To accuse) of having violated the law. They were aware of 
the leniency of Jesus towards the guilty, as being one who had not 
come into the world for the sake of executing judgment. — Se, hut) 
Men at leisure, when immersed in thought, are wont at times to em- 
ploy various gestures, which also resemble those of persons writing ; 
and omit these gestures, when anything serious occurs. Very 
different is the gesture which the Saviour uses here, upon the case 
having been now submitted to Him by the Scribes and Pharisees ; 
and this He does more than once. — xarw au-^ag, ra 3a;criiXw sy^apev 
iig T^v yijv, stooping downwards, He began writing with His finger on 
the earth) Once only God wrote in the Old Testament, namely, the 
Decalogue ; once too, in the New Testament, Christ wrote : more- 
over He wrote with His finger ; for He who was Wisdom itself did 
not use a pen [stilus | : also He wrote on the earth, not in the air, 
not in a tablet ; He wrote, in other words, drew, either the forms 
of letters composing words, perhaps the very words which are 
mentioned at ver. 7, " He that is without sin among you, let him 
first cast a stone at her;" or else lines and strokes, not having a 
distinct signification ; the characters in either case, when His finger 
rested, either remaining or disappearing. Comp. Dan. v. 5, [At 
Belshazzar's feast] " came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote 
over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall of the 
king's palace." Writing is wont to be used with a view to fiiture 
remembrance. Therefore this action seems evidently to require to 
be interpreted from the words that follow, that the Lord may 
signify this : Moses wrote the law : I also can write ; nay, the 
law of Moses was My writing. Ye, Scribes, write judgments 
against others ; I also can write against you, ver. 26, " I have many 
things to say and to judge of you." Your sins have been written 
in your heart; and your names in the earth: Jer. xvii. 1, 13, 
" The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point 
of a diamond ; it is graven upon the table of their heart ; — they that 
depart from Me, shall be written in the earth, because they have 
forsaken the Lord." (What suppose that He wrote the names of the 
accusers?) This writing of Mine ye do not now understand ; but 
hereafter it will be made evident to the whole world what I have 
written, when the books shall be opened, and your foul acts shall 
all be disclosed. Therefore Jesus, first, by means of this silent 


action fixed the wandering, hasty, and careless thoughts of His 
aaversaries, and awakened their conscience; second. He intimated, 
that He at that time had not come to deKver forensic judgments ; 
and that He preferred to do that, which would seem to the unsea- 
sonable accusers an idle act, to devoting His attention to a case 
of that kind (it is to this that the ancient Gloss refers, " Ho wrote 
on the earth, (in 'H'pos'jroiovfjiivog, signifying that this business does not 
belong to Him ;" instead of which more modern copies have xa! 
'!Tpog'!roiou//,ivo?) ; that the time when He Himself shall act as Judge, 
as well with respect to this case, and to these the actors in it, as 
also with respect to all men, the unjust and just, and that, con- 
cerning all things, is not now, but shall be hereafter ; that in the 
meantime all things are recorded in the books ; that hereafter the 
earth will not cover the foul deeds of hypocrites. Isa. xxvi. 21, 
" Behold, the Lord cometh out of His place to punish the inhabi- 
tants of the earth for their iniquity ; the earth also shall disclose 
her blood, and shall no more cover her slain ;" Job xvi. 18, " O 
earth, cover not thou my blood." For writing is wont to be em- 
ployed for the sake of remembrance against the time to come : Exod. 
xvii. 14, " Write this /or a memorial in a book;" Ps. cii. 18, "This 
shall be written for the generation to come." Evidently this action 
of Jesus Christ has a certain degree of likeness to that ceremony, 
which was wont to be employed in the case of an adulterous woman : 
Num. v. 13, 17, 23, etc. [the trial of jealousy by holy water with 
dust in it from the floor of the sanctuary] : " And the priest shall 
write these curses in a book, and shall blot them out with bitter 
•water :" but there is also a dissimilarity ; for the law refers to the 
case of a woman suspected, but this passage, to that of a woman 
caught in the act ; and in the law, the woman drinks the letters 
written by the priest in a book, and washed out with water, to- 
gether with the [bitter] water and dust from the ground ; but the 
letters which Jesus wrote on the earth itself, the woman ■was not 
able to drink with water, much less without water. Hence it may 
readily be seen, that, in this action of Jesus, as far as concerns the 
accused, there is something as it were broken off and left in sus- 
pense, in order that He may appear to intimate, that He is indeed 
the Judge, but that His judgment shall be accomplished not now 
(for which reason He dismisses the accusers only wounded [not de- 
stroyed] for the present), but hereafter ; and that then also this adul- 
terous woman shall have her share either of punishment or of com- 
plete acquittal. 

853 ST JOHN VIll. 7-12. 

7. *ns Se I'jrifiim, but when they were persevering) For 51 there is in 
most of the Latin copies ' ergo' [not in the best copies of the Vulg., 
the Cod. Amiatinus, etc., " cum autem perseverarent"]. This is ac- 
cording to the custom of John ; who, however, in this paragraph more 
often employs d'e, which occurs frequently in this gospel even else- 
where : for instance, in ch. ix. — 6 am/idprriTog, he who is without sin) 
am/jiaprriTos, if respect be had to the termination, is, either one who can- 
not sin, or one who hath not sinned. Septuag. Deut. xxix. 19 : /ii 
euva'jroXieri o d/iapraiXhg rh ava/idpTrirov. Comp. 2 Macc. vm. 4 [ruv 
amfiictprriroiv vriviiuv], xii. 42 [gwrnpini iauTovg am/jbaprrjToug]. The wit- 
nesses were wont to be the first in the act of stoning. [Hence the 
expression is rhv XlSov, with the article. — V.g.] These witnesses had 
all contracted guilt, worthy of capital punishment, either in that 
very act [such as they accused the woman of], or in similar deeds 
of shame. 

9. ' Airh ToiM irpid^-oripav, beginning with the elders) These had been 
most conscience-struck. Great was the force of Jesus' words, 
[throwing open the inmost recesses of men. — ^V. g.j — fiovog, alone) not 
one of those, who had proposed the case, remaining. Others, 
who also were of the PhaKsees, remained, as appears from compar- 
ing ver. 3, 13. 

10. Kai liirjhiva, '^eagd/Jievoc irX^v Trig yuvaixSg) The preposition "irX^v, 
which is employed by John in no passage of all his writings, betrays 
the fact of these words being a gloss unknown to the ancients : he 
has everywhere expressed the force of that preposition by some 
other word.' — iximi, those) They had now fled far away. 

11. Jloptuov, go) He does not add, in peace ; nor does He say, 
Thy sins are forgiven thee ; but, hereafter sin no more : ch. v. 14, 
[Jesus to the impotent man] " Sin no more, lest a worse thing come 
unto thee." 

12. HdXn, again) as at ch. vii. Jesus is wont to take the begin- 
nings of His discourses from the doctrine of salvation : then, when 
men contradict, He adds a proof. — rf fug, the Light) An expression 
suitable to the time of His speaking, the morning, and opposed to 
the works of darkness, such as is adultery. — roD xo'ir/ioii, of the world) 
the whole world. — 6 daoXouSuv, he who follows) By this very ex- 
pression He shows, that adultery is by no means sanctioned by 

' Therefore ^eng. here clearly approves of the omission of this clause (which 
the larger Ed. had less sanctioned), along with 2 Ed., and also the Vers.Gerra. — 
E. B. [D Vulg. and several "Versions, and Ambrose and Augustine, all omit 
the words. — E. and T. I 

ST JOHN VIII. 13-16. 353 

Him, although He did not pronounce condemnation on the adul- 

13. 'El'Kov, said) with undisguised importunity. — wep! eiaunu, con- 
cerning Thyself) They bring up against the Lord His own words, 
comp. eh. v. 31, " If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is not 
true," but in a perverted sense. — aXri6^:, true) An abbreviated mode 
of expression. A man can speak the truth concerning himself; 
but that is not wont to be deemed as a sufficient testimony. But 
the Jews, in order that they may the more vehemently contradict 
Him, pretend that the testimony of Jesus is not even true. 

14. Kav, even though) He does not speak conditionally, but af- 
firms, that He bears witness of Himself, ver. 18, " I am one that 
bear witness of Myself." After that He has taught them many 
things, He demands of His hearers, what He had not before so de- 
manded.^ — oTda, I know) It is from sure and confirmed knowledge 
that true testimony proceeds. — mkv, mij, whence, and whither) The 
doctrine concerning Christ can be reduced to these two heads. 
The former head is treated of at ver. 16, etc., "If I judge, My 
judgment is true ; for I am not alone, but I and the Father that 
sent Me ; — the testimony of two — is true ;" the latter head is treated 
of at ver. 21, etc., "I go My way, and ye shall seek Me," etc. — 
vtMiis, ye) It is with you the fault rests, that you do not attain to 
perceiving the truth of My testimony. What you need is, that I 
should tell you, what no one pf mortals can tell you. — 'ifyofi^a,!, I 
come) To be distinguished from the preceding ^XSov, I came. By 
the expression, / came, Jesus signifies, that He always knew ; by 
the expression, / come, Pie signifies, that the Jews not even now 

15. KarSt, Triv gdpxa, according to the flesh) and so, according to the 
appearance, ch. vii. 24, " Judge not according to appearance, but 
judge righteous judgment." [In antithesis to "from above," ver. 
23, "Ye are firom beneath, I am from above." — V. g.J — oi xphu, I 
do not judge) Comp. ver. 11, "Neither do I condemn thee." 

16. 'H xplaii fi sM, My fudgment) The same principle holds good 
of judgment as of testimony : ver. 14, 17, "Though I bear record 
of Myself, yet My record is true ; — the testimony of two — is true ;" 
ch. V. 30, etc., " As I hear I judge ; and My judgment is just, be- 
cause I seek not Mine own will, but the will of the Father. — There 

' Viz., that they should believe Him, though bearing witness of Himself.— 
■ E. and T. 

VOL. II. '■ 

S54 ST JOHiS VIII. 17-19. 

is another that beareth witness of Me," etc. The testimony is in 
reference to God and the Son of God ; the judgment is in reference 
to men. — aXn^rn, true) not according to the flesh, ver. 15. — i^ovoi 
oix eifii, lam not alone) even in judging. Comp. ch. v. 19, "The 
Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father do ; 
for what things soever He doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise." 
—0 'ir'sf/.-^ag iii, He who hath sent Me) By this very expression He 
intimates whence He came. 

17. Ka/) also. — h rSj vowtji tSi u/jLiriptfi) in your law, to which ye re- 
fer, ver. 5, " Now Moses in the law commanded us, that," etc. — 
6!io avSpuvoiv, of two men) how much more that of God and of the 
Son of God ? Since these witnesses are said to be two, the argu- 
ment [proof] is oi;ie of the same nature. See as regards these two, 
Zech. vi. 13, at the end, ^' He shall build the temple of the Lord; 
and He shall bear His glory, and shall sit and rule upon His throne ; 
and He shall be a Priest upon His throne ; and the counsel of peace 
shall be between them both." — aXn^^s, true) irrefragable. 

'19. Tloij, where) They ask, where, in order that they may know 
whence Jesus has come, having been sent by the Father.^oiirs l/is, 
neither Me) Jesus does not at once answer directly to the Jews' in- 
terrogatory, where is Thy Father ? but follows up the Hne of dis- 
course He began, and at the same time, however, prepares the way 
for making a reply. For He shows the perversity of their interroga- 
tion, and teaches them, that they must first know the Son, whom 
they see and hear in the flesh, if they wish to know the Father. 
For when the Son is known, the Father is known : comp. ver. *16, 
" I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent Me ;" ver. 18, " I 
am one that bear witness, and the Father that sent Me beareth 
witness of Me," wherein the Son is named before the Father. Add 
Matt. xi. 27, "Neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, 
and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him;" and below, ch. 
xiv. 9, " Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not 
known Me, Philip 1 He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father : 
and how sayest thou then. Show us the Father 1 Believest thou 
not, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me ?" He shows 
plainly where the Father is, at ver. 23, " I am from above." And 
also in this passage, when asked as to the Father, He answers as to 
Himself; presently after, in turn, when asked Himself, He answers 

' Ver. 18, xocl, and) Here the two that bear witness are mentioned expressly : 
there is to be added the testimony of a third, the Holy Spirit. — V. g. 

ST JOHN VIII. 20. 35G 

as to the Father ; ver. 25, 27, " They said. Who art Thou ? 
Jesus saith — Even the same that I said imto you from the begin- 
ning ; — they understood not that He spake to them of the Father ;' 
because Himself and the Father are one. — xal, also) Comp. ch. xiv. 
[ver. 7] " If ye had known Me, ye should have known My Father 
also ; and from henceforth ye both know Him and have seen Him." 
— ijkiTs av, ye should have known) So that there should be no need 
for you to inquire, where He is. This passage contains a most 
clear testimony concerning the unity of the Father and of the Son : 
wherefore at ver. 20 [27 ?] it is described as something wonderful, 
that they did not understand Jesus. 

20. 'Ell Ttf) yaZo<pu'ka7.itti, in the treasury) in that place, where any 
one might easily have been taken ; where there was a very great 
crowd of men. — Mas-/.m, teaching) The Didacticks of Jesus may be 
here considered, especially from the means of judging furnished by 
John. Christ, the Teacher, one, true, and good. One, Matt, xxiii. 
[8, One is your BiddenaXo; ; ver. 10, One is your x.aSnyn'^fii, even 
Christ], of the highest dignity, ver. 8 ; power, ver 9, " One is your 
Father, which is in heaven 5" and authority, ver. 10. He is the true 
teacher, John vii. ; for He was sent by God, and teaches the truth 
[ver. 18, He that seeketh His glory that sent Him, the same is true, 
and no unrighteousness is in Him.] Good ; apt to teach, 2 Tim. 
ii. [ver. 24]. Three kinds of teachers are distinguished in Matt. - 
xxiii :. Prophets, Wise men. Scribes. He did not Himself bear the 
title of a Scribe, but He left it to His disciples, Matt. xiii. 52, 
" Every scribcj which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven." 
He had no need of learning, John vii. 15. Only once He read, 
Luke iv. 17 [viz. the book of Isaiah, in the synagogue of Nazareth]. 
JJe found the place [where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is 
upon Me, etc.] Only once He wrote, John viii. 6. Thus then He 
did not write books in His own name, as the apostles did, nor did 
He use the apparatus of books; yet He dictated some epistles, 
Eev. i. [ver. 11, WTiat thou seest write in a book, and send it unto 
the Seven Churches — in Asia]. There remain the two titles. 
Wisdom and Prophet, applied to Him by implication, Matt. xii. 41, 
42, " Behold, a greater than Jonas is here : — Behold, a greater than 
Solomon is here." The name, Prophet, is otherwise greater than 
that of Wisdom. In the case of Christ, the name. Wisdom, is in 
some measure more subhme than Prophet. He prayed, ever fol- 
lowing the Father's commands. He sweetly drew disciples to 
Himself: 1) as recorded in. John i. 38, etc. ; comp. ch. viii. 30 ; 2) 

S36 ST JOHN VIII. 20, 

in Luke, etc. He taught them in order, first, concerning His own 
person, concerning Himself as the Christ, 1) in the presence of the 
people ; 2) in the presence of His adversaries ; 3) by themselves 
apart : moreover also concerning His passion and resurrection ; He 
taught them first in plain language, afterwards by parables. Matt, 
xiii. ; first at a marriage feast, afterwards on other occasions. He 
taught the people in one way, the Pharisees in another way, the dis- 
ciples of John in another, His own disciples in another. He taught 
concerning the fasting of the disciples of John, concerning the bap- 
tism of John, Matt, xxi., concerning the tribute-money, etc. He 
taught by His works, rather than by His words. Matt. xi. 1, etc. 
[To the disciples of John, inquiring, "Art Thou He that should 
come 1 " He replied, Go and show John again those things which 
ye do hear and see. The blind receive their sight, etc.j He taught 
also by gesture and look, Luke xx, 17, " He beheld them, and said," 
etc. [f^/SXs^/as]. He avoided celebrity and a crowd, Matt. xii. 
[16-21]. He taught by asking questions Himself : He taught also 
those who asked Him questions. He also observed a distinction in 
the disciples among one another. He taught in one way before the 
resurrection, and in another way after the resurrection. His pre- 
diction of His passion was, 1) enigmatical ; 2) subsequently plain 
and open. His valedictory address followed, in fine. His departure 
itself, 1) at His passion; 2) at His ascension. He did not give 
over, until He was able to say. Now ye believe, John xvi. 31. He 
confirmed His doctrine out of the Scriptures and by miracles. He 
desired the disciples to leam by experimental proof, John xvi. 22, 
23, at the beginning, " In that day ye shall ask Me nothing" {jfarn- 
Giri]. He wisely took His opportunities, John iv. [The woman of 
Samaria at the well]. In a short interview on each occasion. He 
taught Nathanael, and the Samaritan woman, what the disciples 
had taken several years to leam. Before the more elevated class of 
hearers He set elevated truths : John iii. [Nicodemus]. He gradually 
opened out His subject : John xvi. 4, 12, " I have yet many things 
to say unto you ; but ye cannot bear them now ;" xi. 13. He did 
not state all things altogether plainly ; but wrapt them up in ap- 
propriate enigmatical forms. Many err by indiscriminate perspi- 
cuity. Our style of writing should not pass beyond the accus- 
tomed order of doctrinal teaching : if in any instance it shall be 
different, it will not glide off to philosophical aphorisms, but will 
betake itself to Holy Scripture. Moreover Christ did not remain 
in one place, nor always with the same .persons. See John iv. 44, 

ST JOHN VIll. 21-24. 357 

"He left His own country for Galilee, testifying thai, a prophet is 
not in honour in his own country." He had the powers of a good 
teacher, and exhibited them sweetly and gently ; Matt. xi. ; Luke 
iv. He sent forth twelve disciples, afterwards seventy. He gradually 
taught them to pray ; Luke xi. 1 ; John xvi. 24, etc., " Hitherto 
have ye asked nothing in My name : ask, and ye shall receive, that 
your joy may be full." — ohbiig Irriagiv, no one laid hands on Him) 
although they attempted it. 

21. ndXiv, again) For He had said so at ch. vii. 33, etc., " Ye 
shall seek Me, and not find Me ; and where I am, thither ye cannot 
come," when they had plotted against Him, as at this place. — a/iap- 
Ticf, sin) The Singular : the whole of perdition is one, arising from 
unbelief, through vrhich all sins flourish, ver. 24, " If ye believe not 
that I am He, ye shall die in your sins" [Plural]. In this place, 
the emphasis is on the word, sin, which in this verse comes first ; 
afterwards [at ver. 24] on the verb i/e shall die, which there comes 
first. — avoSaviTsh, ye shall die) by death of every kind [spiritual 
and eternal, of body and soul]. — 'wayai, I go) ver. 22, ch. xiii. 
33, 36, [to Simon Peter] " Whither I go, thou canst not follow Me 
now, but thou shalt follow Me afterwards ;" xiv. 4, " Whither I go 
ye know, and the vtslj ye know." 

22. M^r; awoyiTtvif iauTov, whether will He kill Himself?) A 
most wicked thought : nay, rather, the Jews were about to kill 
Him. What they mean to say is, that they can find Him any- 

23. 'T/iE/s, ye) Again Jesus passes by their interrogatory; and 
proves what He said, ver. 21, " Ye shall die in your sins ; whither 
I go ye cannot come;" comp. ch. iii. 13, "No man hath ascended 
up to heaven, but He that came down fi-om heaven, even the Son 
of man, which is in heaven." — J;t rSiv xdru, from those things which 
are below) fi-om the earth. — J/w, I) He shows whence He is, and 
hath come, and whither He is about to go ; fi-om the world to the 
Father. — rounv, of this) By this being added, it is shown that there 
is also another world : ch. ix. 39, " For judgment I am come into 
this world." 

24.'' ' AmSaviTaSe, ye shall die) The Jews had neglected the 
weightier words of ver. 21, " Ye shall seek Me, and shall die in 
your sins :" all the rest they had taken up at ver. 22 [viz. that part 

' idu yiifi ftii TTHTTtiimre, tor unless ye shall believe) They wKo believe attach 
themselves to Christ, and through Him alone they attain to that, to which they 
could not attain otherwise, — V. g. 

3F«8 ST JOHN VIII. 25. 

of His words, " Whither I go, ye cannot come"] : therefore now 
those weightier and more severe words are repeated. 

25, etc. 2i) r/'s eT; who art T/iou?) They are referring to that ex- 
pression of His, eyii £i/j,i, I am He [ver. 24]. They ask the question, 
but in such a perverse frame of mind, that they have no real inten- 
tion to beUeve on Him, when He tells them. — £«rsv, lie said) It is 
not said. He replied. The Lord addresses Himself less directly to 
meet the Jews' interrogatory ; but He addresses Himself to the 
fact itself plainly, and in such a way as to make a further progress in 
His own discourse. A similar question and reply occur at ch. x. 24, 
etc., " If Thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. Jesus answered — I 
told you, and ye believed not ; the works that I do in My Father's 
name, they bear witness of Me." — r^n ap-^^riv, on xa,) \aXSi u/j.Tu, •joXka 
i-)(o> vipl u^wv XaXiTv %al xprnir aW' 6 Tifji-^ai fii aXn^rig lari, xayi) a 
^xovea, Vap airou, raXira Xeyai iig rhv xogfioii) All these WOrds form One 

complete paragraph, of which both the Protasis and the Apodosis 
are each double-membered, so as that they most aptly correspond 
with one another, in this way : 

In the beginning, since I also speak to you, [inasmuch as I am 
even speaking to, or, for you], 

I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you : 
But He, who sent Me, is true ; 

and what things I have heard from Him, these I speak to the world. 

Every word in this passage both ought and can be taken in its own 
proper signification. I. Tjii- ap^v" is not here equivalent in meaning 
to oXoig, altogether, but in the strict sense, in the beginning. I have 
shown it to be so at Chrysost. de Sacerdot., p. 425, etc. : also at 1 
Cor. V. 1. Also the Herodotea Eaphehi, p. 293, etc., deserve to be 
well weighed. Nonnus, when he might have retained rnv apyjii (saith 
Joach. Camerarius), as the numbers of his verse were no obstacle, yet 
has changed the words into 'E^ 6i.pxni otti mp vfi^iLh "Ef &pyrig hapiZfiv. 
n. "On is because, since, inasmuch as ; so ver. 45, hut because, on, I 
speak the truth, ye do not believe Me. Let the force of the same 
particle be weighed at ver. 22, 43, ii. 18, " What sign showest Thou, 

seeing that Thou doest these things ?" xi. 47, " What do we ? for 

inasmuch as — this Man doeth many miracles ;" ver. 56, "What 
think ye, that He will not come to the feast ?" qtc. HI. Ka/ about 
the beginning, and not the very beginning of a clause, has the force of 
even, also ; and in this passage it intensifies the force of the present 

ST JOHN VIII. 26. 35;) 

tense and indicative mood in the verb XaX&i ; Comp. with it xai, 
even, 1 Cor. xv. 29, " What shall they do, that are baptized for the 
dead, if the dead rise not at all ? Why are they then [Engl. Vers. 
xai ; rather, even'] baptized for the dead?" Phil. iii. 8, " Yea doubt- 
less, and I [Engl. Vers, xal ; rather, T even] count all things loss for 
the excellency of the knowledge of Christ." IV. AaXu, I am speak- 
ing, not merely I have to speak, not merely / have spoken, but even 
yet I am speaking [I speak]. V. "T//.», to you [for you], is the dative 
of the advantage, i.e. I speak concerning Mi/self, who I am, in order 
that ye may believe and be saved. Hardly any point has caused more 
difficulty to expositors than the stopping after this uft,Tv. The Codices 
MSS. quoted in the Apparatus Crit. p. .589, defend the comma; and 
so also, in addition to Chrysostom, Nonnus, and Scaliger, who are 
mentioned in the same place, Knatchbull, Raphelius, also James 
Faber, Com. Jansenius, and Franc. Lucas. [Engl. Vers. " Even 
the same that I said unto you from the beginning. I have many 
things to say," etc. Vulg. " Principium quia (or, as other copies, 
qui) et loquor vobis ;" ac, 'quod;'(^, ' quoniam ;' '0,ri in Eec. 
Textr So Lachmann, reading the sentence with an interrogation, 
making o,r; = &ia n, resembling the il interrogative. So Mark ix. 
11, "They asked, saying, °0,ti Xsyouan o; ypafifianTg, 2,r( 'HX/an diT 
iXSin. Alford translates kfyrtv, etc., I am, essentially that same which 
I SPEAK unto you. Appropriate to Him, as the Xo/os revealed. 
Just as to Moses / am that I am was appropriate of One as yet un- 
revealed.] VI. II0XK& mpl ifiuv, much [multa] concerning you, on 
account of your much [multam] incredulity. This was the chief 
point of Jesus Christ's complaint concerning the Jews everywhere, 
and especially here, where He begins to make mention as to His 
departure. VII. "E%w XaXiTv xa! xplmiv, I have to speak and to judge. 
To this appertains the rr^v ap^n^, and it has thus somewhat more 
force than •rpuTov. Now for the first time there was given by the Jews 
to -the Lord by far the greatest reason for His speaking and judging 
concerning themselves, after that they had heard so many testi- 
monies, and yet had not believed. Similarly viJv, now, is employed, 
Luke xi. 39, in an argument, for which a great handle had been 
given, " Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup," 
etc. Comp. the ^>garo, began. Matt. xi. 20, " Then began He to 
upbraid the cities," etc. Here the Protasis ceases, in the whole of 
which the same thing is said, as at ch. vi. 36, I said to you that ye 
both [also, Engl. Vers.] have seen Me, and do not believe ; and at 
cb. X. 25, etc., where to the same question the same reply is re- 

3fiO ST JOHN VIll. 25. 

peated, only in other words. VJII. There follows the Apodosis, be- 
ginning with a7.X', in which He plainly enough intimates, who IJe 
is. IX. 'O Tl/x-vjvas /j,s a'KriSrii hri- i.e. although you to such a degree 
refuse to believe, that your incredulity furnishes the strongest reason 
why I might have judged you ; yet He, who hath sent Me into the 
world, is true. Your unbelief does not set aside His own faithfulness. 
X. K.ayii, a, ijxovsa 'Trap aurou, toaito, Xsyw i.e. These things I speak, 
which He that is true hath committed to Me, for the purpose of 
saving you, not for the purpose of judging you ; the sum and sub- 
stance of which is, that I have been sent by Him : I speak these 
things, and these alone, not other things, which would appertain to 
the judging of you ; ch. iii. 17, " God sent not His Son into the 
world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might 
be saved ;" ch. v. 45, " Do not think that I will accuse you to the 
Father ;" ch. xii. 47, " If any man hear My words and believe not, 
I judge him not ; for I came not to judge the world, but to save 
the world." XI. Elg rhv k6(S!Jjov. An abbreviated form of expres- 
sion, i.e. These things, which were before unknown to the world, 1 have 
brought into the world, and I speak in the world, in order that they may 
be distributed by My witnesses throughout the whole world, now a 
stranger to [aHen from] the faith, but, whether you will believe or not, 
hereafter about to believe. I do not pay any regard to your obstinacy. 
Out of the four members of this portion, as marked out at the be- 
ginning of this note, the first and fourth, the second and third, co- 
here together in a most suitable x'^'S/iog. In the Protasis, both the 
first clause, / even speak to you, and the second, / have many things 
to speak and to judge concerning you, and the connection of both, 
ought to be regarded. For the words in antithesis are, I even speak, 
and the expression, to you : corresponding respectively to, / have 
to speak and to judge, and the expression, concerning you. The 
Apodosis is easy to perceive, when regarded by itself; but how it 
stands in relation to the Protasis, they who look less to the sense 
than to the words, are not likely forthwith to perceive. These will 
observe, that the unbelief of the Jews is marked in the Protasis ; but, 
that the unshaken perseverance of Jesus in setting forth the truth 
unto salvation is rather made manifest in the Apodosis, and at the 
same time the truth itself concerning Jesus, who He is, is summarily 
brought in by implication. Comp. by all means the whole of ver. 28, 
" When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that 
/ am He, and that I do nothing of Myself; but as My Father hath 
taught 1s/Lq,I speak these things:' I might justly make the beginninc} 

ST JOHN Vin. 27, 28. 3 CI 

of My speech, saith He, now even more than heretofore, by a judq- 
ment pronounced on your unbelief, before that I bring forth the 
other subjects : but I perseoeringly speak not so much severe things of 
you, as saving things of Myself [tidings of salvation to you in My- 
self]. Very many take separately these words, djv af%))i' o,ti xa/ 
XaXS O/i/V : and indeed H. B. Starkius has thus explained the words. 
In the beginning, to wit, I said, what even still I say to you : which 
had been previously the explanation of Nic. Hemmingius, from 
whom John Brentius in his Homilies does not much differ. Others 
generally in this way : ov ma, sha! /j,e rfiv ap^riv 'iXiyov, iipi,i, i.e. I am He, 
whom in tJie beginning I said to you I was ; an interpretation which, 
however easy a sense it introduces, yet will be found to make many 
departures from the words of the text, if you conipare them to- 

27. Ou-K 'iymsav, they understood not) By means of this epicrisis 
[explanatory addition] John intimates his astonishment at the un- 
belief and blindness of the Jews ; as at ch. xii. 37, " But though 
He had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not 
on Him." — rhv iraTipa,, the Father) the Father had sent Him, ver. 26 ; 
and had they known the Father, they would have known who Jesus 
was, ver. 25. 

28. ' T-^iLenn, ye shall lift up) on the cross. — tots) then, not be- 
fore : 1 Cor. ii. 8, " Which none of the princes of this world knew : 
for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of 
glory." — yyuidiisSi) ye shall know from the fact, what now ye believe 
not on the credit of My word ; ver. 24, " I said, that ye shall die 
in your sins : for if ye believe not that I am He, ye shall die in 
your sins.'' "We read the event recorded, Matt, xxvii. 54, " When 
the centurion, and they that were with him, saw the eai-thquake, 
and those things that were done, they feared greatly and said. 
Truly this was the Son of God ;" Luke xxiii. 47, etc., " All the 
people that capie together to that sight, beholding the things which 
were done, smote their breasts ;" Acts ii. 41, " Three thousand 
souls — added" [to the church on Pentecost] ; xxi. 20, " Thou seest 
how many thousands of Jews there are, which believe." — -sea;, and) 
The connection of the words is this ; / am (that which at some 
time to come ye shall know) and I do nothing of Myself, etc. From 
this to the end of ver. 29 there are four sentences : The first begins 
with, and I of Myself ; the second with, and He who ; the third 
with, hath not left me ; the fourth with, because [for]. Of these the 
second and third are parallel ; and also the first and fourth. — ■jo/w, 

SC2 ST JOHN VIII. 29-32. 

I do) Understand, and I speak. — xa^ug — raCra, as — these things) A 
similar mode of expression occurs, Num. xxxii. 31, Sga-^ouru, what- 
soever things [the Lord hath said] — so [will we do]. — See Comen. in 
Didact. — XaXa) these things, which I speak, I speak. Understand, 
and I do. The one is to be supplied from the other. 

29. Kai, and) and so. — ovx a(p?ixi /ms, hath not left me) ThePrsete- 
rite signifies that He is never at any tin^e abandoned. The vavron, 
always, corresponds to this.' — on, because) Comp. eh. xv. 10, "Kye 
keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love, even as / have 
kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His love." — to. &j>ier& 
alrui, the things, which are pleasing to Him) The same argument, by 
which the Jews were led to believe in Jesus Christ, serves also to 
prove the whole authority of Holy Scripture, and of the Christian 
religion. At all times, in all places, in every way. He requires of 
all, and teaches all, all those things, which are pleasing to God, and 
worthy of God. — rnvron, at all times) The Lord spake these 
things with the utmost sweetness)." 

31. 'TfiiTg, ye) who have begun to believe, although the rest be- 
lieve not. — fidvr}Ts, ye will continue) Acts xiii. 43, " Many prose- 
lytes followed Paul and Barnabas ; who, speaking to them, persuaded 
them to continue in the grace of God." — aXn^ug, indeed) It is not 
enough to have begun. So ovrui, in deed; ver. 36, "Ye shall 
be free indeed." — esri) ye are so already : only see that you con- 
tinue so. 

32. T)jK aXrihiav) the truth, concerning Me, as sent by the Father; 
concerning yourselves, as being My disciples indeed. — n aXfikm) 
The tnxth, being known, concerning Me ; and I Myself. For the 
Son makes free, ver. 36. Comp. ch. i. 12, " To them gave He 
power to become the Sons of God, even to them that believe on His 
name ;" and He is the truth, ch. xiv. 6, " I am the Way, the Truth," 
etc. — iXivSipiiaii, shall make free) We ought not to wonder, that 
Jesus suddenly threw in the mention of this, which the Jews were 
sure to contradict. For always, in accordance with His own infinite 
wisdom. He spake especially that which would assail the prejudices 
of men, and be most beneficial to men ; although men would take 
from thence occasions of disputing with Him. The Freedom is the 
exemption of the sons of God from all adverse control [namely, from 

' In the next clause, i.e. I always please Him, therefore ai no time does He 
leave me. — E. and T. 

' Ver. 30, ixtnTivaxv, believed) This was as it were the delicate bud of faith. 
But a severe conflict followed between good and evil, ver. 44. V. g. 

ST JOHN VIII. 33-36. 303 

sin, and its slavery ; ver. 34, " Whosoever committeth sin, is the 
servant of sin :" and from death ; ver. 51, " If a man keep My say- 
ing, he shall never see death." — ^V. g.] 

33. A^padfi, of Abraham) They appeal to Him afresh at ver. 52, 
" Abraham is dead and the prophets ; and Thou sayest," etc. — 
clidivl S£Sov>.Euxaf/,tv, we were in bondage to no man) They speak of their 
own age and generation ; for their forefathers had been in bondage to 
the kings of Egypt, and of Babylon. — sXeuBipoi, free) They lay hold 
of this one expression : they make no objection as to the truth making 
free. So also at ver. 22, they mutilated the preceding words of Jesus 
[taking no notice of the rest of His words, " Ye shall seek Me, and 
shall die in your sins ;" they fastened only on, " Wliither I go, ye 
cannot conae." It was a mixed crowd. Some of them were of a 
mind inclined towards Jesus ; others were of an inimical feeling. 
Some of them, moved by His preceding words concerning faith, had 
begun to aspire after faith, but at this turning point drew back. 

34. ' A.iri%pi6ri, answered) Jesus replies in inverse order to the two- 
fold objection of the Jews, and first goes on with the portion of the 
discourse concerning freedom, then discusses the portion concerning 
the children of Abraham, fi'om ver. 37. — o 'jtoiSiv) he who habitually 
committeth sin, as opposed to the truth. — dov\6g san, is the slave) by 
the very fact, 2 Pet. ii. 19, "While they promise them liberty, they 
themselves are the servants of corruption ; for of whom a man is 
overcome, of the same is he brought into bondage ;" Rom. vi. 16,' 
" Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, 
his servants ye are to whom ye obey, whether of sin unto death, or 
of obedience linto righteousness." 

35. AovXog) slave, in social standing : slave-like, of illiberal [base] 
disposition, and so committing sin. — h rjj olxia) in the house of the 
Father. — 6 iiog) The Son, the only-begotten. Comp. ver. following, 
" If the Son shall make you free," etc. The article here has a 
greater force, than in the antithetic words, o ^oDXog. — fiivii, abideth) 
in the house. The allusion is, inasmuch as the question is concern- 
ing Abraham, to Gen. xxi. 10, " Sarah said to Abraham, Cast out 
this bondwoman and her son — Hagar and Ishmael — for the son of 
this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son — Isaac ;" xxv. 5, 
" Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac :" comp. Gal, iv. 22, 
etc., " He who was of the bondwoman, was born after the flesh, but 
he of the free woman was by promise, which things are an alle- 
gory," etc. 

36. 'O bik) the Son, the only-begotten 

364 ST JOHN Vlll. 37-41. 

37. 'AXXa) but ye cherish sin, even the design of killing Me.— r 
X6y 05 6 s/jLog, My word) the word of truth and of freedom.— oj 
XfpiT, doth not take}) They who do not believe, have an antipathy 
towards Christ and His word. Comp. the foil, ver., " Ye do that 
which ye have seen with your father," in opposition to, "/ speak that 
which I have seen with my Father." The correlatives are : a man 
ought to abide : [Christ's] word ought to take possession [have place 
in ; please]. 

38. AaXS, / speak) Understand, and I do. See presently after.— 
xa/, and) This follows from the general sentiment [maxim], which 
in the former half of the verse is taken for granted : each one imi- 
tates his own father. — mtrri, ye do) Understand, and ye speak: 
although / speak is more suitable concerning Jesus in this passage ; 
and ye do, concerning His adversaries. The on$ member is to be 
supplied from the other. So Mal..i. 14, who hath in his flock a male 
[and one free from blemish], and yet making a vow sacnficeth [a 
female, or one in other respects] an unsuitable victim. 

39. 'ABpad/ji, Abraham) They attempt to defend what they had 
said, ver. 33, " We be Abraham's seed." They feel that Jesus is 
speaking concerning another father of theirs. — smiiTn) &v is under- 
stood, as at ix. 33 \ji /J^n ?" ourog vapa Tou ©£oD, oux, Tiduvaro vonTii oii^sv.] 

40. ' ArroKTiTvai, nvSptii'jrov, to kill, a m,an) Jesus is wont to entitle 
Himself the Son of Man ; but in this passage. He calls Himself a 
man : for to this passage corresponds the fact, that at ver. 44 H6 
calls the devil a man-slayer [avSpaiTroxTovog, a murderer of man\. 
Therefore the word who seems best to be referred to the me, rather 
than to a man. — rriv akrihiav, the truth) which is precious, as well as 
otherwise unknown to men, and hated by you. Often the truth and 
the life are joined, as also a lie and death. The former are peculiar 
to Christ and believers ; the latter, to the devil and the ungodly ; 
ver. 44, " Ye are of your father the devil," etc. " He was a mur- 
derer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth. When he 
speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own." — oux, not this) but what was 
altogether different, and worthy of a lover of the Christ. See 
below, ver. 56, " Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day," etc. 

41. Tou warphg u//,uii, of your father) His name is not yet ex- 
pressed : but presently after, when the Jews presume to call God 
their father, he is expressly called the Devil : see foil, verses.— ex 

' i.e. Your tastes ; doth not take possession in your case. Better the Engl, 
Vers. " Hath no place in you." — E. and T. 

ST JOHN VIII. 42-4t. 865 

iropviiag, from fornication) A new paroxysm of Jewish unreasonable- 
ness [unseasonable clamour]. They stoutly insist, that they are not 

42. 'Hya'j&Ti, ye would love) ye would not persecute Me with 
such deadly hatred as ye do. — Jg^X^ov, I came forth) Hereby is inti- 
mated the " terminus a quo" [the source from which]. — fiTta, I am 
come) Hereby is intimated the " terminus ad quem" [the destina- 
tion to which]. 

43. A;ar/, why is it that) To this particle by and by answers 
ver. 44, " Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your 
father ye do]. — or/, because) By this clause the one immediately pre- 
ceding is explained. Comp. on, ch. xi. 47, " What do we 1 for 
this man doeth many miracles;" ix. 17, "What sayest thou of 
Him, {seeing) that He hath opened thine eyes]. — rriv \aki&v rriv ifiriv) 
my speech, which is most true. — oh dvvaah dxovnv, ye cannot hear by 
reason of the hatred which is innate in you. A similar epitasis [an 
emphatic explanation of a proposition already stated, appended to 
It] occurs, 1 Cor. ii. 14, " The natural man receiveth not the things 
of the Spirit of God — neither can he know them, for," etc. 

44. 'T/miT;, ye) A most undisguised proof against them. — xai, and) 
and thence it is that. — Imiufitiag, the lusts) which irom the beginning 
he has been unable to accomplish, as respects the Son of God. — 
^sXere, ye wish) with all your might. — avSpairo-xrovos) a man-destroyer 
[murderer]. — ai: &pyrr\Q, from the beginning) ever since he knew any- 
thing of the nature of man. — xal h — orav,. and in — when) Two sen- 
tences, expressing two contraries ; to each of the two, oV;, because 
[for] is added. — oun larriTiiv, he abode not [did not stand fast]) The 
Prseterite time, and the theme itself 'isr?i/ji,i, I stand, imply this 
to be the meaning ; He did not attain to a fixed standing in the 
truth : (A similar expression occiars Eom. v. 2, " We have access 
by faith into this grace, wherein we have obtained an established stand- 
ing") i.e. lie was a liar from the beginning, as well as a man-destroyer ; 
for this clause does not go before the mention of his lust of murder, 
but follows it. — oxiK iSTiv, is not) There was truth in him ; but there 
is not now. Moreover, when first the truth ceased to exist in him, 
it was by his own fault ; the lust of murder had place in him, and 
he determined to destroy man for that very reason, because man 
was then in the truth. From this it is evident that it was not long 
before the sin of man, that the devil sinned, and that the devil was 
created, not long before he sinned. — r4 ■^eijBog, what is false [a lie]) 
Scripture is wont to designate not merely a voluntary lie by tins 


severe term, but even error itself. Eom. i. 25, " Who clianged the , 
truth of God into a lie;" 2 Thess. ii. 9, 11, "lying wonders— God 
shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie ;" 1 
John ii. 21, " Because ye know — the truth — and that no lie is of 
the truth ;" 27, " The anointing— is truth, and is no lie." — sx tuv 
ih'iuv, of his own) The origin of evil. The contrary holds good of 
Christ; eh. vii. 17, "If any man will do His will, he shall know of 
the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of Myself; 
He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory, but He that 
seeketh His glory that sent Him, the same is true, and no unrighte- 
ousness is in Him." — xal b nrarnp aurov, his father) The article o has 
this force ; and so. The word abrou can be expressly referred to 
■^iuSoc, concerning which He treats in the following clause ; but it 
ought rather to be referred to the noun ■^ivgrnc, a liar, which must 
be repeated in an indefinite sense.^ For sometimes a relative ex- 
pressed or implied appertains to another subject similar to it. 1 
Tim. ii. 15, " She shall be saved," namely, woman, indefinitely 
although the she is to be referred to Eve [the woman alluded to, 
'' Adam was not deceived, but the woman,'' in the previous verse. 
So Job i. 21, "Naked came I forth from my mother' s womb, and 
nahed shall I return THITHER" [to ray mother's womb in a different 
and wider sense than in the first clause, viz. the womb of the earth]. 
Thus here the devil is said to be both a liar himself and father of 
every liar. For the opposition is clear between God and the devil, 
and between the sons of God and the sons of the devil. The man 
who is a liar, is a son of the devil. It is not the lie that is said in 
this passage to be the offspring of the devil. 

45. 'Eyw, /) This pronoun is put with emphasis at the beginning 
of a sentence. — on, because) inasmtich as. It is a characteristic of 
truth, not to believed by the evil. — riiv aXriklati, the truth) to which 
the -\jevdog, lie, is opposed. — Xtyu, I tell) In antithesis to, he speaketh 
in the preceding verse. — oi, not) Ye give not ear to me : je give ear 
to the devil. 

46. 'EXiyx^i, convicts) Jesus appeals to the conscience of all. — 
■jrepl a/iaprlag, of sin) that is, that I am in error, and that I am 
away from the truth. What person dares to maintain this ? — diarl, 
why) To this why, the word therefore in ver. 47 answers. Comp. 
the why, ver. 43, " Why do ye not understand my speech ? Even 

because," etc. 

The father of ever^ one who is a liar. — E. and T. 

ST JOHN A'UI. 47-52. 361 

47. 'Ex ToZ &iov) of [from] God, as of a father.— ra) he alone 
lieareth the words of God. — dia roCro, therefore [on this account]) 
The conclusion, Ye are not of God, ver. 42, is proved by the effect ; 
inasmuch as ye do not hear; ver. 42, "If God were vour Father, 
ye would love Me." 

48. ' AviKpldrjuav, they answered) with a most unjust retort, in the 
forms of cavil which they had so frequently used. — ou xaXu; 
X'lyoiMv ri/iiTg, do not we well say ?) They utter this awful insult with 
some degree of fear as yet. — ^.a/j-aptlrrig, a Samaritan) an alien from 
the true God of the true Israel. Jesus replies at the close of the 
54th verse and in the following verses, "It is My Father that 
honoureth Me, of whom ye say, that He is your God : Yet ye have 
not known Him, but I know Jiiva."-^eu) thou, they say, not we. — 
houiMvm, a demon) So they said, who supposed, that the words of 
Jesus flowed from a foolish pride and assumption. Thus is made 
clear the reference of those things which Jesus replies in ver. 49, 
etc., " I have not a devil, but / honour My Father," etc., " and I 
seek not Mine own glory." 

49. T;/iSi rhv ■rarspa /j,ov, I honour My Father) by making mani- 
fest His name.^ — ifisTg) and ye notwithstanding. — aTi/j,d^ers fit, 
treat me with insult) This they had done at ver. 48. 

50. Ou t^n'^Si, I do not seek) as ye suppose ; and therefore think 
it right, that I should be treated with insult. — isnv, there 'is) I do 
not seek My own glory ; nor is there any need that I should seek 
it ; for My Father vindicates it. 

51. 'Eav Tig, if any [if a man]) Jesus proves from the future 
effect, wherewith the Father is about to honour Him, that He and 
His word have nothing in common with the proud and murderous 
devil. — rripriifi, will keep), as I keep My Father's word, ver. 55, "I 
know Him, and keep His saying." We ought to keep the doctrine 
of Jesus, by believing in it ; His promises, by hoping for them ; 
His injunctions, by obeying them. — ^avarov, death) Jesus hereby 
shows, that He is not a Samaritan. The Samaritans were Saddu- 
cees, opposed to the doctrine of immortality, according to the testi- 
inony of Epiphanius. At least the Jews, who speak here, seem to 
have attributed that error to the Samaritans. Yet I will admit 
that it was the smaller portion of the latter, who laboured under 
that error. — oh ix,n ^eupfieri, he shall not see) A most effectual argu- 
ment against the maintainers of soul-annihilation. 

52. Nuv syvuxafiiv, now we know) Previously they had spoken with 
Bome degree of doubt : ver. 48, " Say we not well that Thou art," 

8G8 ST JOHN VIII. 53-56. 

etc. ; but now to the solemn asseveration of Jesus, ver. 51, they op- 
pose this assertion of theirs. 

53. Mn ffi) fji.iil,m, whether [art] thou greater) Thou, say they, who 
dost promise to him, that keepeth Thy word, immortality, a privi- 
lege which was not enjoyed by so great men as Abraham and the 
prophets. — xa/, and) Explain thus ; and greater than the prophets, 
who are dead ? The Christ was indeed greater than Abraham and 
the prophets. 

54. ' A-mxplSri, ansioered) He refutes those words [of last ver .J 
thou thyself. — ov i/iiTg Xiyin, in &shg ^/iSiv Isn) A very similar con- 
struction occurs, eh. x. 36, h 6 •jrarrip ijylagi — v/x,iTg Xeyire, "Or/ 
ffXagfrifiiTg. Also Gal. i. 23, " axouoKrES Iffai/ or/ o hiMon ij/i&g mrs 
tiuv euayyeXit^ira,! rijv 'Kieriv ^v iron i'TTopSiij xal ido^aZot "'■ efiol tov Qibt ; 
James i. 13, " firidilg vnpaZ^oiJ^ivog Xiy'srcu on airh (2>ttfu nrsipaCfi/ioii" and 
Josh. xxii. 34 in the Heb., " The children of Reuben and Gad, 
called the altar Ed : for it shall be a witness between us" etc. For 
the Septuag. have alrm for yi/iuv ; as in this passage some have 
written bfi^uv for riiLm [So BD abc Eec. Text. But AC and Vulg. 
have jj/iSiv. — xiyin, ye say)] falsely. 

55. o73a) He had lately said, ohx, iyvoman- now He says, not 
lymxa, but olSa' 'iymxa implies in some degree a beginning to know 
[I come to know] : but the Son's knowledge of the Father is eternal : 
He knows the Father and the glory [honour] which the Father hath 
assigned to Him. — -^evgTrig, a liar) He is a liar, who either affirms 
what he ought to deny, or denies what he ought to affirm. — oJia 
aurov, xai rov Xoyov aurou rnpSi, I know Him, and keep His saying) 
First He saith, T know ; then afterwards, I keep : for He is the 
Son. But believers, under His direction, keep the word, and so ac- 
quire knowledge ; ch. vii. 17, notes, " If any man will do His will, 
he shall know of the doctrine," etc. 

56. 'O irarrip vfiStv, your Father) ver. 37, 39, "I know that ye are 
Abraham's seed ; Abraham is our father." — riyaXXiaaaro, iVa, ex- 
ulted that) Evinced his eagerness with longing desire. A similar 
expression occurs, Eom. x. 1, " My heart's desire, evdox/a Trig l/ijjs 
xapSiag," I'va, that follows verbs of desiring. This ayaXXiaffig, exulta- 
tion, preceded his seeing ; and again x'^P'^t jo^i accompanied the 
seeing. — rriv i}//-epav rj)v l//,riv, my day) The day of the Majesty of 
Christ: Phil. i. 10, "sincere and without offence till the day of 
Christ ;" 1 Cor. i. 8, " blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ;" which day presupposes all the times of Christ, even in the 
eyes of Abraham. The days of Christ's flesh (when He bestowed 

ST JOHN VIII. 57, 58. 369 

Himself on others) are one thing, the day of Christ Himself and of 
His glory is another thing [i.e. the two are altogether distinct]. 
This latter day was future in respect to this speech. Therefore the • 
joy of Abraham preceded that day. — xccl iJbi, and he saw it) He saw 
it, even then in the revelation of My Divine glory ; see verses fol- 
lowing and Heh. xi. 13, " These all died in faith, not having re- 
ceived the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were 
persuaded of them and embraced them," etc. He saw the day of 
Christ, who of the seed of the patriarch, which was about to be 
equal in number to the stars, is the greatest and brightest luminary. 
And inasmuch as he saw this day, which is to be altogether a day 
of life, he did not see death ; ver. 51, etc., " If a man keep My 
saying, he shall never see death : — Abraham is dead — and Thou 
gayest, If a man," etc. — Thus the vehemence of the Jews is re- 
butted. He did not however see it, as the apostles did : Matt. xiii. 
17, "Many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those 
things which ye see, and have not seen them." — xal l%cefi?i, and he 
rejoiced) having obtained his wish. 

57. iLiyrfjT.ovra, fifty) For contention's sake they exaggerate the 
number. But, had they not been altogether forgetful of His na- 
tivity at Bethlehem, they would have said. Thirty years old, and 
not much more. As it is, they imply this by their words, Thou 
hast not yet reached a half century, in other words, the year of 
superannuation ; Num. iv. 3, The term of the Levite service, 
" From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old," as 
Lightfoot observes ; whence it seems, the expression is not unlike . 
an adage. It is not likely, that Jesus by reason of sorrows had 
contracted a premature appearance of old age. Heb. i. 9, " God, 
even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above 
they fellows :" Matt. ix. 15, " Can the children of the bride- 
chamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them?" ,ch. xi. 19, 
" The Son of Man came eating and drinking !' — ' A^pad//^, Abraham) 
He had died 1850 years before this colloquy. — i(ipa,xag, hast thou 
seen) They speak (and rightly so, indeed ; comp. ch. xvi. 16, 22, 
" A little while, and ye shall not see Me, and again, a little while 
and ye shall see Me," etc. : " Ye now have sorrow, but I will see you 
again,") by the force of correlatives. Since Abraham saw Thy day ; 
Thou hast seen Abraham. 

58. Uph 'ABpadfij yi\ii<s6ai, iyii ilfi,!, before that Abraham was brought 
into being, lam) The. Jews are hereby refuted, who were denying, 
that Abraham even then could have seen that day. / was, saith 

VOL. II. A -A- 

870 ST JOHN VIII. 58. 

Jesus, even then; therefore T saw Abraham, and Abraham saw My 
day : not merely did I not begin to be only afterwards [afterwards 
and not till then], but I was, before that he was brought into being. 
The difference is to be observed between I am brought into being, 
and / am ; Mark iv. 22 [ou yap kri (is) n Kpwjtrhv, o iav //.^ ^uvspaSrf 
ouSs sy'sviTo (has been made, or, become, viz. by design), a'!r6xpu<pov, a\\' 
im s/'s ^aviphv 'ix6r}]. Acts xxvi. 29, " I would to God that — all— 
■ysvis6oi,i, might become such, as 1 ajn, e;>;:" 1 Cor. iii. 18, "If any 
man seemeth to be wise — $Tvai — let him become a fool — ye/igSa." 
Moreover, it is an abbreviated form of expression, in this sense ; 
Before that A braham was made, I was : and at this day, at so long 
an interval after the death of Abraham, I am. For John often 
expresses himself in such a way, that the Protasis and Apodosis 
mutually complete one another ; ver. 28, " When ye have hfted 
up the Son of Man, then shall ye know that I am He, and that I 
do nothing of Myself:" ver, 38, " I speak that which, etc., and ye 
do that which," etc. [do is to be supplied to the first clause, speak 
to the second]; ch. v. 21, " As the Father raiseth up — and quickeneth, 
even so the Son quickeneth" (underst., and raiseth up) etc. ; ver. 30, 
" I can of Mine own self do (supply, and judge) nothing ; as I hear 
I judge" (supply, and do) ; ch. xi. 8, xiv. 10, " The words I speak, 
— I speak not of Myself (supply, and the works I do, I do not of My- 
self) but the Father — doeth the works (supply, and speaketh the 
words) ; ch. xv. 27 ; Rev. xiv. 10, notes. Thus the particle before 
and the present I am, elegantly cohere; comp. also Col. i. 17, 
He Himself is before all things. And yet Artemonius in Diss, iv., 
p. 618, calls this expression, after the daring example of Enjedinus, 
a barbarism ; but the present is often so put, as that the past 
time is included ; Luke xv. 29, So many years (I have served and 
still) serve thee {roeaijTa sVjj bo\j\i{iai). In the same ch. ver. 31 (thou 
hast been) and art always with Me, as the Goth. Vers, renders it 

[nravTOTi — if\. Septuag. Ps. XC. 2, -Jtph roD ipri yivn&rimi, aii ii [before 

the mountains were brought forth, thou art'], where Artemonius can 
by no effort of his change the punctuation. Prov. viii. 25, '?rph irdvrav 
^ouvuv ym^ //,s, where, if only Artemonius be right in saying that 
there is some error, nothing [no correction] is nearer (for 'rth\n) 
than yivtiZ/iai, which is also present. I would hke to see what 
device he would contrive to meet Jer. i. 5, wph tou in y.ara.'it'Ka.ea.i as 
Iv -MiXlcf, Inrieranai et. Artemonius, with Socinus, thus explains 
the words ; Before that Abraham is made the father of many nations, 
I am, to wit, the Christ : and also he takes / am in the same sense 

ST JOHN VIII. 59. 871 

as at ver. 24, " If ye believe not that lam He ;" ver. 28, " Theji 
shall ye know that I am He ;" ch. xiii. 19, "That, when it is come 
to pass, ye may believe that I am He;" Mark xiii. 6, "Many 
shall come saying, / am (Christ)." I reply, 1) The Jews had 
objected that Abraham was deceased for more than fifty years 
before ; Abraham was not regarded by them as about to belong 
to the New Testament. 2) This sentiment would not have borne 
that most solemn asseveration, Verily, verily, I say unto you. For 
in this sense even the Jews, who were then living, would have 
been before Abraham. 3) The word / am, in this colloquy, is em- 
ployed concerning age and time, in antithesis to the inchoative to 
be brought into being [yevisSaij. Moreover, the reference of the 
words opposed is the same, and both verbs ought to be understood 
absolutely, as was is used ; ch. i. 1, " In the beginning was the 
Word," etc. However this absolute signification includes that 
other by consequence ; before that Abraham was brought into 
being ; He who speaks,, was ; and He was the same as He asserted 
to the Jews that He was.^ — t^/V 'AjS^aa^ yevisSai) Tiua^ai is wanting 
in some of the old fathers, especially the Latin fathers ; but the 
use of the adverb 'Trpiv does not bear the omission. That indeed 
is certain, that those fathers had no thought of the Socinian per- 
version of the sense of the verb yiKsSai, and so the perversion of 
this whole passage. [DaSc and Epiphanius omit yivisiai. But 
AB, Vulg. and Origen I., 750 /, etc., have it.] 

59. ^I^tfav, took up) They were accounting Him as a blasphemer. 
— X/'^ouf, stones) The weapons of the multitude. — l-z-pv^r), He hid 
Himself) Not by betaking Himself to a hiding-place, but that He 
ceased to be visible to their eyes, in a miraculous manner ; (comp. 
Jer. xxxvi. 26, "The king commanded — to take Baruch and Jere- 
miah; but the Lord hid them") whilst He went out fi:om the 

59. and ix. 1. Ka; l^r\kh\i IX Tou 'npou, xal -rapriyiv o'urug- xal vapd- 
ym iISsv, x.r.X.) This appears to be the mediate ^ and genuine read- 
ing [see App. Crit., Ed. ii. on this passage] : for iiapdyav mani- 
festly has reference to irapriyiv, and oDrw; denotes the miraculous 
ease of His departure. — 'Kapriyiv — xal vapayoiv, He passed by — and 
passing by) A similar connection [of participle and verb] occurs, 
Acts xxvii. at the close, and xxviii. at the beginning [iioLSuinmi — 
biaataSinrei], — o'iroig, so) As if no One were seeking Him. [A, and 
ace. to Lachm. B, read 8isX6uv &ia fissou tthrm (C adding probably, 

' From which the other readings diverged, as from a common starting point. 

873 ST JOHN IX. 1-4. 

from Luke iv. 36, througli the Hannonles, Impcum) xal *«^^y« 
ourtiis. D, and ace. to Tischendorf, B, omit these words : so also 
abc, Origen 4, 292, e, Theb. and Vulg. versions.] 


1. Kal -jrapdyoiv, and passing by) Immediately after the attack of 
His ehemies. — Tu<pX6v, blind) Who was begging at the temple. 
Comp. Acts iii. 2, " The lame man, laid at the Beaatiful gate of 
the temple, to ask alms." 

2. 'HpuTrisa.t, asked) They were well aware of the fomniscient] 
knowledge of their Master. — euro;, this man) This question of the 
disciples ought not to be curiously examined into; whether, and when, 
that blind man could have sinned and thence contracted blindness. 
An interrogation, especially a disjunctive one, asserts nothing; and 
an assertion of the disciples would not compel us to an assent. — 
ysi/iDj^ji, that he should be born) That he was bom blind, the disciples 
had heard from others. 

3. ' AirixpiSn, answered) Jesus is wont to answer more plainly to 
His disciples than to the unbelieving Jews. — ft/aaprsv, hath sinned) 
Repeat, that he should be bom blind [Human reason delights to draw 
the conclusion of there being some special fault, from, some special mis- 
fortune : Luke xiii. 2, 4, " Suppose ye, these jjralileans — whose blood 
Pilate mingled with their sacrifices — were sinners above all the 
Galileans, because they suffered such things ? I tell you nay, etc. 
Or those eighteen on whom the tower of Siloam fell," etc. ; Acts 
xxviii. 4, " When the barbarian's saw the venemous beast hang on 
— Paul's — hand, they said, No doubt this is a murderer, whom, 
though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live." 
— V. g. — aXX', but) Comp. ch. xi. 4, " This sickness is' not unto 
death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glori- 
fied thereby," — ha, that) The power of God. — rii 'ipya., the works) 
Plural. When one work of God is known, aU are known. From 
His works shine forth the Power, and the Glory, and the Grace of 

4. Nuf, the night) Christ is the light : when it departs, the night 
comes, which does not restrain the light, but obscures the earth.— 
dhhiii, no man) He does not say, I cannot; but, no man. He Him- 
self could have worked at all times ; but yet He observed the season 

ST JOHN IX. 5-11. 373 

able time : John often describes Christ as speaking thus indefinitely 
concerning things that present themselves, in the way that would 
become any ordinary pious person in speaking of such matters : ch. 
xi. 9, " Are there not twelve hours in the day ? If any man walk 
in the day, he stumbleth not," etc. ; xii. 24, 25, " Except a corn of 
wheat — die, it abideth alone, but, etc. He that bveth his life, shall 
lose it," etc. In fact, Jesus was tempted in all things, but without 

5. <I>w?, the ligfit) An allegory from the object of sight, which He 
was about to bestow on the blind man. Comp. ver. 3, that they 
might be made m/mifest ; and fi//,ipa, day, ver. 4 [containing the same 

6. Emuiv, having spoken) in the hearing of the blind man. Jesus 
also prayed, ver. 31, " If any vasiahe a worshipper of God, and doeth 
His will, him He heareth." — ttjiXoi/, clay) Clean spittle, mixed with 
clean dust, was a clean medicine. Man was created from the earth : 
now the creation of sight is taken from the same earth. — itrl nig 
op^aKfjioug, upon the eyes) It is a poetic fancy of Nonnus, that he 
has represented that there was not even the trace of ey^s on the 
face of this blind man : ver. 10 disproves it [How were thiije eyes 
opened ?] 

7. N/'v^a;, wash thyself) thy face. — coD S/Xwa/t, Siloam) A name 
given to this place formerly, because Jesus Christ was about to send 
thither the blind man. And from this time the name of the place 
was a memorial of the miracle wrought at it. The derivation is 
implied in Go, wash thyself. — 6 lp,u,7ivtiiTa,i a-jTseTaX/img, which is 
rendered in translation Sent) The Evangelist adds this. Comp. ver. 
11, " Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash."' — xa! rikk, and he went) 
before going to his parents. 

'9. "0/io;o5, like) Human reason invents and supposes anything, 
sooner than it will believe a miracle has been wrought : ver. 18, 
" But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been 
blind, and received his sight ;" Acts ii. 13, " Others mocking, said, 
These men are ftill of new wine." But on that account the more is 
the truth confirmed. 

11. "AvSpca'iros Xtyo/iivo; 'irifoug, a man who is called Jesus) The 
article is not added, but the participle. Comp. ch. xi. 54, " Into a 
city called Ephraim," 'Eppal/L Xiyo/Mivriv mXiv. The bhnd man had not 
known the celebrity of Jesus.— anE^Xs-vJ/a, T received [or recovered] 

' Ver. 8, 01 yn'roiiis, neighhours) the miracle was manifest to all. — V. g. 

374 ST JOHN IX. 13-22. 

siglit) He had not had the power of seeing ever before ; but yet that 
power is natural to man ; on this account he says, / recovered sight 
[the strict sense of an^Xi-^a\. 

13. Xlphi To-j; ^apiaaloug, to the Pharisees) as if to inquisitors. 

15. Kai of) Kai, also. 

16. nap& rou Qiod, from God) The words opposed are, to be from 
God, and to be a sinner [An antithesis worthy of observation. Either 
the former, or else the latter, exactly applies as the description of every 
man. — V. g. — oti, because) In Theology applied to estimating cha- 
racters, nothing is to be done in a hurry. * 

17. TlpoipTirrig, a prophet) i.e. from God, ver. 16, "This man is not 
from God," 33 ; eh. i. 6, " There was a man sent from God," etc. ; 
John iii. 2, " We know that Thou art a teacher come from God" 
[Jesus had prayed in undertaking the cure, ver. 31 : and from that 
circumstance the blind man had come to know the close intimacy sub- 
sisting between Jesus and God. — V. g.] It is delightful to observe 
how faith gradually arises in this man, whilst the Pharisees are con- 
tradicting [Teased with the repeated questionings of the men, at last 
he unlearned the lesson of being bound by mere authority. Thus ad- 
vantage may be derived even from the perverse ways and humours of 
others. — V. g.] 

18. AuroS Tou a\ia.^Xi-^a,)iro(;, of him that had received his sight) 
These are joined as substantive and adjective, and the of him refers 
to the blind man. 

19. TlSig l3Xs'7rii) How it has happened, that he sees. 

21. Oux. o'lhoLiMiv, we know not) As yet they had not seen their son 
seeing : but they had immediately conjectured that the gift of sight 
had come from Jesus. . On this account the former part of this verse 
is not attributed to fear [but only the latter, " He is of age ; ask 
him," as stated] in ver. 23. — ij/if/'s, we) Emphatic ; in antithesis to 
ahrhg, himself, which follows and is repeated more than once. — ahrhg 
riXixlav Ix^h ""''i'' Ipurtiffari) So ver. 23. But the Latin, and after it, 
Augustine and others, at ver. 21, " ipsum interrogate ; cetatem habet." 
And what follows agrees with this ; he shall speak for himself. [So 
BDLX ac Vulg. But A and Eec. Text put avrhv spur- after jjX/xrav 
£%£;]. — ijXixiav, age) sufficient for giving testimony. 

22. ' E(poj3ouvTo, they were afraid of) to such a degree that they left 
their son [at whose receiving of the gift of sight, however, they without 
doubt were exceedingly rejoiced. — ^V. g.] alone in the danger ; and 
not only did not acknowledge that Jesus is the Christ, but did not 
even acknowledge that, from which it followed as a consequence.- 

ST JOHN IX. 24-29. 375 

avixsusoiyuyog, expelled from the synagogue) whicU was a most severe 

24. 'Ex deuripov, again) He had therefore been sent away after the 
conversation with him, described at ver. 17. — dog, give) A spacious 
preface. He gives glory to God, wTio confesses the truth, especially in 
a matter and cause attended with difficulties. — fi/ji,sTg o'lSafim, we know) 
They attempt to prepossess and move him, as an unlearned man, by 
the weight of their authority, that he should call Jesus a sinner, and 
not avow Him as the Son of God [We see, say they ; comp. ver. 41 
(Now ye say. We see). — V. g.] — afj^apruXoi, a sinner) ver. 16, "This 
man is not of God, because he keepeth not the Sabbath day." 

25. 'E/, if [whether]) In a case, concerning which he has as yet 
no certainty, he nevertheless does not yield to the false authority 
of others ; and he rather believes, that Jesus is not a sinner, than 
that He is a sinner. — rupXos wv, whereas I was blind) The participle 
has the force of a prseterite tense, which is manifest from that which 
follows, now I see. Comp. Gal. i. 23, " They had heard only, That 
he which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith, which 
once he destroyed, or; 6 Biuixciiv ii/jjag mn, vuv euayyiXlt,iTai rfiv viarn, ^» 
mri imphi." 

26. E.i'jov, they said) These wretched persons strangely torture 

27. T/, why) wherefore? — xa; u/is/j ye also) He confesses that he 
wishes to become a disciple of Jesus. — SeXerE, do ye wish) A sweet 
and becoming irony. [^And indeed it is right, that he, who wishes to 
become^ a disciple of Christ, should resort to anxious investigation. 
The truth does not shrink from it. — V. g.J 

28. 'EXoidopriira.v, they reviled) They thought that they were loading 
him with dishonour, whomsoever they called by the term, a dis- 
ciple of Christ. — himv, of that man) By the use of this expression 
they put Jesus away to a distance from them. 

29. 'H/iiTs o7dci//,£v, we know) They knew it by such testimonies, as 

1 Ti — ■^as, what — how?) They were wishing to suppress the certainty of the 
mjracle, provided only it were possible. Many extraordinary things happen in 
all ages : several things of that kind are also reported without good foundation. 
Therefore it would be advantageous that the True, in such cases as these, sheuld 
be distinguished from the False, and the Certain from the Doubtful, by the 
most searching investigation which it is possible to make. But indeed the un- 
believing world conceives it to be for its own interest that nothing should be 
altogether evident, and cleared of every difficulty. Thus, as we may see, under 
the pretext of its being only the result of an accumulation of tricks, the truth 
itself can